nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2017‒01‒22
sixteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. IAB-SOEP Migrationsstichprobe verknüpft mit administrativen Daten des IAB : Version 1 (IAB-SOEP-MIG-ADIAB 7514, Version 1) By Trübswetter, Parvati; Fendel, Tanja
  2. The Return Motivations of Legal Permanent Migrants: Evidence from Exchange Rate Shocks and Immigrants in Australia By Paolo Abarcar
  3. Skills and entrepreneurship: Are return migrants 'Jacks-of-all-trades'? By Mahé, Clothilde
  4. Global talent flows By Pekkala Kerr, Sari; Kerr, William; Özden, Çağlar; Parsons, Christopher
  5. Immigrant entrepreneurship By Pekkala Kerr, Sari; Kerr, William R.
  6. The Effect of Labor Migration on the Diffusion of Democracy: Evidence from a Former Soviet Republic By Toman Barsbai; Hillel Rapoport; Andreas Steinmayr; Christoph Trebesch
  7. Inequalities by immigrant status in unmet needs for healthcare in Europe: the role of origin, nationality and economic resources By Caterina Francesca Guidi; Laia Palència; Silvia Ferrini and Davide Malmusi
  8. The Costs and Benefits of Migration into the European Union: Debunking Contemporary Myths with Facts By Ivo J. Leke; Simplice Asongu
  9. Can Immigrants Insure against Shocks as well as the Native-born? By Asadul Islam; Steven Stillman; Christopher Worswick
  10. Historical Migration Flows and Global Health Differences By Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan; Skovsgaard, Christian Volmar; Selaya, Pablo
  11. The economic impact of East-West migration on the European Union By Kahanec, Martin; Pytlikova, Mariola
  12. Unauthorized Mexican Workers in the United States: Recent Inflows and Possible Future Scenarios By Orrenius, Pia M.; Zavodny, Madeline
  13. Access to General Social Protection for Immigrants in Advanced Democracies By Carina Schmitt; Céline Teney
  14. Decision to Emigrate Amongst the Youth in Lebanon By Ghassan Dibeh; Ali Fakih; Walid Marrouch
  15. Syrian Refugees and Cultural Intimacy in Istanbul: “I feel safe here!” By Ayhan Kaya
  16. Assigning Refugees to Landlords in Sweden : Stable Maximum Matchings By Tommy ANDERSSON; Lars EHLERS

  1. By: Trübswetter, Parvati (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Fendel, Tanja (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: This data report describes the linked survey data of the IAB-SOEP Migration Sample with ad-ministrative data of the Institute for Employment Research (IAB).
    Date: 2016–12–21
  2. By: Paolo Abarcar
    Abstract: Why do legal permanent migrants return to their home countries? This paper uses exogenous exchange rate shocks arising from the 1997 Asian financial crisis to distinguish between theories of what motivates Australian immigrants to return to their home country.
    Keywords: return migration, immigrants, Australia, exchange rates, Asian financial crisis, migrants, life-cycle migrants
    JEL: F Z
  3. By: Mahé, Clothilde (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: This paper examines whether and how return migrants may be more likely to be entrepreneurs. With reference to Lazear's Jack-of-all-trades hypothesis, we posit that return migrants may be more likely to choose self-employment as a result of the diverse work experience they gain as migrants. Using the 2012 Egyptian Labour Market Panel Survey, seemingly unrelated regression model estimates show that return migration increases the propensity to be self-employed, controlling for the possession of savings. This is found to be due to a Jack-of-all-trades effect, whereby migration helps accumulating more occupations and jobs. Sector-specific rather than multi-sector experience may also benefit entrepreneurship, as it was found that the more industries an emigrant worked in, the less the probability of self-employment upon return. Self-employed might thus need a generalist, balanced mix of occupational skills, within a relatively narrow set of industries. These findings hold for non-agricultural activities.
    Keywords: International migration, Return migration, Entrepreneurship, Human capital, North Africa, Egypt
    JEL: F22 J24 L26 O12 O15
    Date: 2016–12–16
  4. By: Pekkala Kerr, Sari; Kerr, William; Özden, Çağlar; Parsons, Christopher
    Abstract: The global distribution of talent is highly skewed and the resources available to countries to develop and utilize their best and brightest vary substantially. The migration of skilled workers across countries tilts the deck even further. Using newly available data, we first review the landscape of global talent mobility, which is both asymmetric and rising in importance. We next consider the determinants of global talent flows at the individual and firm levels and sketch some important implications. Third, we review the national gatekeepers for skilled migration and broad differences in approaches used to select migrants for admission. Looking forward, the capacity of people, firms, and countries to successfully navigate this tangled web of global talent will be critical to their success.
    JEL: F15 F22 J15 J31 J44 L14 L26 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2017–01–11
  5. By: Pekkala Kerr, Sari; Kerr, William R.
    Abstract: We examine immigrant entrepreneurship and the survival and growth of immigrant-founded businesses over time relative to native-founded companies. Our work quantities immigrant contributions to new firm creation in a wide variety of fields and using multiple definitions. While significant research effort has gone into understanding the economic impact of immigration into the United States, comprehensive data for quantifying immigrant entrepreneurship are difficult to assemble. We combine several restricted-access U.S. Census Bureau data sets to create a unique longitudinal data platform that covers 1992-2008 and many states. We describe differences in the types of businesses initially formed by immigrants and their medium-term growth patterns. We also consider the relationship of these outcomes to the immigrants’ age at arrival to the United States.
    JEL: F22 J15 J44 J61 L26 M13 O31 O32 O33
    Date: 2016–12–21
  6. By: Toman Barsbai; Hillel Rapoport; Andreas Steinmayr; Christoph Trebesch
    Abstract: Migration contributes to the circulation of goods, knowledge, and ideas. Using community and individual-level data from Moldova, we show that the emigration wave that started in the aftermath of the Russian crisis of 1998 strongly affected electoral outcomes and political preferences in Moldova during the following decade, eventually contributing to the fall of the last Communist government in Europe. Our results are suggestive of information transmission and cultural diffusion channels. Identification relies on the quasi-experimental context and on the differential effects arising from the fact that emigration was directed both to more democratic Western Europe and to less democratic Russia.
    Keywords: Emigration;Political institutions;Elections;Social networks;Information transmission;Cultural diffusion
    JEL: F22 D72 O1
    Date: 2016–09
  7. By: Caterina Francesca Guidi; Laia Palència; Silvia Ferrini and Davide Malmusi
    Abstract: The aim of the research is to assess whether there are inequalities in unmet needs for health care between natives and migrants within Europe. We used cross-sectional data from the European Statistics on Income and Living Conditions 2012. Our dependent variables were perceived unmet needs for medical and dental examination or treatment. Our main independent variable is immigrant status, defined using a combination of country of birth and citizenship (nationals born in the country of residence, reference; European Union-born nationals; non-EU born nationals; EU-born foreigners; non EU-born foreigners). The prevalence ratios of unmet needs according to immigrant status are obtained through sex-stratified robust Poisson regression models, sequentially adjusted by age, health status and socio-economic characteristics.The prevalence of medical unmet needs, adjusted by age and health status, is higher in foreign women, both EU-born and non-EU born, but it is no longer significant after the socioeconomic adjustment. For dental unmet needs, the risk is significantly higher for all foreigners, EU and non EU-born, men and women. Once adjusted for socioeconomic variables significant inequalities persist, although diminished, for both EU-born and non-EU-born foreign men and EU-born foreign women.This study contributes to the discussion of adequate access to healthcare systems and adaptation of services for migrants. While inequalities cannot be detected for naturalised immigrants, the higher risk of unmet need affecting foreigners, even within the EU, deserves further attention.
    Keywords: Unmet needs, health inequalities, migrant health, Europe
    Date: 2016–10
  8. By: Ivo J. Leke (Heverlee, Belgium); Simplice Asongu (Yaoundé, Cameroon)
    Abstract: The purpose of this study is to dispel some myths associated with migrants in order to improve socio-economic appraisal of the consequences of the recent surge of migrants into Europe. We argue that: (i) the concern about loss of Christian cultural values is lacking in substance because compared to a relatively near historical epoch or era, very few European citizens do go to Church in contemporary Europe; (ii) the threat to European liberal institutions is falsifiable and statistically fragile because it is not substantiated with significant evidence; (iii) the insignificant proportion of the Moslem population that is aligned with Islamic fundamentalism invalidates the hypothesis on importation of radical Islamic fundamentalism and (iv) the concern about social security burden is relevant only in the short-term because of Europe’s ageing population.
    Keywords: Migration; the European Union; Development
    JEL: F20 J61 J83 K31 O15
    Date: 2016–11
  9. By: Asadul Islam (Monash University, Department of Economics); Steven Stillman (Free University of Bolzano‐Bozen, Faculty of Economics and Management); Christopher Worswick (Carleton University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The impact that an unforeseen event has on household welfare depends on the extent to which household members can take actions to mitigate the direct impact of the shock. In this paper, we use nine years of longitudinal data from the Household Income Labour Dynamics of Australia (HILDA) survey to examine the impact of job displacement and serious health problems on: individual labour supply and incomes, household incomes and food expenditure. We extend on the previous literature by examining whether mitigation strategies and their effectiveness differs for the native-born and immigrants. Immigrants make up nearly one quarter of the Australian population and there are a number of reasons to suspect that they may be less able to mitigate adverse shocks than the native-born.
    Keywords: job loss, income, consumption, labour supply, disability
    Date: 2017–01
  10. By: Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck (Department of Business and Economics, and COHERE); Dalgaard, Carl-Johan (Department of Economics); Skovsgaard, Christian Volmar (Department of Business and Economics, and COHERE); Selaya, Pablo (Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In this study we provide evidence that historical migration flows impact present-day global health differences. The underlying theory is based on three physiological facts. First, vitamin D deficiency is directly associated with increased risk of premature death. Second, the ability of humans to synthesize vitamin D from sunlight (i.e., ultraviolet radiation, UV-R) declines with the level of skin pigmentation. Third, the level of human skin pigmentation is the result of an evolutionary compromise between the costs of pigmentation (e.g., higher risk of vitamin D deficiency) and its benefits (e.g., lower risk of skin cancer); people living in high UV-R regions, as a result, became more intensely pigmented. Accordingly, when individuals indigenous to high UV-R regions migrate to low UV-R regions the risk of vitamin D deficiency rises markedly, which should in turn impact average health in the recipient region. We develop an empirical measure that allows us to explore the aggregate consequences of local populations’ differential risk of vitamin D deficiency, as caused by historical migration flows. Our proposed measure of risk of vitamin D deficiency holds strong explanatory power vis-à-vis health outcomes in a world sample as well as across US states.
    Keywords: Health; vitamin D; ultraviolet radiation; skin pigmentation; migration
    JEL: I10 J10 J15
    Date: 2016–02–04
  11. By: Kahanec, Martin (UNU-MERIT, Central European University, and IZA, Bonn); Pytlikova, Mariola (CERGE‐EI, Prague, and VSB‐Technical University, Ostrava)
    Abstract: This study contributes to the literature on destination-country consequences of international migration with investigations on the effects of immigration from new EU member states and Eastern Partnership countries on the economies of old EU member states over the years 1995-2010. Using a rich international migration dataset and an empirical model accounting for the endogeneity of migration flows we find positive and significant effects of post-enlargement migration flows from new EU member states on old member states' GDP, GDP per capita, and employment rate and a negative effect on output per worker. We also find small, but statistically significant negative effects of migration from Eastern Partnership countries on receiving countries' GDP, GDP per capita, employment rate, and capital stock, but a positive significant effect on capital-to-labour ratio. These results mark an economic success of the EU enlargements and EU's free movement of workers.
    Keywords: EU enlargement, free mobility of workers, migration impacts, European Single Market, east-west migration, Eastern Partnership
    JEL: J15 J61 J68 O15
    Date: 2017–01–09
  12. By: Orrenius, Pia M. (Federal Reserve Bank of Dallas); Zavodny, Madeline (Agnes Scott College)
    Abstract: The U.S. economy has long relied on immigrant workers, many of them unauthorized, yet estimates of the inflow of unauthorized workers and the determinants of that inflow are hard to come by. This paper provides estimates of the number of newly arriving unauthorized workers from Mexico, the principal source of unauthorized immigrants to the United States, and examines how the inflow is related to U.S. and Mexico economic conditions. Our estimates suggest that annual inflows of unauthorized workers averaged about 170,000 during 1996-2014 but were much higher before the economic downturn that began in 2007. Labor market conditions in the U.S. and Mexico play key roles in this migrant flow. The models estimated here predict that annual unauthorized inflows from Mexico will be about 100,000 in the future if recent economic conditions persist, and higher if the U.S. economy booms or the Mexican economy weakens.
    Keywords: Unauthorized immigrants; Illegal immigrants; Temporary foreign workers
    Date: 2017–01–02
  13. By: Carina Schmitt (University of Bremen - Research Center on Inequality and Social Policy (SOCIUM)); Céline Teney (University of Bremen - Research Center on Inequality and Social Policy (SOCIUM))
    Abstract: Immigration has become a central socio-political issue in most advanced democracies. While research mainly focuses on immigrant-specific policies in the area of immigration, integration and citizenship, we still know very little on the incorporation of immigrants in mainstream social policies. By analyzing cross-national differences in the inclusion of immigrants to general social protection across 27 rich democracies based on comparative indicators from the MIPEX dataset we are seeking to address this gap in a quantitative study. A cross-national comparison of these indicators shows a particularly large variation in the inclusiveness of the access to social protection for immigrants across countries. By drawing on the welfare state and integration regime literature, we assess the power of welfare state regimes, left-wing governments, immigration flow and integration policies in explaining this large cross-national variation in immigrants´ access to social security and social housing. Our results show that generous welfare states tend to provide immigrants with a more inclusive access to their general social protection schemes than less generous welfare states. This contrasts the view that immigrants are excluded in generous welfare states. Furthermore, general social protection is especially inclusive for immigrants in countries facing high levels of immigration flows. Strikingly, we find strong evidence that left-wing cabinets are particularly reluctant to open general social protection schemes to immigrants.
    Keywords: social protection, advanced democracies, immigration, integration
    Date: 2016–12
  14. By: Ghassan Dibeh; Ali Fakih; Walid Marrouch
    Abstract: This paper studies the determinants of youth emigration decisions, which is considered to be one of the main causes of ‘Brain Drain’ in Arab Mediterranean Countries (AMCs). We focus on the case of Lebanon using a unique dataset covering young people aged 15 to 29 from the year 2016. The aim of the paper is to identify the profile of youth’s propensity to emigrate from Lebanon. The empirical results indicate that youth from non-wealthy backgrounds living in smaller dwellings have a higher propensity to emigrate. It is also found that being male and unemployed has a positive incidence on migration. Moreover, university education promotes the willingness to emigrate; while residents of poor regions are more likely to express such willingness. Finally, the paper provides some insights for policymakers.
    Keywords: Emigration; youth; Lebanon; probit model,
    JEL: C25 J60 O15
    Date: 2017–01–12
  15. By: Ayhan Kaya
    Abstract: This paper derives from the findings of a recent qualitative and quantitative study conducted by the Support to Life Association among Syrian refugees in Istanbul to make their vulnerability assessment with a particular focus on their strong attachment to this city. The research question to be answered in this paper is to what extent Istanbul provides Syrian refugees with a space of cultural intimacy, where they feel safe and secure despite the difficulties of everyday life. The main premise of the paper is that historical, cultural and religious forms of affinity are likely to particularly attach the Sunni-Muslim-Arab-Syrians originating from Aleppo province to Istanbul. However, this sense of safety is not free from various sources of exploitation. This paper is expected to contribute to the discipline of Refugee Studies by shedding light on the historical elements and the agency that are often neglected in such analysis.
    Keywords: Syrians, Refugee Studies, cultural intimacy, Turkey, Istanbul, Aleppo
    Date: 2016–11
  16. By: Tommy ANDERSSON; Lars EHLERS
    Abstract: The member states of the European Union received 1.2 million first time asylum applications in 2015 (a doubling compared to 2014). Even if asylum will be granted for many of the refugees that made the journey to Europe, several obstacles for successful integration remain. This paper focuses on one of these obstacles, namely the problem of finding housing for refugees once they have been granted asylum. In particular, the focus is restricted to the situation in Sweden during 2015–2016 and it is demonstrated that market design can play an important role in a partial solution to the problem. More specifically, because almost all accommodation options are exhausted in Sweden, the paper investigates a matching system, closely related to the system adopted by the European NGO “Refugees Welcome”, and proposes an easy-to-implement algorithm that finds a stable maximum matching. Such matching guarantees that housing is provided to a maximum number of refugees and that no refugee prefers some landlord to their current match when, at the same time, that specific landlord prefers that refugee to his current match.
    Keywords: refugees, private landlords, forced migration, market design, stable maximum matchings
    JEL: C71 C78 D71 D78 F22
    Date: 2016

This nep-mig issue is ©2017 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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