nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2016‒05‒14
ten papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Labour, lodging and linkages: migrant women's experience in South Africa By Laura Phillips; Deborah James
  2. What Explains the Flow of Foreign Fighters to ISIS? By Efraim Benmelech; Esteban F. Klor
  3. Networks in the Diaspora By Gil S. Epstein; Odelia Heizler (Cohen)
  4. Migration, Agricultural Production and Diversification: A case study from Vietnam By Nguyen, Duc Loc; Grote, Ulrike
  5. Do Foreigners Crowd Natives out of STEM Degrees and Occupations? Evidence from the U.S. Immigration Act of 1990 By Ransom, Tyler; Winters, John V.
  6. Migration and Innovation Diffusion : An Eclectic Survey By Francesco LISSONI
  7. Climate Variability and Internal Migration: A Test on Indian Inter-State Migration By Ingrid Dallmann; Katrin Millock
  8. Legal Status, Territorial Confinement, and Transnational Activities of Senegalese Migrants in France, Italy, and Spain By Erik R. Vickstrom
  9. An Econometric Approach for Modeling Population Change in Doña Ana County, New Mexico By Fullerton, Thomas M., Jr.; Walke, Adam G.; Villavicencio, Diana
  10. Family Size, Sibling Rivalry and Migration: Evidence from Mexico By Massimiliano Bratti; Simona Fiore; Mariapia Mendola

  1. By: Laura Phillips; Deborah James
    Abstract: This historiographical overview examines the literature on women migrants in South Africa, arguing that it is important to consider domestic struggles and their impact on women’s urban experiences within and beyond the workplace in order to understand the unfolding of the migrant labour system in the 20th and 21st centuries. Looking at writing on pre-1994 migrancy, it highlights women’s experiences in the workplace, in the residential spaces they occupy, and in their associational life. We also draw out some of the major trends in the post-1994 period, focusing in particular on scholarship that considers HIV/AIDS. Migrant women, we argue, are neither simply home-based nor town-linked; rather their experiences and struggles provide the means to accommodate both while also transforming these polarities.
    Keywords: gender; historiography; migrancy; women; housing; apartheid; associational life; informal work; domestic work; factory work; HIV/AIDS
    JEL: R14 J01
    Date: 2014–11–06
  2. By: Efraim Benmelech; Esteban F. Klor
    Abstract: This paper provides the first systematic analysis of the link between economic, political, and social conditions and the global phenomenon of ISIS foreign fighters. We find that poor economic conditions do not drive participation in ISIS. In contrast, the number of ISIS foreign fighters is positively correlated with a country's GDP per capita and Human Development Index (HDI). In fact, many foreign fighters originate from countries with high levels of economic development, low income inequality, and highly developed political institutions. Other factors that explain the number of ISIS foreign fighters are the size of a country's Muslim population and its ethnic homogeneity. Although we cannot directly determine why people join ISIS, our results suggest that the flow of foreign fighters to ISIS is driven not by economic or political conditions but rather by ideology and the difficulty of assimilation into homogeneous Western countries.
    JEL: H0 H56 K42 O52 O53
    Date: 2016–04
  3. By: Gil S. Epstein (Bar-Ilan University, IZA, CReAM and Centro Studi Luca d'Agliano); Odelia Heizler (Cohen) (Tel-Aviv_Yaffo Academic College)
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine possible types of network formation among immigrants in the diaspora and between those immigrants and the locals in different countries. We present the model by considering different possible interactions between immigrants and the new society in their host country. Spread of migrants from the same origin in the diaspora may well increase international trade between the different countries, depending on the types of networks formed. We present possible applications of network structure on the country of origin, such as on international trade. We find that when the size of the diaspora is sufficiently large, the natives in the different countries will be willing to bear the linking cost with the immigrants because the possible benefits increase with increasing size of the diaspora.
    Keywords: Immigrants, Networks, Diaspora
    JEL: D85 D74 J61 L14
    Date: 2016–05–09
  4. By: Nguyen, Duc Loc; Grote, Ulrike
    Abstract: The New Economics of Labor Migration (NELM) hypothesizes that migration is a strategy to reduce risks and financial liquidity constraints of rural households. This paper tests this hypothesis for the case of Vietnam. The impacts of migration on agricultural production and diversification are estimated in fixed effects regression models based on a panel data set of about 2,000 households in Vietnam. The findings suggest that rural households who receive remittances from their migrants reduce the share of their income from rice, increase their land productivity and become more specialized in labor allocation. However, migration also decreases labor productivity and crop diversification of rural households. Overall, the NELM hypothesis is only supported in cases migrant households receive remittances.
    Keywords: Migration, Remittances, Agricultural Productivity, Diversification, Vietnam, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Labor and Human Capital, J62, D13, O13, Q12,
    Date: 2015–12
  5. By: Ransom, Tyler (Duke University); Winters, John V. (Oklahoma State University)
    Abstract: This paper examines effects of the U.S. Immigration Act of 1990 on STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) degree completion and labor market outcomes for native-born Americans. The Act increased the in-flow and stock of foreign STEM workers in the U.S., both by increasing green card allotments and by expanding temporary work visas via the H-1B visa program. These policy changes potentially altered the relative desirability of various college majors and occupations for natives. We examine effects of the policy on STEM degree completion, STEM occupational choice, and employment rates separately for black and white males and females. We identify the effects using variation in natives' exposure to foreign STEM workers and the geographic dispersion in foreign-born STEM workers in 1980, which precedes the Act and predicts future foreign STEM flows. We find that the Immigration Act changed natives' skill investment and utilization in three ways: (1) it pushed black males out of STEM majors; (2) it pushed white male STEM graduates out of STEM occupations; and (3) it pushed white female STEM graduates out of the workforce.
    Keywords: immigration, STEM, college major, occupation, crowd out
    JEL: J24 J61
    Date: 2016–04
  6. By: Francesco LISSONI
    Abstract: In the new era of mass migration, with highly skilled individuals playing a key role, the role of migration in innovation diffusion is a topical issue. The paper organizes several strands of literature, from the history of religious minorities to the spatial analysis of knowledge flows. Three main themes emerge: the distinction between mobility and migration, the directions of flows, and their contents. Migration supports diffusion from origin to host countries, but also in the opposite direction, as well as within and across destinations. Distinguishing between information access and knowledge exchanges remain a major item of the research agenda.
    Keywords: migration ; innovation ; diffusion
    JEL: O33 F22 J61
    Date: 2016
  7. By: Ingrid Dallmann (Université Paris-Sud (ADIS)); Katrin Millock (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: We match migration data from the 1991 and 2001 Indian Census with climate data to test the hypothesis of climate variability as a push factor for internal migration. The article contributes to the literature by combining three important factors. First, we introduce relevant meteorological indicators of climate variability, based on the standardized precipitation index. Second, the use of the census data enables us to match the migration data with the relevant climate data ex ante, rather than relying on average conditions. Third, we analyse bilateral migration rates in order to fully account for characteristics in both the origin and the destination. We therefore use an econometric estimation method that accounts for zero observations, which are frequent in bilateral data. The estimation results show that drought frequency in the origin state acts as push factor on inter-state migration in India. We do not find a statistically significant effect of the magnitude and the duration of drought episodes preceding migration. There is no evidence of excess precipitation acting as a push factor on inter-state migration. The results are robust to alternative specifications of fixed effects and to the inclusion of irrigation rates
    Keywords: Climate change; India; Internal migration; PPML; SPI
    JEL: O15 Q54
    Date: 2013–05
  8. By: Erik R. Vickstrom (United States Census Bureau)
    Abstract: This paper examines the link between legal status and transnational activities. The literature on transnational activities has not sufficiently grappled with the role of physical mobility in the maintenance of effective ties that underlie non-mobile, long-distance transnational activities nor has it adequately examined the role of the state in constraining this geographical mobility. I thus hypothesize that the legal constraint of irregular status will both physically confine migrants to the destination territory, decreasing homeland visits, and will indirectly constrain other non-mobile transnational activities by reducing effective ties with origin communities through limited physical mobility. I find that Senegalese migrants who lack of secure legal status are effectively confined to the destination territory, making them unable to make short visits to the homeland. Lack of occasional visits as a result of this confinement short-circuits the entire social infrastructure underlying remitting and investing: the effective ties that underlie long-distance cross-border activities wither when migrants are unable to circulate. I also find an important difference between household-based activities — remitting and investing — and the communal activity of hometown association participation, with the former being more responsive to the territorial confinement produced by irregular status.
    Keywords: Senegal, France, Italy, Spain, remittances
    Date: 2014–09
  9. By: Fullerton, Thomas M., Jr.; Walke, Adam G.; Villavicencio, Diana
    Abstract: An econometric model using time series analysis techniques is employed to model and forecast population changes in Doña Ana County, New Mexico. The model focuses on the interplay between economic and demographic variables. Individual, cointegrated equations are generated to account for the components of population change - births, deaths, net domestic and net international migration. Birth and death equations prove easier to model because of stable changes from period to period in relation to income levels and national demographic trends. Net migration equations were more difficult to model as economic conditions, specifically labor market conditions, influence changes over time. Predefined exogenous variables are used to generate out-of-sample simulations for the individual components of population change. Using those results, total population projections are estimated until the year 2018. Doña Ana County is projected to witness a slowdown in population growth, primarily as a consequence of increased domestic out-migration.
    Keywords: Population Economics, Regional Economics, Applied Econometrics, Migration, Forecasting
    JEL: J11 R15
    Date: 2015–01–15
  10. By: Massimiliano Bratti (Università degli Studi di Milano, IZA and Centro Studi Luca d’Agliano); Simona Fiore (Università degli Studi di Bologna); Mariapia Mendola (Università degli Studi di Milano - Bicocca, IZA and Centro Studi Luca d’Agliano)
    Abstract: This paper examines the effects of family size and demographic structure on offspring’s international migration. We use rich survey data from Mexico to estimate the impact of sibship size, birth order and sibling composition on teenagers’ and Young adults’ migration outcomes. We find little evidence that high fertility drives migration. The positive correlation between sibship size and migration disappears when endogeneity of family size is addressed using biological fertility miscarriages) and infertility shocks. Yet, the chances to migrate are not equally distributed across children within the family. Older siblings, especially firstborn males, are more likely to migrate, while having more sisters than brothers may increase the chances of migration, particularly among girls.
    Keywords: International Migration, Mexico, Family Size, Birth Order, Sibling Composition
    JEL: J13 F22 O15
    Date: 2016–04–13

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