nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2016‒08‒28
ten papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Mapping Experiences and Research about Unaccompanied Refugee Minors in Sweden and Other Countries By Celikaksoy, Aycan; Wadensjö, Eskil
  2. Understanding the Experiences of Relocatees During Forced Relocation in Chinese Urban Restructuring By Li, Xin; van Ham, Maarten; Kleinhans, Reinout
  3. Skill Transferability, Migration, and Development: Evidence from Population Resettlement in Indonesia By Samuel Bazzi; Arya Gaduh; Alexander D. Rothenberg; Maisy Wong
  4. Measuring and Explaining Cross-Country Immigration Policies By Glenn Rayp; Ilse Ruyssen; Samuel Standaert
  5. Schooling and Labor Market Effects of Temporary Authorization: Evidence from DACA By Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Antman, Francisca M.
  6. Can Authorization Reduce Poverty among Undocumented Immigrants? Evidence from the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals Program By Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Antman, Francisca M.
  7. Natural Disasters and Human Mobility By Mbaye, Linguère Mously; Zimmermann, Klaus
  8. Experiences with Foreign Workers in Singapore and Malaysia: What are the Lessons for Japan’s Labor Markets? By Eric D. , Ramstetter
  9. Wealth Heterogeneity and the Income Elasticity of Migration By Samuel Bazzi
  10. Return Plans and Migrants' Behavior By Bastien Chabé-Ferret; Joël Machado; Jackline Wahba

  1. By: Celikaksoy, Aycan (SOFI, Stockholm University); Wadensjö, Eskil (Stockholm University)
    Abstract: Many unaccompanied children have applied for asylum during the last few years, especially in 2015. These children face special challenges and risk being exploited due to their age and legal status. In this paper we survey research and otherwise documented experiences regarding this group of children. The main focus is on Sweden, the European country that has received most unaccompanied children but we also report on the experiences of other Nordic countries, a list of other EU member states, as well as USA and Turkey. We also try to summarize the main lessons for a policy to assist these children to integrate in the countries they have arrived to.
    Keywords: unaccompanied minors, separated refugee children, migration, reception policies, integration policies
    JEL: F22 J13 J15 J61
    Date: 2016–08
  2. By: Li, Xin (Delft University of Technology); van Ham, Maarten (Delft University of Technology); Kleinhans, Reinout (Delft University of Technology)
    Abstract: Despite the massive forced relocation of residents during urban restructuring in China, there are no systematic studies on how residents undergo the process. Most studies concerning urban restructuring in China directly equate forced relocation with displacement, which has a negative connotation. This negative view overlooks the multifaceted effects of forced relocation on relocatees. This paper aims to develop a critical understanding of the forced relocation of residents during urban restructuring in China. It takes forced relocation to be a process with changing contents over time, and as a specific type of residential mobility that occurs in the context of urban restructuring. This paper presents a conceptual model that includes different stages and contexts to analyse the experiences of relocatees during forced relocation. It divides the process of forced relocation into three stages – the pre-demolition stage, the transitional stage and the post-relocation stage – and investigates the social, economic, physical, psychological and behavioural dimensions of the experiences of relocatees at the macro and micro levels. We argue that forced relocation in urban China is not necessarily equivalent to displacement. Studying the experiences of relocatees from the household and residential mobility perspectives reveals the dynamic, variable and complex nature of forced relocation.
    Keywords: experience of relocatees, forced relocation, urban restructuring, displacement, residential mobility, China
    JEL: O18 R23
    Date: 2016–08
  3. By: Samuel Bazzi (Boston University & BREAD); Arya Gaduh (University of Arkansas); Alexander D. Rothenberg (RAND Corporation); Maisy Wong (University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: We use a natural experiment in Indonesia to provide causal evidence on the role of location-specific human capital and skill transferability in shaping the spatial distribution of productivity. From 1979– 1988, the Transmigration Program relocated two million migrants from rural Java and Bali to new rural settlements in the Outer Islands. Villages assigned migrants from regions with more similar agroclimatic endowments exhibit higher rice productivity and nighttime light intensity one to two decades later. We find some evidence of migrants’ adaptation to agroclimatic change. Overall, our re- sults suggest that regional productivity differences may overstate the potential gains from migration.
    Keywords: Internal Migration, Comparative Advantage, Spatial Labor Allocation, Agricultural Adaptation
    JEL: J43 J61 O12 O13 O15 R12
    Date: 2015–11
  4. By: Glenn Rayp (Ghent University, SHERPPA); Ilse Ruyssen (Ghent University, SHERPPA and UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES)); Samuel Standaert (Ghent University, SHERPPA)
    Abstract: The intensified international migration pressures of the recent decades prompted many developed countries to revise their immigration regulations and increase border controls. However, the development of these reforms as well as their effectiveness in actually managing new immigration flows remains poorly understood. The main reason is that migration regulations are hard to quantify, which has prevented the construction of a universal measure of migration policy. To fill this gap in the literature, we construct an indicator of the restrictiveness of immigration entry policy across countries as well as a more comprehensive indicator of migration policy that also accounts for staying requirements and regulations to foster integration. These indexes are then used to disentangle the factors determining the toughness of migration regulations. Our empirical framework combines elements from the median voter and interest group approach and accounts for cross-country correlation in migration policies. We find strong evidence of spatial correlation in particular in entry restrictiveness, while the impact of economic determinants of migration policy remains much more modest.
    Keywords: Migration, Immigration policy, Spatial dependence, State-space model, Bayesian inference
    JEL: F22 C43 C21 P16 C32
    Date: 2016–07–29
  5. By: Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina (San Diego State University); Antman, Francisca M. (University of Colorado, Boulder)
    Abstract: This paper explores the labor market and schooling effects of the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) initiative, which provides work authorization to eligible immigrants along with a temporary reprieve from deportation. The analysis relies on a difference-in-differences approach that exploits the discontinuity in program rules to compare eligible individuals to ineligible, likely undocumented immigrants before and after the program went into effect. To address potential endogeneity concerns, we focus on youths that likely met DACA's schooling requirement when the program was announced. We find that DACA reduced the probability of school enrollment of eligible higher-educated individuals, as well as some evidence that it increased the employment likelihood of men, in particular. Together, these findings suggest that a lack of authorization may lead individuals to enroll in school when working is not a viable option. Thus, once employment restrictions are relaxed and the opportunity costs of higher-education rise, eligible individuals may reduce investments in schooling.
    Keywords: undocumented immigrants, work authorization
    JEL: J15 J61 J2 J3
    Date: 2016–08
  6. By: Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina (San Diego State University); Antman, Francisca M. (University of Colorado, Boulder)
    Abstract: We explore the impact of authorization on the poverty exposure of households headed by undocumented immigrants. The identification strategy makes use of the 2012 Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program, which provided a temporary work authorization and reprieve from deportation to eligible immigrants. Using a difference-in-differences approach, we compare DACA-eligible to DACA-ineligible likely unauthorized immigrants, before and after the program implementation. We find that DACA reduced the likelihood of life in poverty of households headed by eligible individuals by 38 percent, hinting at the gains from even temporary authorization programs.
    Keywords: immigration, poverty, DACA
    JEL: J15 I32
    Date: 2016–08
  7. By: Mbaye, Linguère Mously; Zimmermann, Klaus
    Abstract: This paper reviews the effect of natural disasters on human mobility or migration. Although there is an increase of natural disasters and migration recently and more patterns to observe, the relationship remains complex. While some authors find that disasters increase migration, others show that they have only a marginal or no effect or are even negative. Human mobility appears to be an insurance mechanism against environmental shocks and there are different transmission channels which can explain the relationship between natural disasters and migration. Moreover, migrants’ remittances help to decrease households’ vulnerability to shocks but also dampen their adverse effects. The paper provides a discussion of policy implications and potential future research avenues.
    Keywords: natural disasters, forced migration, channels, remittances, migration as insurance, floods, earthquakes, droughts, International Relations/Trade, J61, O15, Q54, Q56,
    Date: 2016–08
  8. By: Eric D. , Ramstetter
    Abstract: Singapore and Malaysia have a long history of relying heavily on foreign, immigrant workers in both high-skilled and low-skilled occupations. Ancestors of large portions of the local population in both countries were also immigrants. Correspondingly, economic policies have been designed to manage high levels of migration and foreign workers. In contrast, Japan limited both immigration and foreign workers quite strictly through the 1980s. Since the 1990s, however, the ratio of the stock of net inward immigrants to total population has grown much more rapidly in Japan than in Singapore or Malaysia, largely because the rapidly aging population and changes in worker preferences have resulted in strong demand for immigrant labor. Since the 1990s, Japanese policies have actively sought to entice highly skilled foreign workers and students to work and/or study in Japan. The primary purpose of this policy-oriented paper is to review the substantial economic literature on experiences with foreign workers in Japan, Singapore, and Malaysia and its implications for Japan’s labor markets and related policies.
    Keywords: Foreign workers, Asia, Employment, Wages, Skilled workers, Construction workers, Health care workers, Domestic workers, Macroeconomics, Adjustment costs, Externalities, Foreign workers, Asia, Employment, Wages, Skilled workers, Construction workers, Health care workers, Domestic workers, Macroeconomics, Adjustment costs, Externalities, F22, J20, J30, J61, N35
    Date: 2016–03
  9. By: Samuel Bazzi (Boston University & BREAD)
    Abstract: How do income shocks affect international migration flows from poor countries? Income growth not only increases the opportunity cost of migration but also eases liquidity constraints. I develop a method to separate these countervailing individual effects and identify the overall income elasticity of migration. Using new administrative and census data from Indonesia, I find that positive agri- cultural income shocks increase labor emigration flows, particularly in villages with relatively more small landholders. However, in the most developed rural areas, persistent income shocks reduce emigration. Overall, the findings highlight the important role of wealth heterogeneity in shaping migration flows as incomes rise.
    Keywords: International Migration, Wealth Heterogeneity, Income Elasticity, Liquidity Constraints
    JEL: F22 F66 J21 J61 O15 Q15
    Date: 2016–04
  10. By: Bastien Chabé-Ferret (FNRS and UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES)); Joël Machado (University of Luxembourg, CREA); Jackline Wahba (University of Southampton, Economics Division)
    Abstract: This paper studies how return migration intentions affect immigrants' behavior. Using a unique French data set, we analyze the relationship between return plans and several immigrants' behaviors in the host and origin countries addressing the potential endogeneity between return plans and different investment decisions. We also investigate the potential trade-off and complementarities between various immigrants' investment behaviors. We find that temporary migrants are more likely to remit and invest in the country of origin, but less likely to invest in the host country. Moreover, our results show that there is no trade-off between immigrants' investment in the home and in the host country. In turn, we find substantial heterogeneity in behavior across migrants of different origins.
    Keywords: Temporary Migration, Return Intention, Remittances
    JEL: F22 F24 D14
    Date: 2016–07–29

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