nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2016‒06‒04
sixteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Refugees and Asylum Seekers, the Crisis in Europe and the Future of Policy By Hatton, Timothy J.
  2. Migrant Networks and Trade: The Vietnamese Boat People as a Natural Experiment By Christopher Parsons; Pierre-Louis Vézina
  3. Online Job Search and Migration Intentions Across EU Member States By Tara Sinclair; Mariano Mamertino
  4. The cultural diffusion of the fertility transition: evidence from internal migration in 19 th century France By Guillaume Daudin; Raphaël Franck; Hillel Rapoport
  5. Migrant Workers and the Welfare State By Andersen, Torben M.; Migali, Silvia
  6. Spatial dependence in asylum migration By Fabian Barthel; Eric Neumayer
  7. Explaining the Male Native-Immigrant Employment Gap in Sweden: The Role of Human Capital and Migrant Categories By Bevelander, Pieter; Luik, Marc-André; Emilsson, Henrik
  8. Examining the Labor Market Consequences of Endogenous Low-skill Migration with a Market-based Immigration Policy By Marquez Alcala, German A.
  9. Adaptation of Rural Migrant Workers in Cities of Intensive Urbanization: Case of Makhachkala By Kazenin, Konstantin Igorevich
  10. Imperfect Substitution between Immigrant and Native Farm Workers in the United States By Wei, Xuan; Guan, Zhengfei; Onel, Gulcan; Roka, Fritz
  11. The impact of migrants on the cross-border M&A: Some evidence for Japan By Etzo, Ivan; Takaoka, Sumiko
  12. The Effect of Labor Migration on the Diffusion of Democracy: Evidence from a Former Soviet Republic By Toman Barsbai; Hillel Rapoport; Andreas Steinmayr; Christoph Trebesch
  13. Migration and FDI: Reconciling the standard trade theory with empirical evidence By Jayet, Hubert; Marchal, Léa
  14. Making better use of skills and migration in Poland By Nicola Brandt
  15. Cross-Generational Differences in Educational Outcomes in the Second Great Wave of Immigration By Umut Özek; David N. Figlio
  16. Health Care Service Utilization of Documented and Undocumented U.S. Farm Workers By Luo, Tianyuan; Escalante, Cesar

  1. By: Hatton, Timothy J.
    Abstract: This paper examines some key aspects of migration for asylum to provide a background to the recent crisis and the policy debate that it has spawned. After outlining some of the key facts I focus on the origin and destination factors that influence asylum applications, particularly the policies adopted in developed countries. I then examine different aspects of public opinion that condition the scope for the development of asylum policies. In this light I focus on three issues: border controls, resettlement policies and burden-sharing among destination countries. The existing asylum system that encourages migrants to make hazardous maritime or overland crossings to gain access to an uncertain prospect of obtaining refugee status is inefficient, poorly targeted and lacks public support. In the long run it should be replaced by a substantial joint programme of resettlement that would help those most in need of protection, that would eliminate the risks to refugees, and that would command more widespread public support.
    Keywords: Asylum Migration; Asylum Policy; Refugees
    JEL: F22 F53 J15
    Date: 2016–05
  2. By: Christopher Parsons (Business School, University of Western Australia); Pierre-Louis Vézina (King's College London)
    Abstract: We provide cogent evidence for the causal pro-trade effect of migrants and in doing so establish an important link between migrant networks and long-run economic development. To this end, we exploit a unique event in human history, i.e. the exodus of the Vietnamese Boat People to the US. This episode represents an ideal natural experiment as the large immigration shock, the first wave of which comprised refugees exogenously allocated across the US, occurred over a twenty-year period, during which time the US imposed a complete trade embargo on Vietnam. Following the lifting of trade restrictions in 1994, US exports to Vietnam grew most in US States with larger Vietnamese populations, themselves the result of larger refugee inflows 20 years earlier.
    Date: 2016
  3. By: Tara Sinclair (Department of Economics/Institute for International Economic Policy, George Washington University); Mariano Mamertino (Indeed Hiring Lab)
    Abstract: Most studies of migration focus on realized migration. In this study we instead focus on revealed preference of job seekers actively searching for a job in a country other than their current home. The advance of internet job search allows job seekers to explore employment options across the globe before making a decision to move. We characterize job seeker interest across national borders by looking at job search behavior on a major job search website. We focus on the 15 countries of the EU where job seekers in our sample could use the same medium to search at home or abroad. Some of these job seekers may be currently living abroad and are looking to return home. Many are likely responding to information they have about economic conditions both at home and abroad. We find that a small number of countries attract most of the interest of cross-border EU-15 job seekers: approximately 75% of within EU-15 cross-border traffic is going to the UK, France, Germany, Netherlands and Belgium combined - and another 16% is almost evenly split between Spain, Italy and Ireland. But smaller EU economies actually show the highest concentration of EU15 job search inflows. Overall the UK is the big winner in terms of attracting job seekers from outside its borders: almost 4 out of every 10 job searches of Europeans looking for opportunities outside their home country, but in one of the other EU15 countries, ends up on In addition, we show that the UK also receives significant interest from Commonwealth countries and US. Our results suggest that, while language/cultural affinity together with availability of visas play a role in determining job search behaviors, cross-border job search traffic also mirrors jobseekers’ evaluation of the health of the labor market in the ‘origin’ and ‘destination’ countries . A case study on the impact of a major political event on international job search in Greece provides empirical evidence in support of this argument.
    Keywords: international migration, labor mobility, online labor markets, EU labor markets, natural experiments, Greece, brain drain
    JEL: J6 J4 F22
    Date: 2016–05
  4. By: Guillaume Daudin (LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - Université Paris IX - Paris Dauphine); Raphaël Franck (Bar-Ilan University - Bar-Ilan University [Israël]); Hillel Rapoport (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: France experienced the demographic transition before richer and more educated countries. This paper offers a novel explanation for this puzzle that emphasizes the diffusion of culture and information through internal migration. It tests how migration affected fertility by building a decennial bilateral migration matrix between French regions for 1861-1911. The identification strategy uses exogenous variation in transportation costs resulting from the construction of railways. The results suggest the convergence towards low birth rates can be explained by the diffusion of low-fertility norms by migrants, especially by migrants to and from Paris.
    Keywords: Fertility,France,Demographic Transition,Migration
    Date: 2016–05
  5. By: Andersen, Torben M. (Aarhus University); Migali, Silvia (Fern Universität Hagen)
    Abstract: There is wide concern that migration flows may undermine the financial viability of generous welfare arrangements. The discussion focuses on welfare arrangements as attractors of migrants, suggesting that the issue does not pertain to migrant workers. However, this overlooks how welfare arrangements affect return-migration in case of social events like job loss. Importantly, migrants are shown to be self-selected in a way affecting both migration and return-migration. Two migration regimes prevail. In one, with relatively low benefits, unemployed workers return, while in the other some stay. Importantly, the stay or return migration decision is more sensitive to welfare generosity than the migration decision.
    Keywords: migrant workers, return-migration, job-loss, unemployment benefits
    JEL: F22 J68 I31
    Date: 2016–05
  6. By: Fabian Barthel; Eric Neumayer
    Abstract: Existing refugees in a destination country from the same source country reduce the uncertainty faced by subsequent asylum migrants since existing refugees can provide information and assistance. We argue that such network effects extend beyond the borders of specific source countries. Potential asylum migrants might also be able to draw on networks from geographically proximate as well as linguistically similar countries and from countries having previously been colonized by the same destination country, thus creating spatial dependence in asylum migration among source countries. Many destination countries meanwhile aspire to reduce the inflow of migrants by tightening their asylum policies. Target countries which restrict their policies relatively more than other destinations deflect some asylum migrants to geographically proximate destination countries, thus creating spatial dependence among target countries. We find evidence for both types of spatial dependence in our global analysis of asylum migration. However, while statistically significant, the degree of spatial dependence among target countries is modest. On the source side, there is evidence for modest spatial dependence among linguistically similar countries and no evidence for spatial dependence among countries which were previously colonized by the same destination country. By contrast, we find substantial spatial dependence among geographically proximate source countries
    Keywords: migration; migrant networks; asylum policy; externalities; spatial dependence
    JEL: F22 J15
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Bevelander, Pieter (Malmö University); Luik, Marc-André (Helmut Schmidt University, Hamburg); Emilsson, Henrik (Malmö University)
    Abstract: Despite having one of the most celebrated labor market integration policies, the native-immigrant employment gap in Sweden is one of the largest among the OECD countries. In this study, we use unique Swedish register data to try to explain the employment gap between male immigrants and natives. The results show that the traditional human capital theory only explains a small share of the immigrant-native gap. After controlling for human capital, demographic and contextual factors, large unexplained employment gaps still persists between immigrants and natives and between migrant categories. Our analysis indicates that admission category is an important determinant of employment integration, and that humanitarian and family migrants suffer from low transferability of their country specific human capital. The article highlights the need to consider migrant categories in integration research, and take into account international human capital transferability when explaining employment outcomes for immigrants.
    Keywords: labour market integration, Sweden, human capital, migration categories, employment gaps
    JEL: F22 J61 J68
    Date: 2016–05
  8. By: Marquez Alcala, German A.
    Abstract: The undocumented migration of Mexican nationals to the U.S. is largely influenced by the availability of labor demand in unskilled sectors in the U.S., making it more efficient than the legal channels of migration available to unskilled Mexican nationals. Labor demand in unskilled industries is larger than the available unskilled labor in the U.S., but Mexican migrants, who constitute the majority share of foreign-born individuals in the U.S., are immigrating at the lowest rates in modern times, with net Mexican migration at approximately zero. This paper simulates a market-based immigration system for Mexican nationals, with a focus on the partial equilibrium effects in long run supply and demand for undocumented Mexican migrant labor in the U.S. agriculture sector. Reducing the additive tax on Mexican wages in the model effectively simulates an immigration policy shift. I estimate the net-of-tax long run labor supply and demand curves for U.S. agriculture, simulating an open-border policy with Mexico. Eliminating the additive tax on Mexican wages (which represents immigration policy reform) increases the quantity of labor used in U.S. agriculture, decreases U.S. agriculture wages for Mexican migrants, and raises Mexican agriculture wages. Since the labor supply curve for Mexican nationals is extremely elastic, the largest benefits of an immigration policy shift go to the U.S. producers, who can use higher labor inputs in production to lower the price of production. The results of the experiments are very similar, even with large differences in the visa pricing scheme chosen; this represents an exciting finding: the demand for access to the U.S. unskilled labor market for Mexican nationals is inelastic, which explains the fact that migrant smuggler costs have increased from approximately $50 in 1990 to upwards of $5,000 in the mid-2010s.
    Keywords: Immigration, Migrant Labor, Agricultural Migrant Labor, Mexican Immigration, Undocumented Immigration, Immigration Reform, Low Skill Labor, Agricultural and Food Policy, International Relations/Trade, Labor and Human Capital, Political Economy,
    Date: 2016
  9. By: Kazenin, Konstantin Igorevich (Russian Presidential Academy of National Economy and Public Administration (RANEPA))
    Abstract: The preprint considered scientific approaches to the study of phenomena related to the migration process. Considered and compared send theories, using the concept of integration and adaptation. The authors describe the features of the case studies the integration of migrants in Turkey, China and Istanbul. Based on empirical data collected in the course of carrying out semi-structured interviews with students of Makhachkala, in this study are considered stereotypical representation of migrants from rural areas, common among young people. Identified barriers to adaptation and integration of students into the urban environment. Particular attention is paid to the influence of relatives at adapting foreign students. Identify the factors that contribute to the adaptation of the primary students. In addition, in the described and analyzed the positive experience of working with students in high schools in Makhachkala.
    Keywords: migration process, urbanization, rural workers, Makhachkala
    Date: 2016–03–10
  10. By: Wei, Xuan; Guan, Zhengfei; Onel, Gulcan; Roka, Fritz
    Abstract: The preponderance of employing unauthorized foreign-born immigrant workers in the farm labor force has made immigration policy a major issue for agriculture sector. The focal points of the policy discussions include two sides of the same coin: to what extent farm growers experience labor shortages and to what extent the immigrant farm workers affect the economic opportunities of native farm workers who are mostly less-educated. In this paper we propose a three-layer nested CES framework to model the labor demand in agricultural sector and empirically investigate the substitutability among heterogeneous farm worker groups defined by different age and education levels as well as immigration status. Using wages and employment information aggregated at different education-age-year cells from the National Agricultural Worker Survey (NAWS) data over the period of 1989 and 2012, we find little evidence that inflows of immigrants are associated with significant impact on native farm workers across different age and education groups. Within a specific age-education cell, the point estimate of the elasticity of substitution between immigrant and native farm workers is around 2. Our findings has important policy implication for the need to streamline the H-2A guest worker program which was intended by legislators to decrease the size of unauthorized immigrant workers meanwhile alleviate the potential labor shortage issues.
    Keywords: Elasticity of Substitution, Immigrant, Native, Farm worker, Nested CES structure, Agricultural and Food Policy, Labor and Human Capital, J20, J61, J43, Q18,
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Etzo, Ivan; Takaoka, Sumiko
    Abstract: Japanese outbound M&A activity has been running at a record pace regardless of the exchange rate movements. This paper examines the determinants of Japanese outbound M&A activity and the link between the migrants, which refer to both immigrants and Japanese citizens residing abroad, and Japanese outbound cross-border M&A activity in order to investigate whether immigrants alleviate the informational problems and stimulate the cross-border M&A activity with their host countries. Our results suggest that both immigrant and Japanese citizens residing abroad increase the probability of acquiring the asset in a potential target country. Moreover, both stocks have also a positive effect on the number of outbound M&A deals and the value of outbound M&A deals.
    Keywords: Country risk, Cross-border M&A, Exchange rate, Migration
    JEL: F21 F22 G34
    Date: 2016–05–24
  12. By: Toman Barsbai (Kiel Institute for the World Economy - Kiel Institute for the World Economy); Hillel Rapoport (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, PSE - Paris School of Economics); Andreas Steinmayr (University of Munich); Christoph Trebesch (CESifo - Center for Economic Studies and Ifo for Economic Research - CESifo Group Munich, University of Munich)
    Abstract: Migration contributes to the circulation of goods, knowledge, and ideas. Using community and individual-level data from Moldova, we show that the emigration wave that started in the late 1990s strongly affected electoral outcomes and political preferences in Moldova during the following decade, eventually contributing to the fall of the last Communist government in Europe. Our results are suggestive of information transmission and cultural diffusion channels. Identification relies on the quasiexperimental context and on the differential effects arising from the fact that emigration was directed both to more democratic Western Europe and to less democratic Russia.
    Keywords: Emigration,political institutions,elections,social networks,information transmission,cultural diffusion
    Date: 2016–05
  13. By: Jayet, Hubert; Marchal, Léa
    Abstract: This article focuses on an apparent conflict between the standard trade theory and available empirical evidence on factor flows. Theoretically, labor and capital flows must be substitutes. However, empirical papers find migration and FDI to be either substitutes or complements, depending upon the skill content of migration. To reconcile the standard theory with these empirical results, we develop a two-country general equilibrium model. We consider three factors - capital, unskilled and skilled labor - and two internationally traded goods. Countries only differ in their factor endowments. The first country is a developing country amply endowed with unskilled labor; the second one is a developed country well endowed with skilled labor. Under imperfect factor mobility, we find that capital and unskilled labor flows are substitutes, while capital and skilled labor flows are complements.
    Keywords: Capital flows,Migration,Skills,Standard trade theory
    JEL: F11 F21 F22 J61
    Date: 2016
  14. By: Nicola Brandt
    Abstract: To continue catching up with living standards in other OECD countries Poland needs to invest in higher skills. Crucial elements include: i) making sure that all children have access to high-quality early childhood education; ii) strengthening the basic skills of vocational education students and the relevance of their studies through stronger links with firms; and iii) improving the quality of universities by linking university teachers’ pay and career progress with their teaching and research performance. The Polish government has taken action in many of these areas. More needs to be done to put immigrants’ skills to better use. Polish return migrants frequently complain about difficulties in using their skills acquired abroad, while many immigrants of foreign origin work in professions that do not match their qualifications. Ongoing reforms to improve recognition of foreign credentials and new possibilities to validate work experience through formal qualifications will be helpful. Mieux utiliser les compétences et les migrations en Pologne Pour continuer de combler son retard par rapport aux autres pays de l'OCDE en termes de niveau de vie, la Pologne doit investir dans des compétences de plus haut niveau. Les éléments cruciaux d’une telle stratégie incluent : i) garantir à tous les enfants l’accès à un enseignement de qualité dès le plus jeune âge ; ii) améliorer les compétences de base des élèves des filières professionnelles, de même que la pertinence de leur formation en créant des liens plus étroits avec les entreprises ; et iii) garantir un enseignement universitaire de meilleure qualité en liant la rémunération et la carrière des enseignants du supérieur avec leurs performances en matière d’enseignement et de recherche. Le gouvernement polonais a déjà pris des mesures dans ce sens. Il faut faire plus pour mettre pleinement à profit les compétences des immigrés: les émigrés polonais de retour en Pologne se plaignent souvent d’avoir du mal à utiliser leurs compétences acquises à l’étranger, tandis que les immigrés d’origine étrangère occupent fréquemment des emplois qui ne correspondent pas à leurs qualifications. Les réformes en cours pour améliorer la reconnaissance des diplômes étrangers et les nouvelles possibilités de validation des acquis de l’expérience professionnelle devraient se montrer utiles à cet égard.
    Keywords: migration, tertiary education, vocational education, Skill, early childhood education
    JEL: F22 I23 I25 I28
    Date: 2016–06–02
  15. By: Umut Özek; David N. Figlio
    Abstract: We make use of a new data source – matched birth records and longitudinal student records in Florida – to study the degree to which student outcomes differ across successive immigrant generations. Specifically, we investigate whether first, second, and third generation Asian and Hispanic immigrants in Florida perform differently on reading and mathematics tests, and whether they are differentially likely to get into serious trouble in school, to be truant from school, to graduate from high school, or to be ready for college upon high school graduation. We find evidence suggesting that early-arriving first generation immigrants perform better than do second generation immigrants, and second generation immigrants perform better than third generation immigrants. Among first generation immigrants, the earlier the arrival, the better the students tend to perform. These patterns of findings hold for both Asian and Hispanic students, and suggest a general pattern of successively reduced achievement – beyond a transitional period for recent immigrants – in the generations following the generation that immigrated to the United States.
    JEL: I20 I24 J15
    Date: 2016–05
  16. By: Luo, Tianyuan; Escalante, Cesar
    Abstract: This article analyzes issues related to the U.S. farm workers’ utilization to health care services and their specific choices among health care provider and health bill payment method options. Our findings validate the significant influence of health insurance coverage on health care access, and emphasize the reality of constrained access due to federal regulations, among other factors, prevalent among immigrant farm worker groups, who have relatively lower probability of using health care than citizen farm workers. Moreover, as most farm workers patronize private clinics and community health centers, they usually are also left only with the option to settle health care bills with out-of-pocket funds.
    Keywords: health care utilization, hired farm workers, undocumented workers, Health Economics and Policy, Labor and Human Capital,
    Date: 2016

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