nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2016‒03‒06
twelve papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Can parental migration reduce petty corruption in education? By Höckel, Lisa Sofie; Santos Silva, Manuel; Stöhr, Tobias
  2. Immigration and the Path-Dependence of Education: German-Speaking Immigrants, On-the-Job Skills, and Ethnic Schools in São Paulo, Brazil (1840-1920) By Bruno Gabriel Witzel de Souza
  3. Do Earnings by College Major Affect Graduate Migration? By John V. Winters
  4. Intergenerational Persistence of Health in the U.S.: Do Immigrants Get Healthier as They Assimilate? By Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude; Kugler, Adriana
  5. MR. ROSSI, MR. HU AND POLITICS. THE ROLE OF IMMIGRATION IN SHAPING NATIVES’ VOTING BEHAVIOR By Guglielmo Barone; Alessio D’Ignazio; Guido de Blasio; Paolo Naticchioni
  7. How to gain brain for Suriname By Dulam, T.W.; Franses, Ph.H.B.F.
  8. Migration as Subtle Catalyst: Institution Building in India By Sapovadia, Vrajlal
  9. Replacement migration from a labour market perspective : Germany's long-term potential labour force and immigration from non-EU member countries By Fuchs, Johann; Kubis, Alexander; Schneider, Lutz
  10. Remittances and expenditure patterns of the left behinds in rural China By Sylvie Démurger; Xiaoqian Wang
  11. Return Migration and Economic Outcomes in the Conflict Context By Sonja Fransen; Isabel Ruiz; Carlos Vargas-Silva
  12. International Coordination in Asylum Provision By Yuji Tamura

  1. By: Höckel, Lisa Sofie; Santos Silva, Manuel; Stöhr, Tobias
    Abstract: Educational outcomes of children are highly dependent on household and school-level inputs. In poor countries, remittances from migrants can provide additional funds for the education of the left behind. At the same time the absence of migrant parents can affect families' time allocation towards education. Previous work on education inputs often implicitly assumed that preferences for different kinds of education inputs remain unchanged when household members migrate. Using survey data from Moldova, one of the countries with the highest emigration rates in the world, and an instrumental variable approach we find that the strongest migration-related response in private education expenditure are substantially lower informal payments to public school teachers. This fact is at odds with a positive income effect due to migration. We argue that our results are likely to be driven by changing preferences towards educational inputs induced by migration.
    Keywords: migration,emigration,education spending,social remittances,corruption,children left behind
    JEL: F22 I22 D13 H52
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Bruno Gabriel Witzel de Souza (Georg-August-Universität Göttingen)
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of German-speaking immigrants on the path dependence of human capital accumulation in the State São Paulo, Brazil. Using a new dataset based on Almanacs from 1873 and 1888, we are able to test if (i) the cultural component, (ii) immigrants' on-the-job-skills, and (iii) their ethnic schools influenced the historical accumulation of human capital. No robust evidence was found for the first two explanations. On the other hand, for the 1910s, German schools had strong positive impacts on enrollment, not only for private, but also for state schools, a result which suggests the occurrence of spillover and contagion effects. Such impact tends, however, to dissipate over time and it does not survive for current educational performance. In addition, the paper shows that the pathdependence of education is conditional on the type of school: while there is a positive persistence in enrollment in private schools over the 20th century, enrollment in state schools depends negatively on its historical levels, reflecting convergence toward 100% enrollment rates in primary schooling. Furthermore, current stocks of human capital, measured by illiteracy and years of education, are shown to be strongly impacted by completion and enrollment in state schools back in the 1910s.
    Date: 2016–02–09
  3. By: John V. Winters (Oklahoma State University)
    Abstract: College graduates are considerably more mobile than non-graduates, and previous literature suggests that the difference is at least partially attributable to college graduates being more responsive to employment opportunities in other areas. However, there exist considerable differences in migration rates by college major that have gone largely unexplained. This paper uses microdata from the American Community Survey to examine how the migration decisions of young college graduates are affected by earnings in their college major. Results indicate that higher major-specific earnings in an individual’s state of birth reduce out-migration suggesting that college graduates are attracted toward areas that especially reward the specific type of human capital that they possess.
    Keywords: graduate migration; college major; college graduates; human capital
    JEL: J24 J61 R23
    Date: 2016–01
  4. By: Akbulut-Yuksel, Mevlude (Dalhousie University); Kugler, Adriana (Georgetown University)
    Abstract: It is well known that a substantial part of income and education is passed on from parents to children, generating substantial persistence in socio-economic status across generations. In this paper, we examine whether another form of human capital, health, is also largely transmitted from generation to generation, contributing to limited socio-economic mobility. Using data from the NLSY, we first present new evidence on intergenerational transmission of health outcomes in the U.S., including weight, height, the body mass index (BMI), asthma and depression for both natives and immigrants. We show that both native and immigrant children inherit a prominent fraction of their health status from their parents, and that, on average, immigrants experience higher persistence than natives in weight and BMI. We also find that mothers' education decreases children's weight and BMI for natives, while single motherhood increases weight and BMI for both native and immigrant children. Finally, we find that the longer immigrants remain in the U.S., the less intergenerational persistence there is and the more immigrants look like native children. Unfortunately, the more generations immigrant families remain in the U.S., the more children of immigrants resemble natives' higher weights, higher BMI and increased propensity to suffer from asthma.
    Keywords: health status, intergenerational mobility, immigrants
    JEL: J61 J62 I12 I14
    Date: 2016–02
  5. By: Guglielmo Barone (Bank of Italy and RCEA); Alessio D’Ignazio (Bank of Italy); Guido de Blasio (Bank of Italy); Paolo Naticchioni (Roma Tre University and IZA)
    Abstract: Using Italian municipality-level data on national elections and IV estimation strategy, we find that immigration generates a sizable causal increase in votes for the centre-right coalition, which has a political platform less favorable to immigrants. Additional findings are: (i) the effect is heterogeneous across municipalities with different sizes; (ii) the gain in votes for the centreright coalition corresponds to a loss of votes for the centre and centre-left parties, a decrease in voter turnout, and a rise in protest votes; (iii) the relationship between immigration and electoral gains percolates to mayoral election at the municipality level; (iv) cultural diversity, competition in the labor market and for public services, and political competition are the most relevant channels at work.
    Keywords: Immigration, voting, political economy
    JEL: D72 P16 J61
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Ali T. Akarca (Department of Economics (mc 144), University of Illinois at Chicago, 601 S. Morgan Street, Chicago, Illinois 60607, USA.); Aysit Tansel (Department of Economics, Middle East Technical University, 06531 Ankara, Turkey, Institute for Study of Labor (IZA), P.O. Box 7240, D-53072 Bonn, Germany, and Economic Research Forum (ERF) Cairo,)
    Abstract: Antalya and Muğla provinces located in southwestern Turkey have emerged as new magnets for internal migration in the country. Socio-economic, demographic and labor market characteristics of immigrants coming to these two provinces from various regions are studied to uncover the reasons fueling their moves. This is accomplished through an analysis of descriptive statistics, and an analysis of a gravity model estimated. Differences and similarities between immigrants coming to these two provinces and those going to other migrant magnets, between immigrants and natives in Antalya and Muğla, and among immigrants coming to the two provinces from various origins are noted. What distinguishes Antalya and Muğla from other migrant-drawing provinces is that they attract some retirees and university students as well and their immigrants participating in the labor force are attracted mainly by jobs created in the sectors related to tourism, either directly or indirectly, rather than industry. Immigrants from different origins exhibit different characteristics and tend to specialize in different types of jobs. However, as other migrant flows, those directed at Antalya and Muğla are affected by distance adversely and by unemployment differential, past migration and population size at origin, favorably.
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Dulam, T.W.; Franses, Ph.H.B.F.
    Abstract: __Abstract__ This paper investigates whether high skilled migrants of Surinamese origin would be willing to return to the home country if they were offered a remigration benefits package. We surveyed 209 highly educated individuals of Surinamese origin who live in the Netherlands. A quarter of them is willing to return to Suriname if they were offered a house, land property, and easy access to credit. Eliminating political interference in profession would even attract the majority. The willingness to accept the offer diminishes over time. The offer mostly attracts engineers to return to Suriname. Offering funds for research and innovation attracts health professionals as well. We also explore some other proposals and discuss the policy implications.
    Keywords: migration policy, return migration, brain drain, brain gain, high skilled, tertiary education.
    Date: 2015–05–21
  8. By: Sapovadia, Vrajlal
    Abstract: This research paper captures role of immigrants in building political, social, religious and economic institutes in India. Their role is in all spheres of building institutes ranging from intellectual, social, political, educational, financial and physical contribution. The institutes in which they played a role are of wide range; Indian National Congress and Constitution of India, Indian Independence Movement and many political institutes are few of them.
    Keywords: India, Migrants, NRIs, Institutes, Human Development
    JEL: B1 B15 B2 F0
    Date: 2016–01–15
  9. By: Fuchs, Johann (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Kubis, Alexander (Institut für Arbeitsmarkt- und Berufsforschung (IAB), Nürnberg [Institute for Employment Research, Nuremberg, Germany]); Schneider, Lutz
    Abstract: "We quantify the development of the potential labour force in Germany from 2014 to 2050 and pose the question as to which extent migration will be able to offset the well-known negative demographic influence. The mean overall results of this long period of time show that while migration may slightly dampen the trend, it cannot fully compensate for it, depending on the development of domestic labour participation. Persistently high immigration numbers, however, will defer the demographic caused decline of the workforce for some years. In contrast, even high, if realistic, immigration flows will only slow down demographic ageing." (Author's abstract, IAB-Doku) ((en))
    JEL: F22 J11 J21 J22
    Date: 2016–02–10
  10. By: Sylvie Démurger (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - PRES Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique); Xiaoqian Wang (GATE Lyon Saint-Étienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - ENS Lyon - École normale supérieure - Lyon - UL2 - Université Lumière - Lyon 2 - UCBL - Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1 - Université Jean Monnet - Saint-Etienne - PRES Université de Lyon - CNRS - Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how private transfers from internal migration in China affect the expenditure behaviour of families left behind in rural areas. Using data from the Rural-Urban Migration in China (RUMiC) survey, we assess the impact of remittances sent to rural households on consumption-type and investment-type expenditures. We apply propensity score matching to account for the selection of households into receiving remittances, and estimate average treatment effects on the treated. We find that remittances supplement income in rural China and lead to increased consumption rather than increased investment. Moreover, we find evidence of a strong negative impact on education expenditures, which could be detrimental to sustaining investment in human capital in poor rural areas in China.
    Keywords: remittances, labour migration, expenditure behaviour, left-behind, propensity score matching, China
    Date: 2016
  11. By: Sonja Fransen (Maastricht University); Isabel Ruiz (Harris Manchester College, University of Oxford); Carlos Vargas-Silva (University of Oxford)
    Abstract: We explore differences in economic outcomes between return migrant households and non-migrant households using panel data from Burundi, a country which experienced large scale conflict-led emigration to Tanzania and massive post-war refugee return. We exploit proximity to the border of Tanzania at birth for identification purposes. Results indicate that returnee households have significantly lower levels of livestock. Differences in current economic activities and legal restrictions on economic activities while in displacement are likely to explain a portion of the current economic gap between returnee and non-migrant households. There is no evidence for other channels (e.g. vulnerability to crime, health status).
    Keywords: Return Migration, Refugees, Labor Markets
    JEL: F22 E24 D74
    Date: 2015–12
  12. By: Yuji Tamura
    Abstract: This article summarises theoretical studies on asylum provision in multi-country settings. The common feature of their models is the assumption that asylum-related policies of safe countries generate cross-border externalities. The presence of externalities results in inefficiently low provision of asylum. The studies explore ways to increase asylum provision to the efficient level, but reveal more difficulties than a solution.
    Keywords: asylum provision, asylum seeker, refugee, refugee protection, international migration, international public goods, cross-border externalities, international coordination
    JEL: F22 F53 H87 O15
    Date: 2016–02

This nep-mig issue is ©2016 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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