nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2017‒06‒04
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. The Effect of Migration on Terror - Made at Home or Imported from Abroad? By Dreher, Axel; Gassebner, Martin; Schaudt, Paul
  2. Public beliefs in social mobility and high-skilled migration By Lumpe, Claudia
  3. Economic Consequences of Immigration to Austria By Sergej Vojtovic; M?gdaléna Tupá
  4. Migration of Specialists in the Context of the In-Country Migration of Russians By Mkrtchyan, Nikita; Florinskaya, Yulia
  5. The Labor Market Effects of Refugee Waves: Reconciling Conflicting Results By Michael A. Clemens; Jennifer Hunt
  6. What drives the substitutability between native and foreign workers? Evidence about the role of language. By Elena Gentili; Fabrizio Mazzonna
  7. Why are immigrants less proficient in literacy than native-born adults? By OECD

  1. By: Dreher, Axel; Gassebner, Martin; Schaudt, Paul
    Abstract: We investigate whether the stock of foreigners residing in a country leads to a larger number of terrorist attacks on that country. Our instrument for the stock of foreigners relies on the interaction of two sets of variables. Variation across host-origin-dyads results from structural characteristics between the country of origin and the host, while variation over time makes use of changes in push and pull factors between host and origin countries resulting from natural disasters. Controlling for the levels of these variables themselves and fixed effects for dyads and years, the interaction provides a powerful and excludable instrument. Using data for 20 OECD host countries and 187 countries of origin over the 1980-2010 period we show that the probability of a terrorist attack increases with a larger number of foreigners living in a country. However, this scale effect is not larger than the effect domestic populations have on domestic terror. We find some evidence that terror is systematically imported from countries with large Muslim populations. A larger number of attacks against foreigners in the host country increases the risk of terror from foreigners there. We find that host country policies relating to integration and the rights of foreigners are key to fight terror- stricter policies that exclude foreigners already living in a country increase the risk of terror. High-skilled migrants are associated with a significantly lower risk of terror compared to low-skilled ones, while there is no significant difference between male and female migrants.
    Keywords: migration; migration policy; Terrorism
    JEL: D74 F22 F52 P48
    Date: 2017–05
  2. By: Lumpe, Claudia
    Abstract: This paper investigates how beliefs of the destination country's population in social mobility may influence the location choice of high-skilled migrants. We pool macro data from the IAB brain drain dataset with population survey data from the ISSP for the period 1987-2010 to identify the effect of public beliefs in social mobility on the share of high-skilled immigrants (stocks) in the main OECD immigration countries. The empirical results suggest that countries with higher "American Dream" beliefs, i.e., with stronger beliefs that climbing the social ladder can be realized by own hard work, attracted a higher proportion of high-skilled immigrants over time. This pattern even holds against the fact that existing social mobility in these countries is relatively lower.
    Keywords: immigration,public beliefs,social mobility,social status
    JEL: F22
    Date: 2017
  3. By: Sergej Vojtovic (University of Alexander Dubchek in Trencin, Slovakia); M?gdaléna Tupá (University of Alexander Dubchek in Trencin, Slovakia)
    Abstract: Austria and low unemployment rate, higher salaries, more vacancies in comparison to the Slovak Republic together with the system of state benefits and geographical proximity have caused increased interest of Slovaks in work in the given country. The open asylum politics of Austria and Germany is attractive to immigrants from the third-world countries. Based on the analyses of development of work force emigration from the Slovak Republic and immigration to Austria, the study identifies migration trends in both countries. Calculations of migration benefits from the arrival of work force from the Central and East European countries and calculations of losses and benefits from the migration from the third-world countries aim at explaining the development of economical, social and demographic parameters in the country. Mathematic calculations of losses and benefits from migrations for a country and society are also introduced. These are based on the statistical data available from Eurostat, WTO, Statistical Office of the Slovak Republic, Statistic Austria, Ministry of Labour, Social Affairs and Family, World Bank, International Monetary Fund and data acquired from empirical surveys published in scientific publications. The study uses general scientific methods of induction, deduction, scientific abstraction and comparison, analysis and synthesis of selected facts, phenomena and processes. To calculate the data acquired, statistical and mathematical methods and calculations were implemented. The result of the experiment is to create a model approach to the evaluation of economic benefits and losses from work force migration from the Central and East European countries and, at the same time, immigration from the third-world countries. It may be stated that work force migration from Central and East Europe is beneficial for Austria. The study also shows expenses on immigrants while asylum procedures are taking place followed by expenses on their integration into the labor market and society.
    Keywords: migration, migration management, labour migration, work force, target country, source country
    JEL: F22
    Date: 2017–05
  4. By: Mkrtchyan, Nikita (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Florinskaya, Yulia (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: It is believed that the existing level of spatial mobility in Russia is low, which negatively affects the country's socio-economic development. At different levels - federal and regional - measures are being taken to help citizens move to other areas, but are they effective? During the focus groups, interviews with managers and migrants, we tried to study the widespread practices of in-country migration, identify the main barriers to it, and formulate measures that would enhance the possibility of free movement of citizens for a better realization of individual human capital.
    Date: 2017–03
  5. By: Michael A. Clemens; Jennifer Hunt
    Abstract: An influential strand of research has tested for the effects of immigration on natives’ wages and employment using exogenous refugee supply shocks as natural experiments. Several studies have reached conflicting conclusions about the effects of noted refugee waves such as the Mariel Boatlift in Miami and post-Soviet refugees to Israel. We show that conflicting findings on the effects of the Mariel Boatlift can be explained by a sudden change in the race composition of the Current Population Survey extracts in 1980, specific to Miami but unrelated to the Boatlift. We also show that conflicting findings on the labor-market effects of other important refugee waves can be produced by spurious correlation between the instrument and the endogenous variable introduced by applying a common divisor to both. As a whole, the evidence from refugee waves reinforces the existing consensus that the impact of immigration on average native-born workers is small, and fails to substantiate claims of large detrimental impacts on workers with less than high school.
    JEL: C36 J61 R23
    Date: 2017–05
  6. By: Elena Gentili (Istituto di Economia Politica (IdEP), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland.); Fabrizio Mazzonna (Istituto di Economia Politica (IdEP), Università della Svizzera Italiana, Switzerland; Munich Center for the Economics of Aging (MEA).)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the role of language in determining the degree of substitutability between foreign and native workers. To this end, we focus on Switzerland, an immigration-receiving country with four official languages spoken, three of which in common with bordering countries. We modify the model proposed by Ottaviano and Peri (2012) to account for the linguistic background of native and immigrant workers. We find that language plays a central role in determining the elasticity of substitution between foreign and native workers and accounts for much of their imperfect substitutability. These findings are robust to a number of robustness checks, such as different specifications of the model structure and the inclusion of cross-border workers. Then, we compute the total wage change for native and foreign workers caused by new immigration in flows. In the long run, the average percentage wage changes for native and foreign workers are quite small and not significant.
    Keywords: International migration, Immigrant-native substitutability, Language
    JEL: J31 J6
    Date: 2017–05
  7. By: OECD
    Abstract: Results from the Survey of Adult Skills (PIAAC) confirm that mastery of the host country’s language is essential if immigrants are to integrate successfully into their new communities and into the host country’s labour market. Given these findings, host countries could design and implement policies to provide language training to immigrants as soon as feasible after they arrive. This is particularly important for immigrant children, who can then attend school with their native-born peers.
    Date: 2017–05–31

This nep-mig issue is ©2017 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.