nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2017‒01‒08
seventeen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Community Leaders and the Preservation of Cultural Traits By Anja Prummer; Jan-Peter Siedlarek
  2. Child-Rearing Practices of Russian-Speaking Women from a Migration Perspective By Raisa Akifyeva
  3. A cohort integration analysis of work and education participation among internal mobile and non-mobile immigrants by reason for immigration By Lasse Sigbjørn Stambøl
  4. Age at Immigration Matters for Labor Market Integration: The Swedish Example By Gustafsson, Björn Anders; Mac Innes, Hanna; Österberg, Torun
  5. Educational outcomes and immigrant background By Sara Flisi; Elena Claudia Meroni; Esperanza Vera-Toscano
  6. The Labour Market Effect of Immigration: Accounting for Effective Immigrant Work Experience in New Zealand By Tse, Michael M. H.; Maani, Sholeh A.
  7. Glass Ceiling Effect in Urban China: Wage Inequality of Rural-Urban Migrants during 2002-2007 By Qu, Zhaopeng (Frank); Zhao, Zhong
  8. Do Immigrants Compete with Natives in the Greek Labour Market? Evidence from the Skill-Cell Approach Before and During the Great Recession By Chletsos, Michael; Roupakias, Stelios
  9. Can Immigrants Insure against Shocks as well as the Native-born? By Asadul Islam; Steven Stillman; Christopher Worswick
  10. Does Information Change Attitudes Towards Immigrants? Representative Evidence from Survey Experiments By Grigorieff, Alexis; Roth, Christopher; Ubfal, Diego
  11. Multilateral mechanism analysis of interprovincial migration flows in China By Yingxia Pu; Ying Ge
  12. Countering Public Opposition to Immigration: The Impact of Information Campaigns By Facchini, Giovanni; Margalit, Yotam; Nakata, Hiroyuki
  13. Internal migration and EU regional policy transfer payments: A panel data analysis for the EU-28 member countries By Peter Schmidt
  14. Immigration ? a way out of the Swedish rural population crisis? By Mats Johansson
  15. Post-Enlargement Migration and the Great Recession in the E(M)U: Lessons and policy implications By Kahanec, Martin; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
  16. Refugees and rural development: Chances from migration and challenges of integration By Pollermann, Kim
  17. Jobs, cime, and votes: A short-run evaluation of the refugee crisis in Germany By Gehrsitz, Markus; Ungerer, Martin

  1. By: Anja Prummer (Queen Mary University of London); Jan-Peter Siedlarek (Federal Reserve Bank of Cleveland)
    Abstract: We explain persistent differences in cultural traits of immigrant groups with the presence of community leaders. Leaders influence the cultural traits of their community, which have an impact on the group's earnings. They determine whether a community will be more assimilated and wealthier or less assimilated and poorer. With a leader cultural integration remains incomplete. The leader chooses more distinctive cultural traits in high productivity environments and if the community is more connected. Lump sum transfers to immigrants can hinder cultural integration. These findings are in line with integration patterns of various ethnic and religious groups.
    Keywords: Cultural transmission, Leadership, Immigrants, Labor market outcomes, Social influence, Networks
    JEL: J15 Z10 D02
    Date: 2016–12
  2. By: Raisa Akifyeva (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: This working paper is based on the results of a study of the child-rearing practices of Russian-speaking women in the context of a migration perspective focusing on their migration experience, language, and other features that are perceived as cultural and an integration context as determining many important aspects of child-rearing. The analysis shows that a mother’s choice of structured activities for the child can be caused by structural factors, such as the national peculiarities of the system of school and pre-school education, family policy, the specifics and set of programs offered at schools and available in the area. Regardless of the social segment, in which migrants are incorporated, children begin to prefer speaking Spanish than Russian if there is not any special effort from the adults. This leads to the fact that the study of the Russian language in some families affects all spheres of life, and many aspects of child-rearing. Many women develop and share ideas about the differences in the parenting approach and style of women from the post-Soviet space and from Spain. Women perceive the stylistic features of the behavior of Russian women as highly demanding and share the view of the low demands of Spanish parents, yet differ in how they perceive their level of responsiveness to them.
    Keywords: child-rearing practices, Russian-speaking migrants, structured activities, parenting practices, Spain
    JEL: F22
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Lasse Sigbjørn Stambøl
    Abstract: Abstract: The aim of the paper is to analyse immigrants? participation versus non-participation in the regional labour markets and/or in education. For comparison we have followed groups of immigrants by their reason for immigration, like refugees, labor-, family- and education-immigrants and Nordic immigrants with special focus on those who do not move domestically between labor market regions versus those who make such regional relocations. We investigate whether migration contribute to change the labor market status of immigrants using a ?cohort-analysis?, where we follow selected arrival cohorts of immigrants through some years after they immigrated for the first time. The investigation is a ?two-way analysis?, dependent on each immigrant?s initial labor market status. For those who are not active in any job or education, we analyze their probability of entering any activity statuses, and for those already in activity, we analyze their ability to maintain their activity status. Both dimensions are important for the immigrants? level of integration. The analysis is based on micro panel data measured by means of a complete annual regional vacancy account for each of the years involved in the study. These data and methods allow us to specify each immigrant?s annual labor market status, thus also each immigrant's annual change of labor market status. The results indicate that domestic migration is partial beneficial for immigrants to obtain employment or to carry out an education. The effect of relocation as the ease of access varies, however, according to the immigrants? reason for immigration. Immigrants who remain outside of employment and/or education is mostly to be found among refugees, family-immigrants and immigrants with unspecified reason for immigration, while education- and labor-immigrants and Nordic immigrants show the strongest tendency to enter a job or start an education. The main trend is that immigrants who move between labor market regions show a stronger tendency to enter activity statuses than immigrants who do not provide such removals, and is most beneficial for immigrants initially settled at lower centrality. Immigrants who are already in employment and/or education, the education- and labor-immigrants and Nordic immigrants show higher tendency to maintain such "activity statuses? than refugees, family-immigrants and immigrants with unspecified reason for immigration. The main trend is that immigrants who do not move between labor market regions show stronger tendency to remain in employment and/or education than immigrants who make such moves. Those who relocate are thus associated both with stronger tendency of finding a job or starting an education, but also more likely to quit their job or education.
    Keywords: Employment; Education; Migration; Immigrants
    JEL: J61
    Date: 2016–12
  4. By: Gustafsson, Björn Anders (University of Gothenburg); Mac Innes, Hanna (University of Gothenburg); Österberg, Torun (University of Gothenburg)
    Abstract: This paper analyses how age at immigration to Sweden and getting a first foothold in the labor market is related. We estimate hazard rate models using registry data on all persons who arrived in each of the years 1990, 1994, 1998, and 2002. The results show that the number of years taken to get a foothold in the Swedish labor market increases rapidly by age among immigrants from middle- and low-income countries aged 40 +. Most individuals who are born in middle- or low-income countries who immigrate after age 50 never get a foothold in the Swedish labor market.
    Keywords: immigrants, Sweden, age, labor market
    JEL: C41 J15 J61
    Date: 2016–12
  5. By: Sara Flisi (European Commission - JRC); Elena Claudia Meroni (European Commission - JRC); Esperanza Vera-Toscano (European Commission - JRC)
    Abstract: This technical brief aims to answer questions such as: How do the skills and educational outcomes of foreign-born young people compare with those of the native-born? Do immigrants’ outcomes differ depending on whether they are EU foreign-born or non-EU foreign-born? How do the educational outcomes of second-generation immigrants compare with those of first-generation immigrants? How does the performance of recently arrived migrants compare with that of long-established immigrants? and with that of natives? Is there a correlation between educational outcomes and age of arrival or duration of stay? The brief thus seeks to contribute to analysis of the qualifications and skills composition of migrants in EU countries, as compared with that of their native counterparts. We take a life-cycle approach, focusing in turn on children, young adults and the overall working-age population. We start by looking at the skills of 15-year-old pupils. We then move on to the performance of young adults, in terms of a number of education-related indicators: early school leaving (ESL), young people neither in employment nor in education and training (NEETs), tertiary education attainment (TEA) and employment rate of recent graduates. Finally, we present a snapshot of the skills of the adult population. The results show that second-generation migrant students are systematically more disadvantaged than their native peers across EU countries; however, adults who arrived in the country when still young generally perform at levels closer to those of their native counterparts (or at least better than first-generation migrants), showing that education systems (including vocational training) have a key role to play in the integration process. Nonetheless, there still seems to be a significant under-used stock of migrant human capital. Being aware of this situation is crucial to putting in place policies and active measures to ensure that adult migrants are fully integrated.
    Keywords: Educational outcome, skills, migrants
    Date: 2016–12
  6. By: Tse, Michael M. H. (University of Auckland); Maani, Sholeh A. (University of Auckland)
    Abstract: This guide, updated for the 2016-17 job market season, describes the U.S. academic market for new Ph.D. economists and offers advice on conducting an academic job search. It provides data, reports findings from published papers, describes practical details, and includes links to online resources. Topics addressed include: preparing to go on the market; applying for academic jobs; the JOE Network, which is the AEA's electronic clearinghouse for the job market; signaling; interviewing at the ASSA meetings; campus visits; the secondary market scramble; offers and negotiating; getting off to a good start as an assistant professor; diversity; and dual job searches.
    Keywords: human capital, immigrants, effective work experience, wage effects, employment effects, regions
    JEL: J61 J62 J31 J3 J24
    Date: 2016–12
  7. By: Qu, Zhaopeng (Frank) (Nanjing University); Zhao, Zhong (Renmin University of China)
    Abstract: The paper studies the levels and changes in wage inequality among Chinese rural-urban migrants during 2002-2007. Using data from two waves of national household surveys, we find that wage inequality among migrants decreased significantly between 2002 and 2007. Our analysis on the wage distribution further shows that the high-wage migrants experienced slower wage growth than middle-and low-wage migrants – a primary cause of declining inequality of migrants. By using distributional decomposition methods based on quantile regression, we find that overall between-group effect dominates in the whole wage distribution, which means that the change in returns to the characteristics (education, experience and other employment characteristics) plays a key role, but on the upper tails of the wage distribution, the within group effect (residual effect) dominates, implying that the unobservable factors or institutional barriers do not favor the migrants at the top tail of the wage distribution. We also study wage differential between migrants and urban natives, and find that though the wage gap is narrowed, gap at upper wage distribution is becoming bigger. Overall, the results suggest that there exists strong "glass ceiling" for migrants in urban labor market.
    Keywords: rural to urban migrants, wage inequality, quantile decomposition, China
    JEL: J30 J45 J61
    Date: 2016–12
  8. By: Chletsos, Michael; Roupakias, Stelios
    Abstract: This study applies the skill-cell approach introduced by Borjas (2003) in order to identify the causal impact of immigration on the employment opportunities of resident workers, using data from two different samples, namely two waves of the Census of Population (1991 and 2001) and the Greek Labour Force Survey (1998-2015). Grouping workers in three education and eight experience classes at the national level, we find small adverse effects on the employment outcomes of natives, that are generally not sensitive to alternative education and experience classifications and when accounting for the effective experience of immigrants. However, as for the period between 1998 and 2015, our findings appear to be driven by the negative influence of immigration ascertained in the sub-period during the Great Recession. Remarkably, there is some evidence of complementarity when the pre-recession period (1998- 2007) is considered. The less-skilled natives, appear to be the group of workers which is more vulnerable to immigration. Our results also indicate that the Greek economy has the capacity to accommodate large immigration flows in the long-run, without significant effects. Finally, contrary to earlier studies, we do not find evidence consistent with the idea that migrants push natives towards complex, language-intensive tasks.
    Keywords: Immigration employment, earnings
    JEL: F22 J15 J31
    Date: 2016–12–14
  9. By: Asadul Islam; Steven Stillman; Christopher Worswick
    Abstract: The impact that an unforeseen event has on household welfare depends on the extent to which household members can take actions to mitigate the direct impact of the shock. In this paper, we use nine years of longitudinal data from the Household Income Labour Dynamics of Australia (HILDA) survey to examine the impact of job displacement and serious health problems on: individual labour supply and incomes, household incomes and food expenditure. We extend on the previous literature by examining whether mitigation strategies and their effectiveness differs for the native-born and immigrants. Immigrants make up nearly one-quarter of the Australian population and there are a number of reasons to suspect that they may be less able to mitigate adverse shocks than the native-born.
    Keywords: job loss, income, consumption, labour supply, disability
    Date: 2016–11
  10. By: Grigorieff, Alexis (University of Oxford); Roth, Christopher (University of Oxford); Ubfal, Diego (Bocconi University)
    Abstract: We study whether providing information about immigrants affects people's attitude towards them. First, we use a large representative cross-country experiment to show that, when people are told the share of immigrants in their country, they become less likely to state that there are too many of them. Then, we conduct two online experiments in the U.S., where we provide half of the participants with five statistics about immigration, before evaluating their attitude towards immigrants with self-reported and behavioral measures. This more comprehensive intervention improves people's attitude towards existing immigrants, although it does not change people's policy preferences regarding immigration. Republicans become more willing to increase legal immigration after receiving the information treatment. Finally, we also measure the same self-reported policy preferences, attitudes, and beliefs in a four-week follow-up, and we show that the treatment effects persist.
    Keywords: attitudes towards immigrants, biased beliefs, survey experiment, immigration, policy preferences, persistence
    JEL: C9 J15 Z1 Z13
    Date: 2016–12
  11. By: Yingxia Pu; Ying Ge
    Abstract: With the development of global economy and rapid process of urbanization, migration has become one of the key forces in population redistribution and has important implications for socio-economic development in a region. As we all know, population migration flows between different regions are related to not only the origin- and destination-specific characteristics, but also to the migration flows to and from neighborhoods. Intuitively, changes in the characteristics of a single region will impact both inflows and outflows to and from other regions. In order to explore the spatial interaction mechanism driving the increasing population migration in China since the open door policy, this paper builds the spatial OD model of interprovincial migration flows based on the sixth national population census data and related social-economic data. The findings are as follows: (1) Migration flows show significant autocorrelation effects among origin and destination regions, which means that the migration behavior of migrants in some region is influenced by that of migrants in other places. The positive effects indicate the outflows from an origin or the inflows to a destination tend to cluster in a similar way. Simultaneously, the negative effects suggest the flows from the neighborhood of an origin to the neighborhood of a destination tend to disperse in a dissimilar way. (2) Multilateral effects of the regional economic and social factors through the spatial network system lead to the clustering migration flows across interrelated regions. Distance decay effect plays the most influential force in shaping the patterns of migration flows among all the factors and the negative spillover effect further aggravates the friction of distance. As for destinations, the influence of wage level and migration stocks is beyond the GDP and the positive spillover effects of these factors enhance the attraction of neighborhood regions. The spillover effects of unemployment rate and college enrollment of higher education are significantly negative while destination population is not significant. As for origins, population and migration stocks lead to positive spillover effects on the neighborhoods while the effects of other factors are negative. (3) Changes in the regional characteristics will potentially lead to a series of events to the whole migration system, and the flows to and from the center of oscillation and its neighborhoods vibrate greatly compared with other regions. The simulation results of 5% GDP increase in Jiangsu province indicate that the outflows to other regions decrease while the inflows from all others increase to some different extent. Comparatively, the influence on the flows to and from the regions neighboring Jiangsu is significant while that of remote regions is much less, which cannot be explained by the traditional gravity model.
    Keywords: population migration flows; network autocorrelation; multilateral effects; spatial OD model; spatial mechanism analysis; China
    JEL: C13 C15 C31
    Date: 2016–12
  12. By: Facchini, Giovanni (University of Nottingham); Margalit, Yotam (Tel Aviv University); Nakata, Hiroyuki (University of Leicester)
    Abstract: Popular sentiment toward immigration is often antagonistic, making the integration of migrants one of the most important yet daunting challenges facing societies in advanced economies. Can information campaigns decrease public opposition to immigration? This paper reports results from a large-scale experiment conducted in Japan, a country with widespread anti-immigration sentiment. Embedded in a comprehension study, we randomly exposed a large national sample of citizens to information pertaining to potential social and economic benefits from immigration. Depending on the treatment, we find that this exposure led to a substantial increase in support for a more open immigration policy. The treatments also motivated citizens to take political action in support of this cause. Notably, while smaller in magnitude, many effects also persisted 10-12 days after the treatment. The results highlight the potential value of combating enmity to incoming foreigners with campaigns that inform the public about key positive impacts of immigration.
    Keywords: immigration, information campaigns, experiment, public opinion, Japan
    JEL: F12 F16 L11
    Date: 2016–12
  13. By: Peter Schmidt
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effects of EU regional policy transfer payments on net migration flows among the EU-28 countries. The hypothesis is tested that EU transfer payments do hamper internal migration across the EU. On the one hand, this is done by reestimating the results found by Egger, Eggert and Larch (2014): "Structural Operations and Net Migration Across European Union Member Countries", Review of International Economics, 22(2), pp. 352-378 for a longer time period, who basically tested a NEG model where they derived the above hypothesis from. On the other hand, a more neoclassical model of the migration-regional policy-nexus is tested. Like in Egger et al. (2014) a significant effect of EU regional policy expenditures on net bilateral migration among the EU-28 member countries is identified. However, contrary to Egger et al. (2014), the effect is not negative but positive. On average, a one percentage point increase of structural funds expenditures in percent of GDP leads to an increase in the measure of net bilateral migration by about 0.2-0.6%. Hence, EU regional policy transfer payments spur instead of hamper internal migration across EU member countries.
    Keywords: EU regional policy; structural funds; internal migration; convergence; European integration
    JEL: E62 F15 F22 H53 I38 R58
    Date: 2016–12
  14. By: Mats Johansson
    Abstract: During the past decades immigration to Sweden has increased sharply and this has had an impact on urban as well as rural population development. During the era of labour immigration the immigrants were spread all over the country in line with labour demand but during the past decades the with accentuated refugee immigration the immigrants have instead been concentrated to the large cities and especially then to the metropolitan areas. But there are also opposite forces that have stimulating effects on the rural population development as the immigrants have increased both in relative and absolute terms. Even if the internal migratory movements still are of rural-urban character the huge immigration flows seem to have hampering effects on the rural depopulation tendencies at least in the short term as many of the refugees centres are localized in rural areas and some of the immigrants stay in their new surroundings. The result has been that the negative migration surplus has been substituted by a positive one even for many rural areas in Sweden and the population decrease in the rural areas has been ? at least officially - hampered. The results must, however, be interpreted with some scepticism as it must be borne in mind that the refugees formally are immigrants in the municipalities where they got their residence permit. After that, they are internal migrants in the second round if they move to other places in Sweden ? that often is the case ? as they are then registered as foreign-born internal migrants but not immigrants. This might mean that the immigrants hamper the net out-migration intensities in the first round but stimulate them in the second. Anyhow, without immigrants the problematic demographic situation in many rural areas in Sweden would be worsening as some of the immigrants stay in their ?new? settlement communities even if these are out-migration areas. In many cases the negative net-migration intensities are changed to positive net-migration intensities as a consequence of immigration. Another aspect is the potential hampering effects on the ageing process as many of the immigrants are relatively young and with a higher fertility but here the effects on natural population increase are hampered by the skewed gender structure. These divergent demographic processes are analysed based on the development paths between 1970 and 2014 in differing Swedish urban-rural regions ? a period with drastic changes in the geographical migration patterns but also in the Swedish immigration policy.
    Keywords: Migration; ageing; urban-rural relations
    JEL: J
    Date: 2016–12
  15. By: Kahanec, Martin (Central European University, and IZA Bonn); Zimmermann, Klaus F. (UNU-MERIT, and Princeton University)
    Abstract: This paper summarises key results from our research about post-enlargement mobility in the EU. We clarify its scope, composition and effects; labour market situation of mobile workers; the role of labour mobility as a vehicle of economic stabilisation; as well as brain circulation and return migration. We also outline a policy agenda for a labour mobility model for a vibrant EU, enabling Europe to cope with labour market imbalances and asymmetric economic shocks, and providing for a more prosperous, cohesive and equal EU.
    Keywords: EU enlargement, free movement of workers, labour mobility, migration policy, business cycle, stabilisation
    JEL: O15 J15 J61 J68
    Date: 2016–11–21
  16. By: Pollermann, Kim
    Abstract: The current immigration of refugees leads to a discussion about links between rural development and migration. Some rural regions in Germany formulate the hope that they can benefit from refugee immigration. In these areas, the impacts of aging and population decline with labour and skills shortages are often more relevant than in larger cities. So the questions are: What are the chances from refugee immigration? For which kind of rural areas are these opportunities realistic? And which framework conditions and governance arrangements for integration are conducive to using these opportunities? With regard to the attractiveness of various rural areas in Germany for immigration and their integration abilities, the conditions are quite different while in Eastern Germany the possibilities are lower. Multi-level-integration governance is required to make the best use of the chances. To shape suitable framework conditions for integration there is a need of a region specific, integrated view on the different factors of integration.
    Keywords: Rural development,Integration,Refugees,Migration,Germany
    JEL: R R58
    Date: 2016
  17. By: Gehrsitz, Markus; Ungerer, Martin
    Abstract: Millions of refugees made their way to Europe between 2014 and 2015, with over one million arriving in Germany alone. Yet, little is known about the impact of this inflow on labor markets, crime, and voting behavior. This article uses administrative data on refugee allocation and provides an evaluation of the short-run consequences of the refugee inflow. Our identification strategy exploits that a scramble for accommodation determined the assignment of refugees to German counties resulting in exogeneous variations in the number of refugees per county even within states. Our estimates suggest that migrants have not displaced native workers but have themselves struggled to find gainful employment. We find very small increases in crime in particular with respect to drug offenses and fare-dodging. Our analysis further suggests that counties which experience a larger influx see neither more nor less support for the main anti-immigrant party than counties which experience small migrant inflows.
    Keywords: Immigration,Refugees,Unemployment,Crime,Voting
    JEL: J6 J15 K4 D72
    Date: 2016

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