nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2017‒05‒14
nineteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Forced migration and attitudes towards domestic violence: Evidence from Turkey By Selim Gulesci
  2. Migration, Forced Displacement and Fertility during Civil War: A Survival Analysis By Philip Verwimp; Davide Osti; Gudrun Østby
  3. Refugees and asylum seekers in Italy and in the EU By Rosario Maria Ballatore; Adele Grompone; Lucia Lucci; Patrizia Passiglia; Andrea Sechi
  4. The Relative Labour Market Performance of Former International Students: Evidence from the Canadian National Graduates Survey By Chen, Zong Jia; Skuterud, Mikal
  5. Tuition fee reforms and international mobility By OECD
  6. Vocational training and labour market: inclusion or segregation paths? An integrated approach on immigrant trainees in Piedmont By Falavigna Falavigna; Elena Ragazzi; Lisa Sella
  7. Does migration affect education of girls and young women in Tajikistan? By Kseniia Gatskova; Artjoms Ivlevs; Barbara Dietz
  8. The Causal Effect of Age at Migration on Youth Educational Attainment By Dominique Lemmermann; Regina T. Riphahn
  9. Differences in educational attainment by country of origin: Evidence from Australia By Jaai Parasnis; Jemma Swan
  10. U.S. Immigration Reform and the Dynamics of Mexican Migration By Khulan Altangerel; Jan C. van Ours
  11. Is Internal Migration A Way to Cope With Climate Change? Evidence From Egypt By Adel Ben Youssef; Mohamed Arouri; Cuong Viet Nguyen
  12. Understanding the Effects of Legalizing Undocumented Immigrants By Monras, Joan; Vázquez-Grenno, Javier; Elias Moreno, Ferran
  13. Cities, towns, and poverty: Migration equilibrium and income distribution in a Todaro-type model with multiple destinations By Luc Christiaensen; Joachim De Weerdt; Ravi Kanbur
  15. The Hukou Impact on the Chinese Wage Structure By Dreger, Christian; Zhang, Yanqun
  16. The Effects of Physical Restructuring on the Socioeconomic Status of Neighborhoods: Selective Migration and Upgrading By Zwiers, Merle; van Ham, Maarten; Kleinhans, Reinout
  17. Labor market discrimination and sorting: Evidence from South Africa By Martin Abel
  18. Remittances, Spending and Political Instability in Ukraine By Iuliia Kuntsevych
  19. Do Migrants Transfer Political and Cultural Norms to Their Origin Country? Some Evidence From Some Arab Countries By Jamal Bouoiyour; Amal Miftah

  1. By: Selim Gulesci
    Abstract: I explore the long-term effects of internal displacement caused by the Kurdish-Turkish conflict on women’s attitudes towards domestic violence. Using the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey, I show that forced migrants are more likely to view domestic violence as acceptable. As suggestive evidence, I use data from applicants to a women’s shelter and show that forced migrant women endure violence for longer and of greater intensity before deciding to seek assistance. I discuss possible mechanisms through which forced migration may affect migrants’ attitudes towards domestic violence.
    Date: 2017
  2. By: Philip Verwimp (Université libre de Bruxelles); Davide Osti (Université Libre de Bruxelles); Gudrun Østby (International Peace Research Institute Oslo)
    Abstract: The civil war in Burundi (1993-2005) caused a mass flow of refugees into neighboring countries as well as a large number of internally dis- placed persons. In fact, half of the population was displaced at least once during the course of the conflict. The aim of this study is to explore to what extent migration during the conflict impacted fertility outcomes. Using retrospective data on birth and residential histories at the mother-year level from a nationally representative survey con- ducted in August 2002, we examine the impact of war and migration on the probability of first births and on birth spacing. A parametric survival regression model is adopted to predict the hazard of having an additional child on a sample of about 4,500 Burundian women. Our results suggest that the risk of an additional pregnancy is higher in years of forced displacement of the mother, whereas it is lower in the case of residence in the forced displacement site. We do not find a statistically significant effect different from no migration in the years that the women voluntary migrated. Fertility however sharply increases once the women resided in the migration site.
    Keywords: fertility, forced displacement, migration, civil war, Burundi. JEL Classification: C25, C41, I15, J13, N37, N47.
    Date: 2017–05
  3. By: Rosario Maria Ballatore (Bank of Italy); Adele Grompone (Bank of Italy); Lucia Lucci (Bank of Italy); Patrizia Passiglia (Bank of Italy); Andrea Sechi (Bank of Italy)
    Abstract: The paper lays out a descriptive framework for the recent flows of asylum seekers into Italy and the European Union. After examining the dynamics of illegal entries and applications for international protection, we analyse the differences in how asylum policies are implemented at European level, with the greatest diversity found in the application acceptance rates, the type of protection granted and the speed with which requests are examined. We then take a look at the Italian reception system, discuss its main problems, such as the high degree of fragmentation of reception facilities, and analyse its operating costs. Finally, we discuss the employment performance of immigrants, distinguishing between refugees/asylum seekers and economic migrants, with the former showing a lower probability of employment and slower integration into the labor market.
    Keywords: asylum seekers, illegal entries, reception system
    JEL: F22 J15 J61
    Date: 2017–04
  4. By: Chen, Zong Jia (University of Waterloo); Skuterud, Mikal (University of Waterloo)
    Abstract: Canada is increasingly looking to international students as a source of postsecondary tuition revenues and new immigrants. By 2014, international students accounted for 10% of graduates from Canadian postsecondary institutions, up from 3% in 2000, and 11% of new permanent residents, up from 7% in 2010. This article compares the labour market performance of former international students (FISs) entering the Canadian labour market during the first decade of the 2000s to their Canadian-born-and-educated (CBE) and foreign-born-and-educated (FBE) counterparts. We find that FISs outperform FBE immigrants by a substantial margin and underperform CBE individuals graduating from similar academic programs by a relatively modest margin. We also find some limited evidence, particularly among women, of a deterioration in FIS outcomes through the 2000s relative to both comparison groups. We argue that this deterioration is consistent with a quality tradeoff as postsecondary institutions and governments have reached deeper into international student pools to meet their demands for students and new immigrants without a commensurate increase in their supply.
    Keywords: international students, labour market integration, immigrant selection policy
    JEL: I23 J61 J31
    Date: 2017–04
  5. By: OECD
    Abstract: In most countries with available data, public educational institutions charge different tuition fees for national and foreign students enrolled in the same programme. In Australia, Austria, Canada, New Zealand and the United States, foreign students pay on average about twice or more the tuition fees charged to national students. In Australia and New Zealand, the estimated revenue from foreign students’ tuition fees exceeds one-quarter of the total expenditure on tertiary educational institutions. Recent reforms in Denmark, New Zealand and Sweden show that changes in foreign students’ fees are reflected by changes in the number of international new entrants.
    Date: 2017–05–15
  6. By: Falavigna Falavigna (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth,Turin, Italy); Elena Ragazzi (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth,Turin, Italy); Lisa Sella (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth,Turin, Italy)
    Abstract: Considering the multidimensional nature of employability, which is a latent notion, and its intrinsic connection with education and training policies, this paper uses a mix of quantitative methods to explore the integration of migrants into the Piedmont VET system (North-West Italy), and their subsequent transition into the labour market. In particular, four different approaches are developed: a macro one, investigating gross placement indicators; a micro one, investigating individual scores of integration into the labour market; a multivariate one, estimating a probit model that controls for individual characteristics; and a duration approach, analysing migrants’ survival on the labour market. The counterfactual design allows to estimate the net impact of training. Generally, migrants appear to be disadvantaged with respect to EU nationals, but their gap is filled whenever considering foreign trainees. However, the duration analysis does not detect different paths for the treated migrants, but only different paths for migrants on equal integration levels. Hence, data fully confirm the role of Piedmont training policies to contrast and re-cover the disadvantage of target groups which appear weak on the labour market.
    Keywords: migration, work, vocational training policy, counterfactual evaluation, net impact labour market integration
    JEL: J15 J61 I24
  7. By: Kseniia Gatskova; Artjoms Ivlevs; Barbara Dietz
    Abstract: We study how migration affects education of girls in Tajikistan—the poorest post-Soviet state and one of the most remittance-dependent economies in the world. Using data from a threewave household panel survey conducted in 2007, 2009, and 2011, we find that the effect of migration on girls’ school attendance differs markedly by age. School attendance of young girls (ages 7–11) improves when either parents or sibling migrate, as well as when the household starts receiving remittances. In contrast, school attendance of teenage girls (ages 12–17) falls when siblings migrate, while parental migration and remittances have no effect. Having a grandmother as the head of household after parents (typically fathers) migrate improves school attendance of young and teenage girls, but reduces school attendance of young women (ages 18–22). We also find that in localities where the share of migrants is already high, an increase in the share of migrant households is associated with an increase in the marriage rate. Our results support various channels through which emigration of household members may affect girls’ and young women’s education: relaxation of budget constraints, increase in household work, change in the head of household, and pressure to marry early. Overall, our study suggests that the net effect of migration on girls’ schooling turns from positive to negative with girls’ age; this implies that migration may be detrimental to women’s empowerment in Tajikistan and casts doubts on whether migration is an appropriate long-term development strategy for this country.
    Date: 2017
  8. By: Dominique Lemmermann; Regina T. Riphahn
    Abstract: We investigate the causal effect of age at migration on subsequent educational attainment in the destination country. To identify the causal effect we compare the educational attainment of siblings at age 21, exploiting the fact that they typically migrate at different ages within a given family. We consider several education outcomes conditional on family fixed effects. We take advantage of long running and detailed data from the German Socio-Economic Panel, which entails an oversample of immigrants and provides information on language skills. We find significant effects of age at migration on educational attainment and a critical age of migration around age 6. The educational attainment of female immigrants responds more strongly to a high age at immigration than that of males. Also, language skills do not appear to be central for the causal connection between age at migration and educational attainment.
    Keywords: Immigration, education, integration, school attainment, Germany, causal estimation, family fixed effect
    JEL: I21 J61 C21
    Date: 2017
  9. By: Jaai Parasnis; Jemma Swan
    Abstract: This study investigates native-migrant differences in engagement in post-school education. Using a longitudinal survey of youth in Australia, we find that immigrants originating from non-English speaking countries are significantly more likely to continue with further study between the ages of 18 and 23. On the other hand, there are no significant differences between immigrants from English-speaking countries and native youth. We find several important factors influencing study decisions, including parents and family background, academic ability, aspirations and age at migration; however, accounting for these factors does not fully explain the higher probability of pursuing higher education for immigrants from non-English speaking countries. Exploring the country of origin effect, we find that immigrants from countries with low tertiary education levels are more likely to study in Australia, while differences in parental attitudes in their origin countries do not have a significant effect. The results show the importance of country of origin on the study decisions of youth, which should be taken into account when formulating migration and education policies.
    Keywords: migration, educational achievement, human capital
    JEL: I21 J15 J24
    Date: 2017–04
  10. By: Khulan Altangerel (Department of Economics and CentER, Tilburg University); Jan C. van Ours (Erasmus School of Economics, Erasmus University Rotterdam and Tinbergen Institute)
    Abstract: The 1986 US Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) was directed at tackling the problem of growing unauthorized migration through legalization of unauthorized immigrants, increasing border security and sanctioning employers who hired unauthorized immigrants. Our paper investigates how the IRCA affected the migration dynamics of Mexican immigrants focusing on their age of onset of migration and the duration of their first trip. We find that the IRCA had a positive effect in reducing unauthorized migration to the US. Although primarily aiming at unauthorized immigration, the IRCA had substantial effects on legal migration through its legalization program.
    Keywords: Immigration policy, migrant behavior
    JEL: J61 J68
    Date: 2017–05
  11. By: Adel Ben Youssef (University of Nice Sophia-Antipolis); Mohamed Arouri; Cuong Viet Nguyen
    Abstract: In this study, we examine the effect of extreme weather events on migration among governorates in Egypt using migration gravity models and data from the 1996 and 2006 Population and Housing Census. We find that low or high temperature and precipitation does not affect the migration of people. Instead, people are considering the weather in destination areas to decide where they should migrate. The number of months with temperature below the five percentiles the distribution of monthly temperature of destination governorates strongly increases in-migration. An additional month with low temperature increases the number of in-migrants by 9.98 percent. For the elderly, they also avoid a governorate with more months of high temperatures. One additional month with temperature above the 95 percentile reduces in the destination governorates the number of old migrants by 8.15 percent.
    Date: 2017–05–25
  12. By: Monras, Joan (CEMFI, Madrid); Vázquez-Grenno, Javier (University of Barcelona); Elias Moreno, Ferran (Columbia University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the consequences of the legalization of around 600,000 immigrants by the unexpectedly elected Spanish government of Zapatero following the terrorist attacks of March 2004 (Garcia-Montalvo (2011)). Using detailed data from payroll-tax revenues, we estimate that each newly legalized immigrant increased social-security revenues by 3,504 Euros on average. This estimate is only 49 percent of what we would have expected from the size of the newly documented immigrants, which suggests that newly legalized immigrants probably earned lower wages than, and maybe affected the labor-market outcomes of, other workers. We estimate that the policy change deteriorated the labor-market outcomes of some low-skilled natives and immigrants and improved the outcomes of high-skilled natives and immigrants. This led some low-skilled immigrants to move away from high-immigrant locations. Correcting for migration and selection, we obtain that each newly legalized immigrant increased payroll-tax revenues by 4,398 Euros or 26 percent more than the raw payroll-tax revenue data estimates. This shows the importance of looking both at public revenue data and the labor market to understand the consequences of amnesty programs fully.
    Keywords: immigration, amnesty programs
    JEL: J2 J6 R1
    Date: 2017–04
  13. By: Luc Christiaensen (The World Bank, U.S.A); Joachim De Weerdt (University of Antwerp and KU Leuven, Belgium); Ravi Kanbur (Cornell University, U.S.A.)
    Abstract: Should public investment be targeted to big cities or to small towns, if the objective is to minimize national poverty? To answer this policy question we extend the basic Todaro-type model of rural-urban migration to the case of migration from rural areas to two potential destinations, secondary town and big city. We first derive conditions under which a poverty gradient from rural to town to city will exist as an equilibrium phenomenon. We then address the policy question and show how the answer depends on the migration response, where the poverty line lies relative to incomes in the three locations, and at times also the poverty index itself. In particular, we develop sufficient statistics for the policy decisions based on these income parameters and illustrate the empirical remit of the model with long running panel data from Kagera, Tanzania. Further, we show that the structure of the sufficient statistics is maintained in the case where the model is generalized to introduce heterogeneous workers and jobs. Overall, the findings confirm that, given migration responses, national poverty outcomes are not immune to whether urban employment generation takes place in the towns or the city.
    Keywords: Secondary towns versus big cities, poverty reduction, poverty gradient, Todaro model, migration equilibrium, equilibrium income distribution.
    JEL: O18 O41 I3 J61
    Date: 2017–04
  14. By: Tatiana Polonyankina (University of Economics, Prague)
    Abstract: The gravity model is an interesting adaptation of Newton's law of gravitation, in which the effect of gravity is used to describe the spatial interactions between economic units. The force of interaction is supposed to be positively influenced by the size of the units (the push factor) and negatively by the distance between them (the pull factor). The model is used to estimate the dependence of migration on the GDP, as well as the distance between European countries. Based on the gravity model, the GWP of both (source and host) countries, is expected to be a push factor and the distance is expected to be a pull factor. However, in economic theory, the impact of the GDP of a source country is expected to be negative, the opposite to the gravity model. The goal of the paper is to test which of the two is valid for eight European countries from 2011 to 2014.
    Keywords: gravity model, spatial dependence, migration, model selection, random effects, panel data
    JEL: F22 C23 C52
    Date: 2017–04
  15. By: Dreger, Christian (DIW Berlin); Zhang, Yanqun (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)
    Abstract: Faster urbanization plays a key role in the Chinese economic transformation. However, at the Lewis turning point, the hukou institution constitutes a serious risk to the process, as it restricts the access of migrants to public services offered by cities. To attract further migration, firms started to accept a premium on top of the wage. Thus, the social discrimination introduced by the hukou system is partially compensated by the reactions of market participants, as migrant workers receive additional pay. Based on huge cross sections of private households, this paper provides insights into the size and the evolution of the wage premium. After controlling for standard wage determinants, such as sex, education, experience and ownership of firms, we find that the premium amounts to 7 percent of the hourly wage. Because of the premium, the share of non-wage labor costs is on the rise, especially for low-skilled migrants. To avoid further distortions and reduce inefficiencies, the hukou status should be unified. Migrants should obtain urban hukou as long as they live in cities. They should keep their land use rights when they are in the rural areas. Otherwise, the system could constitute a significant barrier for further urbanization. The removal of institutional bias could restore the link between wages and productivity and improve the allocation of labor.
    Keywords: Chinese economic transformation, wage premium, hukou reform
    JEL: J30 R23 C23
    Date: 2017–04
  16. By: Zwiers, Merle (Delft University of Technology); van Ham, Maarten (Delft University of Technology); Kleinhans, Reinout (Delft University of Technology)
    Abstract: In the last few decades, urban restructuring programs have been implemented in many Western European cities with the main goal of combating a variety of socioeconomic problems in deprived neighborhoods. The main instrument of restructuring has been housing diversification and tenure mixing. The demolition of low-quality (social) housing and the construction of owner-occupied or private-rented dwellings was expected to change the population composition of deprived neighbourhoods through the in-migration of middle and high income households. Many studies have been critical with regard to the success of such policies in actually upgrading neighborhoods. Using data from the 31 largest Dutch cities for the 1999 to 2013 period, this study contributes to the literature by investigating the effects of large-scale demolition and new construction on neighborhood income developments on a low spatial scale. We use propensity score matching to isolate the direct effects of policy by comparing restructured neighborhoods to a set of control neighborhoods with low demolition rates, but with similar socioeconomic characteristics. The results indicate that large-scale demolition leads to socioeconomic upgrading of deprived neighborhoods through the in-migration of middle and high income households. We find no evidence of spillover effects to nearby neighborhoods, suggesting that physical restructuring only has very local effects.
    Keywords: urban restructuring, neighborhood change, selective migration, demolition
    JEL: O18 P25 R23
    Date: 2017–04
  17. By: Martin Abel (Harvard University)
    Abstract: Using a unique data set of classified ads in South Africa, I explore whether employers discriminate against immigrants in the hiring process. I develop a quasi-experimental method to estimate discrimination exploiting variation in the applicant pool composition due to the timing of postings. Consistent with a tournament models in which immigrants are penalized, I find that both foreigners and natives benefit from being pooled with foreign job seekers. Next, I test whether discrimination affects search behavior. Controlling for location fixed effects, I find suggestive evidence for sorting: immigrants search further away and higher discrimination in the residential area is positively correlated with the decision to search in different suburbs.
    Date: 2017
  18. By: Iuliia Kuntsevych
    Abstract: This paper analyzes remittances sent by Ukrainian emigrants to their country of origin. It explores the dependence on remittances of a household's spending on human capital, savings and donations, against the backdrop of the political situation in Ukraine in 2004. The paper also explores the effect of the political instability in Ukraine on how the households receiving remittances used them. The results of a Ukrainian Longitudinal Monitoring Survey (ULMS) are used to explore households' decision to spend on human capital development, save, or donate money; depending on their political views and future expectations. The main hypothesis tested is whether the individuals who supported and/or were involved with the Revolution ("pro-orange"), and who were optimistic about the future of Ukraine after the Orange Revolution, saved/donated more money than those who did not support the Revolution ("pro-blue-white"). In addition, the level of in uence of remittances received from relatives or friends outside Ukraine on decisions to save and donate money is analyzed. The results show that the political views of respondents do not have a significant effect on decisions to save and/or donate money. However respondents' political orientations do have a significant effect on the probability of receiving remittances those who voted for "pro-orange" have a lower probability of receiving remittances from outside the household.
    Keywords: remittances; remittance behavior; Ukraine; Orange Revolution; international migration;
    JEL: F22 F24 O19
    Date: 2017–03
  19. By: Jamal Bouoiyour (University of Pau); Amal Miftah
    Abstract: This paper explores some political and social consequences of international migration experience and remittance receipt in the case of Arab countries using Arab Barometer survey dataset. The main idea is to address whether persons who receive international remittances or have lived in the past in democratic host countries, namely U.S (or Canada) and Europe, can act as agents of changes. Three forms of political participation are considered comprising interest in politics, electoral participation and protest demonstration. Other indicators are taken into account including the perception of economic inequality and cultural constructions of gender in Muslim societies. We find that migration and remittance receipt have a positive influence on the political participation and interest of migrants and families who remain in the country of origin and receive remittances. Moreover, our estimates show that migration experience of male migrants strengthens their likelihood to vote, to be more interested in politics, to perceive the economic inequality as well as to encourage the veiling in their home countries. However, they seem less engaged in a protest demonstration.
    Date: 2017–05–18

This nep-mig issue is ©2017 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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