nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2017‒07‒09
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Trust and Signals in Workplace Organization: Evidence from Job Autonomy Differentials between Immigrant Groups By van Hoorn, Andre
  2. Integration of humanitarian migrants into the host country labour market By Delaporte, Isaure; Piracha, Matloob
  3. More financial burden-sharing for developing countries that host refugees By Lücke, Matthias; Schneiderheinze, Claas
  4. Countering Public Opposition to Immigration: The impact of information campaigns By Giovanni FACCHINI; Yotam MARGALIT; NAKATA Hiroyuki
  5. Attitudes towards Immigration in an Ageing Society: Evidence from Japan By NAKATA Hiroyuki
  6. Health Inequalities for Immigrants in Canada : Quebec versus the Rest of Canada By LEBIHAN, Laetitia; MAO TAKONGMO, Charles Olivier; McKELLIPS, Fanny
  7. Offshoring, Low-skilled Immigration, and Labor Market Polarization By Mandelman, Federico S.; Zlate, Andrei

  1. By: van Hoorn, Andre
    Abstract: Trust involves a willingness to be vulnerable to other agents’ actions as well as an assessment of these agents’ trustworthiness. This paper seeks to unpack the relationship between trust and workplace organization, focusing on signals of (un)trustworthiness guiding employers’ trust decisions. While much research finds that societal trust norms affect workplace organization, particularly the granting of autonomy to employees, the underlying process remains essentially a black box. Integrating extant literatures, I posit that employers use group-level traits to infer (un)trustworthiness and decide on how much job autonomy to grant to specific employees. I test this prediction in a large cross-national sample comprising migrant employees originating from home countries that differ in the degree to which corruption has been institutionalized in society. Confirming my prediction, empirical results reveal a strong negative relationship between homecountry corruption and job autonomy. Results are robust to controlling for a range of potential confounders, including personal income and home-country level of economic development as proxies for unobserved skill differentials. Key contribution of the paper is to reveal important real-world features of trust governing exchange in the context of workplace organization.
    Keywords: Trustworthiness; decentralization; statistical discrimination; signaling theory; economic exchange
    JEL: D29 L29 M50
    Date: 2016
  2. By: Delaporte, Isaure; Piracha, Matloob
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to identify the factors that influence the labour market integration of new humanitarian migrants in the host country. A number of employment outcomes are examined including access to employment, access to stable employment, the wage/earnings level and the education-occupation mismatch. By using a recently collected panel survey data in Australia, the study shows that pre-migration education, work experience, previous migration episodes, as well as English proficiency, English training, study/job training undertaken in Australia and social capital form important determinants of the labour market integration of refugees in the host country. The paper highlights the differentiated impacts of these resources on the refugees’ outcomes at six months and one year after arrival.
    Keywords: refugees,labour market integration,Australia
    JEL: J15 J61
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Lücke, Matthias; Schneiderheinze, Claas
    Abstract: The authors call on G20 leaders to extend more predictable and substantial support to lowand- middle-income countries that host refugees, in recognition of the global public good that these countries provide. Together with other high-income countries, G20 countries should fully cover the cost of providing for the basic and social needs of refugees. They should also help to expand public services and infrastructure to cover the needs of refugees as well as resident populations. G20 countries should work with host countries to ensure that refugees are granted a firm legal status that promotes their social inclusion and opportunities for employment and entrepreneurship.
    Keywords: asylum seekers,refugees,burden-sharing,humanitarian assistance,international public goods,international institutional arrangements
    JEL: F22 F53 O15
    Date: 2017
  4. By: Giovanni FACCHINI; Yotam MARGALIT; NAKATA Hiroyuki
    Abstract: Popular sentiment toward immigration is often antagonistic, making the integration of migrants one of the most important yet daunting challenges facing societies in advanced economies. Can information campaigns decrease public opposition to immigration? This paper reports results from a large-scale experiment conducted in Japan, a country with highly restrictive immigration laws and widespread anti-immigration sentiment. We exposed a large national sample of citizens to information pertaining to potential social and economic benefits from immigration. Depending on the treatment, we find that this exposure led to increased support for allowing more immigrants into the country by 12-21 percentage points, or over 70% above the baseline rate. The treatments also motivated citizens to take political action in support of a more open immigration policy. Notably, while smaller in magnitude, many effects also persisted 10-12 days after the treatment. The results highlight the potential value of combating enmity to incoming foreigners with campaigns that inform the public about the key positive impacts of immigration.
    Date: 2017–06
  5. By: NAKATA Hiroyuki
    Abstract: This paper studies the impacts of heterogeneity such as age, gender, and education on the attitude towards immigration and the effectiveness of information campaigns based on a large-scale experiment conducted in Japan. The experiment randomly exposes a large national sample of citizens to information pertaining to potential social and economic benefits from immigration embedded in a comprehension study. The results complement the companion paper (Facchini, Margalit and Nakata, 2016), which shows that the overall effectiveness of such campaigns does not vary much across different groups, while there is a substantial generational gap in the level of support towards immigration. Also, tertiary education has a positive impact amongst female respondents, which is missing amongst the male counterparts.
    Date: 2017–06
  6. By: LEBIHAN, Laetitia; MAO TAKONGMO, Charles Olivier; McKELLIPS, Fanny
    Abstract: Little is known about immigrant health inequalities in Canada by province. To address this knowledge gap, we compare multiple health indicators among immigrants in Quebec, immigrants in the rest of Canada and Canadian-born individuals. The literature emphasizes that it is more difficult for immigrants in Quebec to integrate into the job market compared to immigrants in other Canadian provinces. There is an important link between the labour market situation of immigrants and their mental and physical health. Our results---obtained from data in the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS)---show that well-being and health indicators worsen significantly for immigrants in Quebec compared to their counterparts in the rest of Canada and Canadian-born individuals. This is particularly true for mental health and life satisfaction.
    Keywords: immigrants, Canadian-born, well-being, health, Quebec.
    JEL: I14 I30 J10
    Date: 2017–01
  7. By: Mandelman, Federico S. (Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta); Zlate, Andrei (Federal Reserve Bank of Boston)
    Abstract: During the last three decades, the U.S. labor market has been characterized by its employment polarization. As jobs in the middle of the skill distribution have shrunk, employment has expanded in high- and low-skill occupations. Real wages have not followed the same pattern. While earnings for high-skill occupations have risen robustly, wages for both low- and middle-skill workers have remained subdued. We attribute this outcome to the rise in offshoring and low-skilled immigration, and develop a three-country stochastic growth model to rationalize their asymmetric effect on employment and wages, as well as their implications for U.S. welfare. In the model, the increase in offshoring negatively affects middle-skill occupations but benefits the high-skill ones, which in turn boosts aggregate productivity. As the income of high-skill occupations rises, so does the demand for complementary services provided by low-skill workers. However, low-skill wages remain depressed due to the rise in low-skilled immigration. Native workers react to immigration by investing in training. Offshoring and low-skilled immigration improve aggregate welfare in the U.S. economy, notwithstanding their asymmetric impact on native workers of different skill levels. The model is estimated using data on real GDP, U.S. employment by skill group, and enforcement at the U.S.-Mexico border.
    Keywords: International labor migration; offshoring; labor market polarization; task upgrading; heterogeneous workers
    JEL: F16 F22 F41
    Date: 2016–09–30

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