nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2016‒05‒28
fourteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Naturalisation and Investments in Children's Human Capital: Evidence from a Natural Experiment By von Haaren-Giebel, Friederike
  2. Dangerous unions : mapping human smuggling and human trafficking in international marriage through Japan's legal response By MacLean, Douglas
  3. Sale of visas : a smuggler's final song? By Auriol, Emmanuelle; Mesnard, Alice
  4. /fichier/s_rubrique/25200/532.eng.jpg Who are the million migrants who entered Europe without a visa in 2015? By Philippe Fargues
  5. Migration, occupation and education: Evidence from Ghana By Mahé, Clothilde; Naudé, Wim
  6. Migration Decision and Rural Income Inequality in Northwestern China By Hua, Yue
  7. “Graduate migration in Spain: the impact of the great recession on a low mobility country” By Enrique Raul Ramos; Vicente Royuela
  8. Does Host-Country Education Mitigate Immigrant Inefficiency? Evidence from Earnings of Australian University Graduates By Dipanwita Sarkar; Trevor Collier
  9. Immigration, Business Ownership and Employment in Canada By Liu, Huju; Picot, Garnett; Green, David; Ostrovsky, Yuri
  10. Regional synergies of migration, human rights, trade, investment and knowledge transfer to maximize development in countries of origin of the migrants By Daniel Rais
  11. The Colour of Money Redux: Immigrant/Ethnic Earnings Disparity in Canada 1991– 2006 By Krishna Pendakur; Ravi Pendakur
  12. The heterogeneity in immigrants unhealthy assimilation By Barbieri, Paolo Nicola
  13. Heterogeneous effects of international migration: evidences from Bangladesh. By Traverso, Silvio
  14. How Migration Can Change Income Inequality? By Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim

  1. By: von Haaren-Giebel, Friederike
    Abstract: This paper assesses educational attainment of immigrant children, in particular evaluating whether naturalised parents invest more in their children's human capital than non-naturalised parents. Findings of the literature indicate that citizenship is associated with lower return migration probability. Since the returns to investments in (country-specific) human capital increase with the duration of residence, naturalised parents may have more incentives to invest in the educational success of their children. I exploit a natural experiment that took place in Germany in the year 2000 that reduced the required years of residence for naturalisation from 15 to 8 and therefore exogenously increased naturalisation. Multivariate estimations (based on the German Socio-Economic Panel) show a positive and significant correlation between parents' citizenship status and their children's educational attainment. Results of difference-in-differences and instrumental variable models are also positive but not significant.
    Keywords: citizenship; integration; education; SOEP
    JEL: J15 J24 I24
    Date: 2016–05
  2. By: MacLean, Douglas
    Abstract: This working paper explores human smuggling and human trafficking through international marriage. It focuses on Japan's criminal justice response, while examining the major stakeholders involved in this activity. The paper focuses on the time period from 2008-2013. International marriages, particularly commercially brokered arrangements, have rapidly increased throughout East and Southeast Asia, with more women from less developed countries moving to richer destinations. The increasing prevalence of brokered marriages, and the overall numbers of marriage migrants, provides cover for criminal organizations to smuggle labor migrants on false marriages, and to send some migrants into what are clearly human trafficking situations.
    Keywords: Human rights, Smuggling, Trafficking, Marriage, Migration, Human trafficking, Human smuggling, Criminal justice, Japan
    JEL: F15 O14 O30
    Date: 2016–03
  3. By: Auriol, Emmanuelle; Mesnard, Alice
    Abstract: Is there a way of eliminating human smuggling? We set up a model to simultaneously determine the provision of human smuggling services and the demand from would-be migrants. A visa-selling policy may be successful at eliminating smugglers by eroding their profits but it also increases immigration. In contrast, repression decreases migration but fuels cartelized smugglers. To overcome this trade-off we show that legalisation through selling visas in combination with repression can be used to weaken human smuggling while controlling migration flows. Our results highlight the complementarities between repression and selling visas and call into question current policies.
    Keywords: migration, human smuggling, market structure, legalisation.
    JEL: F22 I18 L51 O15
    Date: 2016–05
  4. By: Philippe Fargues (Ined)
    Abstract: In 2015, more than a million migrants were smuggled to Greece and Italy, and a similar number of asylum claims were lodged in Germany. Presenting an overview of available statistics, Philippe Fargues addresses three questions: Is this a migrant or a refugee crisis? What triggered the crisis? And last, how can the crisis be resolved?
    Date: 2016
  5. By: Mahé, Clothilde (UNU-MERIT, Maastricht University); Naudé, Wim (Maastricht School of Management, UNU-MERIT, and Maastricht University)
    Abstract: We investigate whether the occupational productivity and employment status of individuals living in a household with migrants differ from those living in non-migrant households using the sixth round of the Ghana Living Standards Survey (GLSS6) and the Africa Sector Database (ASD). We find that rural households and households with a head in more productive occupations are more likely to have migrant members, and that rural households and households with a head who are waged-employed are more likely to have a migrant than households with members who are self-employed. While these findings are not suprising, we find some more unexpected results. For instance, migrants do not always migrate to more productive occupations; migration can result in downward occupational mobility. Migrants in our sample do not send back much remittances. Migrant-sending households in Ghana are in fact more likely to send remittances to their relatives currently away, than to receive remittances. In an attempt to explain these somewhat puzzling findings, we argue that a motivation for rural households or households with a head in a more productive occupation to send out relatives is to support younger household members to pursue their education elsewhere. Migration is therefore a long(er)-run income-and-occupational diversification strategy of the more productively employed rural households in Ghana.
    Keywords: migration, occupational choice, structural transformation, Africa
    JEL: O15 O18 R23
    Date: 2016–04–07
  6. By: Hua, Yue
    Abstract: Using rural household survey data from northwestern China, this study examines the decision between internal migration and home production for rural households and its impact on rural income distribution. By constructing counterfactual scenarios under which households are allowed to switch freely between internal migration and home production, this study finds that the migrant households in the studied region could have earned more had they choose not to migrate and work in local sectors, given the results that show remittances earned by the migrant households are less than their simulated home production earnings. The findings also illustrate that there would also be less income inequality in this area if migrants choose to work locally. These results are compatible with the fact that the internal migration in the study area is very likely to be involuntary, primarily due to the lack of arable land and insufficient local nonfarm job opportunities, usually provided by township and village enterprises
    Keywords: Internal Migration, Home Production, Remittances, Income Inequality
    JEL: O15 O18 P25
    Date: 2014–07–10
  7. By: Enrique Raul Ramos (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona); Vicente Royuela (AQR-IREA, University of Barcelona)
    Abstract: This work studies the impact that the Great Recession has had on the migration of graduates in Spain, a country with low international mobility for graduates but where push factors associated to the crisis have probably changed their mobility patterns. Our empirical analysis first adopts a macro approach by estimating a gravity model taking advantage of the recent publication of the IAB brain-drain data. This dataset covers information for 20 OECD destination countries by gender, country of origin and educational level, for the period 1980-2010. Next, we use individual data from different surveys addressed to Catalan graduates and recent Ph.D. holders carried out by AQU in order to provide new evidence on the drivers and impacts of changing trends in their migration behaviour. Our hypothesis is that internal mobility has been replaced by international migration for recent graduates for two reasons: first, due to the generalized increased in unemployment across the whole country (push factor), and second, due to the better skill and educational matches in other European labour markets (pull factor) than in the Spanish one, where the incidence of overeducation is among the highest of OECD countries.
    Keywords: Graduate migration, overeducation, international migration, great recession JEL classification:JEL: F22, J61, R23, I25
    Date: 2016–04
  8. By: Dipanwita Sarkar; Trevor Collier
    Abstract: transferability of skills remains a dominant argument in explaining lower earnings of immigrants. Acquisition of host-country education plays a critical role in overcoming this disadvantage. Using a stochastic frontier approach to compare earnings of native and foreign-born graduates from Australian universities, the authors evaluate the importance of host-country education in reducing earnings inefficiency of immigrants. Although immigrants are found to be initially more inefficient than natives, they assimilate towards the earnings frontier over time. Substantial variation in inefficiency and assimilation patterns exist across immigrants with differing residency status and ethnicity. Non-English background increases inefficiency for immigrants, but more so for non-residents. Consistent with the tightening of selection criteria in Australia, recent immigrant cohorts are found to be more efficient.
    Keywords: Immigrant assimilation, tertiary education, stochastic frontier
    JEL: I24 J15 J31
    Date: 2016–05–23
  9. By: Liu, Huju; Picot, Garnett; Green, David; Ostrovsky, Yuri
    Abstract: This paper provides, for the first time, an overview of immigrant business ownership and the associated job creation in Canada. This research is possible because a new dataset has been created in which the immigration status of business owners can be determined. The analysis focuses on two types of businesses: private incorporated businesses and the unincorporated self-employed. Results are presented for immigrants who have entered Canada since 1980 and who were in the country in 2010, hereafter simply referred to as immigrants in Canada. In addition, two entering cohorts of immigrants are tracked to determine the business ownership trajectory during the first 5 to 10 years in Canada.
    Keywords: Business ownership, Business performance and ownership, Ethnic diversity and immigration, Labour, Labour market and income, Workplace organization, innovation, performance
    Date: 2016–03–21
  10. By: Daniel Rais
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to explore how to raise the synergies of migration, human rights, trade, investment and knowledge transfer to maximize development in countries of origin of the migrants. To reach a deeper understanding of the inter-governmental coherence this paper will additionally examine the level of coherence between free trade and related agreements (such as Regional trade agreement) and Migration agreements as well as certain migration partnership agreements in certain regions: the context of the EU between Spain and France as well as Switzerland with certain African countries and; 2. in the context of NAFTA (Mexico –USA/Canada).
    Date: 2014–11–11
  11. By: Krishna Pendakur (Simon Fraser University); Ravi Pendakur (University of Ottawa)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate how visible minority and immigrant earnings gaps in Canada evolved over 1991 to 2006. Immigrant disparity changes with the duration of residence in Canada, so we evaluate disparity at 5 years in Canada, that is for relatively recent immigrants. We find that, overall, visible minority-and immigrant-based earnings disparity increased substantially over the 15 year period. This pattern is observed broadly for both men and women, in Canada as a whole and in each of its three largest CMAs, for most white and visible minority immigrant groups, and for most Canadian-born visible minority ethnic groups. The decline in relative earnings is large: it is on the order of 20 percentage points for both white and visible minority immigrants and on the order of 10 percentage points for Canadian-born visible minority workers.
    Date: 2015
  12. By: Barbieri, Paolo Nicola
    Abstract: Immigrants upon their arrival in the United States are in better health condition with respect to their American counterpart however such advantage erodes over time. In this paper, we study the heterogeneity of such unhealthy behaviours assimilation among different arrival cohorts. We focus our analysis on binge drinking and cigarette consumption as a proxy for unhealthy behaviour assimilation by immigrants. Regarding binge drinking we show that more recent immigrant cohorts arrive with a higher probability of being binge drinker and experience a faster "unhealthy assimilation" in terms of increased consumption of alcohol and an increase in the probability of starting to drink over guideline on a daily basis. Such assimilation is less pronounced for smoking habits, in fact both earlier and later arrival cohorts report lower smoking rates. However, such health advantage is decreasing with time spent in the US.
    Keywords: health immigration effects, unhealthy assimilation
    JEL: I0 J15
    Date: 2016–05–24
  13. By: Traverso, Silvio
    Abstract: Despite the general consensus regarding the important role played by international migration in the development of Bangladesh, little has been done to quantitatively estimate its effects. Within the framework of Rubin's causal model, this paper contributes to the literature estimating the net impact of international migration on the welfare of the members of households with migration experience. By taking advantage of the non-parametric nature of matching estimators, the effect of migration is disaggregated on the basis of expenditure quartiles and length of migration period. Additionally, the estimated counterfactual outcomes of migrant households are used to build a transition matrix showing the effect of migration on social mobility. The effect of migration turns out to be positive and statistically significant, even though its magnitude is considerably affected by technical assumptions regarding household economies of scale. International migration appears to be a risky strategy which, if successful, leads to a substantial increase of the well being of migrant households' members. Finally, moving on to normative considerations, the paper argues that the resources deployed for pro-migration policies do not directly benefit the poorer sections of the population.
    Keywords: International migration,Counterfactual framework,Matching estimation,Bangladesh
    JEL: F22 O12 O15 O53
    Date: 2016
  14. By: Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim
    Abstract: Motivated by the unique experience of Israel of a supply-side shock of skilled migration, and the concurrent rise in disposable income inequality, this paper develops a model which can explain the mechanism through which a supply-side shock of skilled migration can reshape the political-economy balance and the redistributive policies. First, it depresses the incentives for unskilled migrants to flow in, though they are still free to do so. Second, tax-transfer system becomes less progressive. Nonetheless, the unskilled native-born may well become better-off, even though they lose their political clout.
    Date: 2016–04

This nep-mig issue is ©2016 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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