nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2016‒07‒02
eight papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Does Central Europe Import the Missing Women Phenomenon? By Alexander Stimpfle; David Stadelmann
  2. Does Emigration Delay Political Change? Evidence from Italy during the Great Recession By Massimo Anelli; Giovanni Peri
  3. Are immigrants overeducated in Germany? Determinants and wage effects of educational mismatch By Schwientek, Caroline
  4. The Educational Success of China’s Young Generation of Rural-to-Urban Migrants By Pamela Lenton; Lu Yin
  5. Greece’s new emigration at times of crisis By Lois Labrianidis; Manolis Pratsinakis
  6. Labour Spatial Mobility of Russians on the Example of the Inhabitants of Small Towns By Mkrtchyan, Nikita; Florinskaya, Yulia
  7. Inter-regional Population Migration in Russia Revisited: Analysis on Origin-to-Destination Matrix, 1990-2013 By Kumo, Kazuhiro
  8. The Role of Employers and Employer Engagement in Labour Migration from Third Countries to the EU By Sankar Ramasamy

  1. By: Alexander Stimpfle; David Stadelmann
    Abstract: We examine whether immigrants have brought the missing women phenomenon to Germany and Switzerland. Using a range of micro data since 1990, we find no systematic gender selection of foreigners collectively, but a group of Balkan, Chinese and Indian immigrants display comparatively high sex ratios at birth. Employing different estimation methods we consistently calculate around 1,500 missing girls in Germany (2003-2014) and Switzerland (1990-2014) combined from these selected Balkan and Asian immigrant groups. A Germany-specific measure of cultural adaptation has no substantial effect on the level of son preference, and Swiss-specific data indicate a skewed ratio for fourth parity births. With household survey data we attempt to identify underlying reasons for son preference in Germany, but find no robust associations for any socio-economic variable employed. However, the sex of older siblings tends to matter, and again Balkan, Chinese and Indian immigrants increase the boy-birth likelihood whereas immigrants collectively do not.
    Keywords: Missing Women; Sex Ratio at Birth; Son Preference; Migration
    JEL: J11 J16
    Date: 2016–06
  2. By: Massimo Anelli; Giovanni Peri
    Abstract: Mobility within the European Union (EU) brings great opportunities and large overall benefits. Economically stagnant areas, however, may be deprived of talent through emigration, which may harm dynamism and delay political, and economic, change. A significant episode of emigration took place between 2010 and 2014 from Italy following the deep economic recession beginning in 2008 that hit most acutely countries in the southern EU. This period coincided with significant political change in Italy. Combining administrative data on Italian citizens who reside abroad and data on characteristics of city councils, city mayors and local vote, we analyze whether emigration reduced political change. The sudden emigration wave interacted with the pre-existing networks of emigration from Italian municipalities allow us to construct a proxy for emigration that is municipality-specific and independent of local political and economic trends. Using this proxy as an instrument, we find that municipalities with larger emigration rates had smaller shares of young, college educated and women among local politicians. They were also more likely to have had municipal councils dismissed due to inefficiency or corruption, a larger share of vote for status-quo-supporting parties and lower political participation. Migration was also associated with lower firm creation.
    JEL: H7 J61
    Date: 2016–06
  3. By: Schwientek, Caroline
    Abstract: This paper investigates determinants and wage effects of educational mismatch for both natives and immigrants in Germany. Using the GSOEP panel data from 1991 to 2013, I find that conditional on educational attainment immigrants face a higher incidence of overeducation compared to their native counterparts. Among immigrants German language skills as well as education and experience gained in Germany are negatively correlated with the risk of overeducation. Results from the wage regression indicate that required education is equally rewarded for natives and immigrants, whereas immigrants suffer from a higher penalty from overeducation, but face a lower penalty from undereducation.
    Keywords: educational mismatch,wages,immigrants
    JEL: I21 I26 J15 J24 J31
    Date: 2016
  4. By: Pamela Lenton (Department of Economics, University of Sheffield); Lu Yin (Department of Economics, University of Sheffield)
    Abstract: The education policies introduced in the rural areas of China following the end of the ‘cultural revolution’ resulted in an improved provision of educational institutions along with better quality teachers which increased the educational attainment of young rural migrants and raised their career aspirations. This paper uses data from the Rural-Urban Migration in China (RUMiC) dataset for 2009, in a novel examination of the wage returns to schooling for young and old generations of rural-migrant and urban workers in order to ascertain whether the improved schooling has led to better outcomes. Another novel feature is the examination of the wage returns to over-, required and under-education. We find evidence that the wage return to schooling for young rural-to-urban migrants is larger than that for older migrant workers and that the return to schooling for young urban residents is lower than that of older workers. There is evidence of young migrants receiving a wage premium where they are overeducated for their job.
    Keywords: Human Capital; Rural-to-Urban Migration; Discrimination; Wage returns
    JEL: I26 J24 J71
    Date: 2016–06
  5. By: Lois Labrianidis; Manolis Pratsinakis
    Abstract: Although considerable research is being carried out on the phenomenon of immigration to Greece, there is a notable lack of scientific attention on the recent resurgence of emigration at times of recession and austerity. Aiming to partly fill in this gap, this paper contextualizes the recent resurgence of emigration within Greece’s changing and complexifying migratory landscape. In so doing, and drawing on quantitative and qualitative data, the paper describes the magnitude, dynamics and main destinations of the current crisis-driven emigration and outlines its demographics makeup. It further provides evidence on the multiplicity of migration trajectories and discusses the prospect of return and the potential of the development of transnational economic ties between Greece and its highly skilled emigrants.
    Keywords: emigration; crisis and migration; Greece; migration and skills; brain drain
    JEL: N0
    Date: 2016–05
  6. By: Mkrtchyan, Nikita (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA)); Florinskaya, Yulia (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: This paper discusses the issues of labor spatial mobility of the Russian population. The study was conducted on the example of small towns - as the most problematic in Russia in terms of economic development, inefficient employment, high unemployment, especially in the crisis period. For fieldwork selected four small Russian town - Vyazniki Vladimir Oblast; Rtishchevo of the Saratov region; Kamen-na-Obi Altai Krai; Satka Chelyabinsk region. In each of the cities carried out a representative survey of households and a survey of migrant workers by a standardized interview. In addition to the quantitative methods used in quality - expert interviews with representatives of the administration, employment services, with the management of schools and education institutions, as well as the management of the enterprises and organizations in the surveyed cities. The main conclusion of the work - labor spatial mobility of the population of small towns is at a high level. Over the past 5 years, 22% of households had a total migrant workers, ie It does not work in their village, living there for 5 days or more. Labour migration - this is an important strategy to survive not only to migrants but also the household as a whole. About 9% of households in small towns called the work on the road with one of the main sources of household funds existence. In coming years, growth in labor migration from small towns should not expect - almost everyone who is willing to participate in it, is already involved in it. Therefore, it is impossible to consider the population of small towns as the untapped resource of labor migration, or the potential for settlement of "empty space" in the east of Russia.
    Keywords: labour spatial mobility, Russians, small towns
    Date: 2016–03–28
  7. By: Kumo, Kazuhiro
    Abstract: This paper examines regional economic conditions and their effects on interregional population redistribution patterns in Russia. After reviewing striking changes in population flows before and after the collapse of the former Soviet Union, an application of the gravity model on population migration in Russia is presented using a newly obtained interregional in- and out-migration flow matrix from 1990 to 2013, which were supplied by Rosstat (formerly Goskomstat). The analysis conducted comparison of factors affecting migration patterns between those in the Soviet era and in modern Russia, focusing on geographical factors, namely, the attractiveness of resource-mining regions. The analysis clearly showed major changes in the effect of governmental investment in determining migration flow before and after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
    Date: 2016–05
  8. By: Sankar Ramasamy
    Abstract: This paper is part of the joint project between the Directorate General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission and the OECD’s Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs on “Review of Labour Migration Policy in Europe”. This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The views expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Union. Grant: HOME/2013/EIFX/CA/002 / 30-CE-0615920/00-38 (DI130895). A previous version of this paper DELSA/ELSA/MI(2015)8 was presented and discussed at the OECD working party on migration in June 2015. The paper examines the ways in which employers are protagonists in international labour migration, and what can be done to ensure that they are partners in increasing European attractiveness for internationally mobile talent. Facilitating movement of Intra-Corporate Transfer (ICT) workers in multinational companies, improving the ability of SMEs to access foreign workers, as well as attracting entrepreneurs and investors in the EU single market, are the three principal channels examined in the report. The paper provides recommendations for policy development in these three areas.
    JEL: F21 F22 J61
    Date: 2016–06–11

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