nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2016‒06‒25
fourteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Taxing high-income earners: tax avoidance and mobility By Alejandro Esteller; Amedeo Piolatto; Matthew Rablen
  2. Opposites Attract – Evidence of Status Exchange in Ethnic Intermarriages in Sweden By Elwert, Annika
  3. The Economic Impact of Forced Migration By Uri Dadush; Mona Niebuhr
  4. Identifying macroeconomic effects of refugee migration to Germany By Weber, Enzo; Weigand, Roland
  5. Raising the mobility of third-country nationals in the EU. Effects from naturalisation and long-term resident status By Friedrich Poeschel
  6. Why immigration is no reason to leave the EU By Swati Dhingra; Gianmarco Ottaviano; John Van Reenen; Jonathan Wadsworth
  7. Intergenerational Correlations of Extreme Right-Wing Party Preferences and Attitudes toward Immigration By Alexandra Avdeenko; Thomas Siedler
  8. Determinants of Internal Migration in Indonesia By Hera Susanti; Arie Damayanti
  9. Effect of Parental Migration on the Academic Performance of Left-behind Children in Northwestern China By Bai, Yu; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Rozelle, Scott
  10. Individual Migration and Household Incomes By Julia Garlick; Murray Leibbrandt; James Levinsohn
  11. The European Union's External Labour Migration Policy; Rationale, Objectives, Approaches and Results, 1999-2014 By Peo Hansen
  12. A Model of Occupational Choice, Offshoring and Immigration By Bulent Unel
  13. A comparative analysis of forced migration: Cold War versus post-Cold War eras By Buzurukov, Bilol; Lee, Byeong Wan
  14. By the Time I Get to Arizona: Estimating the Impact of the Legal Arizona Workers Act on Migrant Outflows By Wayne Liou; Timothy J. Halliday

  1. By: Alejandro Esteller (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Barcelona Economics Institute, University of Barcelona); Amedeo Piolatto (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Barcelona Economics Institute, University of Barcelona); Matthew Rablen (Institute for Fiscal Studies and Brunel University)
    Abstract: The taxation of high-income earners is of importance to every country and is the subject of a considerable amount of recent academic research. Such high-income earners contribute substantial amounts of tax and generate signifi cant positive spillovers, but are also highly mobile: a 1% increase in the top marginal income tax rate increases out-migrations by around 1.5 to 3%. We review research into taxation of high-income earners to provide a synthesis of existing theoretical and empirical understanding. We o ffer various avenues for potential future theoretical and empirical research.
    Keywords: high-income earners, mobility, tax avoidance
    Date: 2016–04–22
  2. By: Elwert, Annika (Department of Economic History, Lund University)
    Abstract: This study raises the question of how marriage market relevant status characteristics are distributed among partners in exogamous relationships. The status exchange hypothesis posits that partners in racially and ethnically heterogamous relationships trade status characteristics, mainly education. We address this hypothesis focusing on intermarriages between immigrants and native men (N=606,257) and women (N=600,165) in Sweden using register data covering the entire Swedish population for the period 1990 to 2009. Results from binomial and multinomial logistic regressions show that low status in terms of age, income, and previous relationships are determinants for exogamy, and that the main marriage market relevant status that is exchanged is age, not education. This holds particularly for immigrants from certain countries of origin such as for wives from Asia and Africa and husbands from Asia, Africa and the Middle East. Swedish men and women show surprisingly large symmetry in status exchange patterns
    Keywords: Interethnic marriage; Immigration/Migrant families; Ethnicity; Western European families
    JEL: J12 J15 Z13
    Date: 2016–06–15
  3. By: Uri Dadush; Mona Niebuhr
    Abstract: The current refugee crisis is a catastrophe affecting millions of families, endangering the stability of nations that are hosts to large numbers of migrants, and of the region around them. Forced migration flows which are mismanaged, as at present, create large negative political and economic externalities for the world as a whole. Concerns of advanced countries that accepting forced migrants will cause job losses or falling wages, and place an undue burden on the public purse, are largely unjustified. Although there is no perfect scheme for allocating the burden, any solution must envisage increased numbers of refugees settling in the North and increased aid for the countries in the South with the largest numbers of refugees.
    Date: 2016–04
  4. By: Weber, Enzo (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Weigand, Roland (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany])
    Abstract: "This study investigates impacts of migration on the German economy, explicitly distinguishing refugee and non-refugee immigration. We propose a macroeconometric modelling approach complemented by instrumental variable techniques. We find that non-refugee immigration has more beneficial medium-run effects on GDP and the labour market." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    Keywords: Einwanderung, Asylbewerber, Arbeitslosenquote, Bruttoinlandsprodukt, Lohn, Flüchtlinge
    JEL: F22 E24 C32 C36
    Date: 2016–05–31
  5. By: Friedrich Poeschel
    Abstract: This paper is part of the joint project between the Directorate General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission and the OECD’s Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs on “Review of Labour Migration Policy in Europe”. This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The views expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Union. Grant: HOME/2013/EIFX/CA/002 / 30-CE-0615920/00-38 (DI130895) A previous version of this paper (DELSA/ELSA/MI(2015)5) was presented and discussed at the OECD working party on migration in June 2015. The functioning of labour markets in the European Union can benefit if third-country nationals become more mobile between EU member states. Using micro data from the EU Labour Force Survey, this paper measures their mobility and investigates whether it is raised by naturalisation or long-term resident status. While third-country nationals are overall less mobile than EU citizens, tertiary-educated persons appear equally mobile in both groups. Raising the mobility of all third-country nationals to the level of EU citizens would add at least 25 000 mobile persons. Causal effects on mobility from long-term resident status and naturalisation are identified through a difference-in-difference approach. Results suggest that long-term resident status increases the mobility of third-country nationals by 2%-6%. To avoid selection bias in the results for naturalisation, this paper draws on a natural experiment: following the accession of Central and Eastern European countries to the EU, all their citizens indiscriminately obtained the rights of EU citizens. The evidence suggests that those who were already living in other EU countries became more mobile as a result. These findings highlight that intra-EU mobility of third-country nationals depends on their rights to reside and work in other EU countries.
    JEL: F22 J61 K37
    Date: 2016–06–10
  6. By: Swati Dhingra; Gianmarco Ottaviano; John Van Reenen; Jonathan Wadsworth
    Abstract: A major argument of Brexit campaigners is that leaving the European Union would give the UK more control over the flow of immigrants, who they claim hurt the jobs and pay of native-born workers. CEP research shows that EU immigration is at worst neutral and at best, an economic benefit of membership.
    Keywords: immigration, EU Referendum, jobs, wages, UK economy, Brexit
    Date: 2016–06
  7. By: Alexandra Avdeenko; Thomas Siedler
    Abstract: This study analyzes the importance of parental socialization on the development of children’s far right-wing preferences and attitudes towards immigration. Using longitudinal data from Germany, our intergenerational estimates suggest that the strongest and most important predictor for young people’s right-wing extremism are parents’ right-wing extremist attitudes. While intergenerational associations in attitudes towards immigration are equally high for sons and daughters, we find a positive intergenerational transmission of right-wing extremist party affinity for sons, but not for daughters. Compared to the intergenerational correlation of other party affinities, the high association between fathers’ and sons’ right-wing extremist attitudes is particularly striking.
    Keywords: political preferences, extremism, gender differences, longitudinal data, intergenerational links
    JEL: C23 D72 J62 P16
    Date: 2016
  8. By: Hera Susanti; Arie Damayanti (Department of Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business, University of Indonesia)
    Abstract: We analyse the behavior of internal migration in Indonesia and estimate factors influenced the migrants’s decision to return. We adopt the international migration model to estimate the duration periods of the Indonesian internal migration. The characteristic variables are developed from the Indonesian Family Life Survey (IFLS) data within period of 1993-2007, while the control variables are using various regional data fron the National Statistical Bureau of Statistics. The main conclusion indicates that the return decision was mainly influenced by the opportunity to increase migrant welfares. Hence, migrants’s characteristic and education level proved to affect the duration. The migrants’s engagement to their family and community was remain strong, and even stronger if the status of the home region was rural area. The duration also tends to be longer after the implementation of regional autonomy.
    Keywords: Migration Duration, Internal Migration, Return Migration, Survival Analysis, IFLS
    JEL: C41 J61 O15
    Date: 2015–10
  9. By: Bai, Yu; Zhang, Linxiu; Liu, Chengfang; Shi, Yaojiang; Mo, Di; Rozelle, Scott
    Abstract: China’s rapid development and urbanization has induced large numbers of rural residents to migrate from their homes in the countryside to urban areas in search of higher wages. As a consequence, it is estimated that more than 60 million children in rural China are left behind and live with relatives, typically their paternal grandparents. These children are called Left Behind Children (or LBCs). There are concerns about the potential negative effects of parental migration on the academic performance of the LBCs that could be due to the absence of parental care. However, it might also be that when a child’s parents work in the city away from home, their remittances can increase the household’s income and provide more resources and that this can lead to better academic performance. Hence, the net impact of out-migration on the academic performance of LBCs is unclear. This paper examines changes in academic performance before and after the parents of students out-migrate. We draw on a panel dataset collected by the authors of more than 13,000 students at 130 rural primary schools in ethnic minority areas of rural China. Using difference-in-difference and propensity score matching approaches, our results indicate that generally parental migration has significant, positive impacts on the academic performance of LBCs (which we measure using standardized English test scores). Heterogeneous analysis using our data demonstrates that the positive impact on LBCs is greater for poorer performing students.
    Keywords: migration, academic performance, left-behind children, difference-in-difference, rural China, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Labor and Human Capital, Public Economics, O12, O15,
    Date: 2016
  10. By: Julia Garlick; Murray Leibbrandt; James Levinsohn
    Abstract: We estimate the returns to internal migration in South Africa. These appear to be the first nationally representative estimates of the return to migration for any African country-- a somewhat surprising claim for a literature that's over 60 years old. We develop a framework to analyze individual migration in the context of income pooling within endogenously formed households. We apply this framework to estimate the return to migration from the perspective of the migrant (as is typically done) as well as from the perspectives of the sending and receiving households.
    JEL: O1 O12 O15
    Date: 2016–06
  11. By: Peo Hansen
    Abstract: This paper is part of the joint project between the Directorate General for Migration and Home Affairs of the European Commission and the OECD’s Directorate for Employment, Labour and Social Affairs on “Review of Labour Migration Policy in Europe”. This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The views expressed herein can in no way be taken to reflect the official opinion of the European Union. Grant: HOME/2013/EIFX/CA/002 / 30-CE-0615920/00-38 (DI130895) A previous version of this paper (DELSA/ELSA/MI(2015)2) was presented and discussed at the OECD Working Party on Migration in June 2015. This paper presents an overview and analysis of the policy development at the EU level regarding external labour migration (ELM). It reviews the shift in ELM policy at the EU level by examining documents and debates. It looks at the treatment of ELM, setting out from the Amsterdam Treaty and then follows the development up to the present, paying close attention to the evolving rational for increasing ELM. The difference between the horizontal approach and the sectoral approach is explained. The major ELM Directives under the sectoral approach are presented and discussed in terms of how they were negotiated and how they fit into the overall ELM policy strategy. The document concludes by identifying current political challenges for expanding the EU approach beyond its present form.
    JEL: F22 K37 N44
    Date: 2016–06–10
  12. By: Bulent Unel
    Abstract: This paper develops a North-South model of offshoring and immigration with occupational choice and endogenous firm productivity. Individuals in North choose to become entrepreneurs or workers, whereas those in South can only be employed as workers in either country. The model is used to investigate the impact of offshoring and immigration policies on occupational choice, task allocation, productivity, income inequality, and welfare. The model yields several interesting findings, but most notably it predicts that lowering offshoring costs generates job polarization, and pro-offshoring and pro-immigration policies may not be welfare improving in North.
  13. By: Buzurukov, Bilol; Lee, Byeong Wan
    Abstract: This paper conducts a comparative analysis of forced international migration between two historical periods: 1969-1990 representing the Cold War era, and 1991-2012, the post-Cold War era. The determinants of refugee migration over the two periods are assessed and compared using a panel data analysis for a sample of 125 countries. In order to control for unobserved country-specific effects and the joint endogeneity of the explanatory variables, the Arellano-Bond Dynamic Panel GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) estimator is used. Overall, the results suggest that significant changes have taken place with both the set of explanatory variables and their individual impact on refugee migration over time. Also noteworthy is the significance of the two flight facilitators - the Internet and the telecommunication devices - included in the model to explain the refugee migration dynamics during the post-Cold War period.
    Keywords: Forced Migration,War and Conflicts,Flight Facilitators,GMM Dynamic Panel Data Analysis
    JEL: F22 D74 L86 L96 C23
    Date: 2016
  14. By: Wayne Liou (Economics Department, University of Hawaii – Manoa); Timothy J. Halliday (Economics Department, University of Hawaii – Manoa and IZA)
    Abstract: In 2007, the State of Arizona passed the Legal Arizona Workers Act (LAWA) which required all employers to verify the legal status of all prospective employees. Replicating existing results from the literature, we show that LAWA displaced about 40,000 Mexican-born people from Arizona. About 25% of these displaced persons relocated to New Mexico indicating that LAWA had externalities on adjoining states.
    Keywords: Migration
    JEL: J61 J68
    Date: 2016–06

This nep-mig issue is ©2016 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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