nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2017‒01‒15
ten papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Family Size, Sibling Rivalry and Migration: Evidence from Mexico By Massimiliano, Bratti; Simona, Fiore; Mariapia, Mendola;
  2. Assigning refugees to landlords in Sweden: stable maximum matchings By ANDERSSON, Tommy; EHLERS, Lars
  3. Let Tiebout pick up the tab: Pricing out externalities with free mobility By Hiroki Watanabe
  4. Migrant Intentions to Return: The Role of Migrant Social Networks By Catia Batista; Francesco Cestari
  5. Assessing the role of social networks on migrant labor market outcomes: Evidence from a representative immigrant survey By Catia Batista; Ana Isabel Costa
  6. Who is this, who enters there? - Migration in Italy and its effect on fiscal sustainability and pensions By Bendetta Frassi; Christian Hagist; Fabio Pammolli
  7. The evolution of immigrants' homeownership in Germany By Ihley, Dorothee; Siebert-Meyerhoff, Andrea
  8. On the train to brain gain in rural China By Zhang, Yi; Matz, Julia Anna
  9. Physician emigration: should they stay or should they go? A policy analysis By Mário Amorim Lopes; Álvaro Almeida; Bernardo Almada-Lobo

  1. By: Massimiliano, Bratti; Simona, Fiore; Mariapia, Mendola;
    Abstract: This paper examines the causal effects of family size and demographic structure on offspring’s international migration. We use rich survey data from Mexico to estimate the impact of sibship size, birth order and sibling composition on teenagers’ and young adults’ migration outcomes. We find no empirical support for the hypothesis that high fertility drives migration. The positive correlation between sibship size and migration disappears when endogeneity of family size is addressed using biological fertility (miscarriages) and infertility shocks. Yet, the chances to migrate are not equally distributed across children within the family. Older siblings, especially firstborn males, are more likely to migrate, while having more sisters than brothers may increase the chances of migration, particularly among girls.
    Keywords: International Migration, Mexico, Family Size, Birth Order, Sibling Rivalry
    JEL: J13 F22 O15
    Date: 2017–01–06
  2. By: ANDERSSON, Tommy; EHLERS, Lars
    Abstract: The member states of the European Union received 1.2 million first time asylum applications in 2015 (a doubling compared to 2014). Even if asylum will be granted for many of the refugees that made the journey to Europe, several obstacles for successful integration remain. This paper focuses on one of these obstacles, namely the problem of finding housing for refugees once they have been granted asylum. In particular, the focus is restricted to the situation in Sweden during 2015–2016 and it is demonstrated that market design can play an important role in a partial solution to the problem. More specifically, because almost all accommodation options are exhausted in Sweden, the paper investigates a matching system, closely related to the system adopted by the European NGO “Refugees Welcome”, and proposes an easy-to-implement algorithm that finds a stable maximum matching. Such matching guarantees that housing is provided to a maximum number of refugees and that no refugee prefers some landlord to their current match when, at the same time, that specific landlord prefers that refugee to his current match.
    Keywords: Refugees; private landlords; forced migration; market design; stable maximum matchings
    JEL: C71 C78 D71 D78 F22
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Hiroki Watanabe
    Abstract: Free mobility has not been thought of as an effective tool to correct over- or underproduction of externalities. In this paper, we establish that foot voting can internalize the cost of negative externalities. Workers have to accept the wage and rent, however high or low they are in equilibrium, if they cannot relocate. In reality, they are mobile and they can effectively influence the equilibrium wage and rent to reflect the externalities by threatening to walk away if the current externalities are at an intolerable level. Firms indirectly pay for the damage in the form of an increased labor or land cost and thus the externalities are partially internalized in an open city as opposed to a closed city. We will specify the condition under which an open equilibrium is efficient in the presence of externalities, and discuss potential policy implications of our findings.
    Keywords: Externality; Foot Voting; Quality of Life; Production Economy
    JEL: D62 R23 R13 Q5
    Date: 2016–12
  4. By: Catia Batista; Francesco Cestari
    Abstract: Social ties are potentially an important determinant of migrants’ intentions to return to their home country. This relationship has, however, not been addressed in the economics literature on international migration. This study examines the absolute and relative importance of migrant social networks, at both destination and origin, on migrant return intentions. Using rich data on social networks of immigrants, we explore the effects of heterogeneous characteristics of social network members on different time horizons for return. After controlling for unobserved heterogeneity and reverse causality biases, we find that the social network at home seems to be the most important determinant of the migrant’s intention to return home within five to ten years. JEL codes: D8, F22, J15, J61
    Keywords: International migration, Return migration, return intentions, Social networks
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Catia Batista; Ana Isabel Costa
    Abstract: What role do social networks play in determining migrant labor market outcomes? We examine this question using data from a random sample of 1500 immigrants living in Ireland. We propose a theoretical model formally predicting that immigrants with more contacts have additional access to job offers, and are therefore better able to become employed and choose higher paid jobs. Our empirical analysis confirms these findings, while focusing more generally on the relationship between migrants’ social networks and a variety of labor market outcomes (namely wages, employment, occupational choice and job security), contrary to the literature. We find evidence that having one more contact in the network is associated with an increase of 11pp in the probability of being employed and with an increase of about 100 euros in the average salary. However, our data is not suggestive of a network size effect on occupational choice and job security. Our findings are robust to sample selection and other endogeneity concerns. JEL codes: D8, F22, J3
    Keywords: Social networks, International migration, Wage determination, Labor market integration
    Date: 2016
  6. By: Bendetta Frassi; Christian Hagist; Fabio Pammolli
    Abstract: Our paper estimates the impact of immigration on the sustainability of the Italian public finances using the methodology of Generational Accounting. We take into account socio-economic differences between the main migrants’ communities resident in Italy and we present three possible scenarios to reflect the potential economic degree of integration of foreigners in the Italian territory. Moreover, for each scenario we propose several options for migrants concerning both the length of permanence in Italy and the possible collection of retirement benefits. Our results show that the burden of current fiscal policy reduces as integration of the foreign-born increases. If migrants’ children are economically perfectly integrated, the fiscal gap is reduced from 71.9 to -15.3 percent of GDP.
    Keywords: accounting, economic integration, generations, migration, public pensions, social security
    JEL: E62 H60 J10
    Date: 2017–01–02
  7. By: Ihley, Dorothee; Siebert-Meyerhoff, Andrea
    Abstract: Recently, homeownership rates of migrants in Germany increased by more than 10 percentage points. To shed light on this sharp increase, this paper investigates the change in homeownership rates of immigrant households in Germany between 1996 to 2005 and 2000 to 2012 respectively using a probit-based non-linear decomposition method. Empirical findings suggest that 50 percent of the change in immigrant's homeownership rate within the first time period can be explained by characteristics, especially by age and educational attainment. In the second time period, the explanatory power of characteristics is almost zero indicating that it is the favorable economic environment during that time that is responsible for the increase in homeownership of immigrant households in Germany.
    Keywords: Homeownership,International Migration,Germany
    JEL: F22 J15 R21
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Zhang, Yi; Matz, Julia Anna
    Abstract: This study investigates the well-researched relationship between migration and the formation of human capital in the source region using a novel instrument: the existence of a local train station. We make use of Chinese panel data and of the fact that the decision to build a new train station is taken by the central government and unrelated to characteristics of a rural village receiving the station. As an intermediate result we find that train stations are negatively related to migration outflows, thus indicating that the facilitation of local employment through economic integration outweighs the reduction of migratory costs. Investigating variation within villages over time in the instrumental variables approach for the central research question, we see a positive effect of out-migration on educational attainment in the source region. Additional results suggest that the effect is stronger for male and young stayers.
    Keywords: Migration, human capital formation, instrumental variables, China, Consumer/Household Economics, Labor and Human Capital, D10, I25, J61,
    Date: 2017–01
  9. By: Mário Amorim Lopes (CEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, INESC-TEC); Álvaro Almeida (CEF.UP and Faculdade de Economia, Universidade do Porto); Bernardo Almada-Lobo (CEGI, Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade do Porto, INESC-TEC)
    Abstract: Physician emigration can either function as an escape valve to help the health labour market clear from a supply surplus, or aggravate the problem further in case of a shortage. Either way, policy-makers should be particularly aware and devise policies to minimize the occurrence of an imbalance in the physician workforce, which may require physician retention policies if barriers to entry and other market rigidities can not be removed. To this purpose we have developed an agent-based computational economics model to analyse physician emigration, and used it to study the impact of potential short-term and long-term retention policies. As a real case study we have calibrated it with data from Portugal, which features a very particular health system with many rigidities. Results show that all policies are capable of increasing the workforce size, but not all reduce migration. Furthermore, the welfare impact of the policies varies considerably. Whether policies to retain physicians should be enacted or whether policy makers should let physicians go will depend on the type of imbalance present in the health system.
    Keywords: Healthcare workforce planning; Health policy; Agent-based computational economics; International migration; Physician migration; International medical graduates
    JEL: I18 I19 I28 J61
    Date: 2017–01
  10. By: Htoo, Kyan; Zu, A Myint
    Abstract: Labor migration is a pervasive feature of life in contemporary Myanmar, but has been the subject of only limited research. Most of this work has focused on international migrants, leaving internal migration comparatively understudied.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development,
    Date: 2016–12

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