nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2015‒12‒01
twelve papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Immigrants and Gender Roles: Assimilation vs. Culture By Blau, Francine D.
  2. Migration, Transfers and Child Labor By Ralitza Dimova; Gil S. Epstein; Ira N. Gang
  3. Emigration, Remittances and the Education of Children Staying Behind: Evidence from Tajikistan By Dietz, Barbara; Gatskova, Ksenia; Ivlevs, Artjoms
  4. Ethnic Goods and Immigrant Assimilation By Ilhom Abdulloev; Gil S. Epstein; Ira N. Gang
  5. Local-Level Immigration and Life Satisfaction: The EU Enlargement Experience in England and Wales By Ivlevs, Artjoms; Veliziotis, Michail
  6. Colombian Emigration by Administrative Regions By Saenz, Mariana; Lewer, Joshua J.
  7. Migrants' Remittances: Channelling Globalization By Anghel, Remus Gabriel; Piracha, Matloob; Randazzo, Teresa
  8. Do Earnings by College Major Affect Graduate Migration? By Winters, John V.
  9. Improving the Regulatory and Support Environment for Migrant Workers for Greater Productivity, Competitiveness, and Social Welfare in ASEAN By Naomi HATSUKANO
  10. Homeownership of Immigrants in France: Selection Effects Related to International Migration Flows By Gobillon, Laurent; Solignac, Matthieu
  11. Diaspora, Development and Morocco By Uri Dadush
  12. Population, Migration, Ageing and Health: A Survey By Christian Dustmann; Giovanni Facchini; Cora Signorotto

  1. By: Blau, Francine D. (Cornell University)
    Abstract: This paper examines evidence on the role of assimilation versus source country culture in influencing immigrant women's behavior in the United States – looking both over time with immigrants' residence in the United States and across immigrant generations. It focuses particularly on labor supply but, for the second generation, also examines fertility and education. We find considerable evidence that immigrant source country gender roles influence immigrant and second generation women's behavior in the United States. This conclusion is robust to various efforts to rule out the effect of other unobservables and to distinguish the effect of culture from that of social capital. These results support a growing literature that suggests that culture matters for economic behavior. At the same time, the results suggest considerable evidence of assimilation of immigrants. Immigrant women narrow the labor supply gap with native‐born women with time in the United States, and, while our results suggest an important role for intergenerational transmission, they also indicate considerable convergence of immigrants to native levels of schooling, fertility, and labor supply across generations.
    Keywords: gender, immigration, labor supply, wages, social capital, culture, human capital
    JEL: J13 J16 J22 J24 J61
    Date: 2015–11
  2. By: Ralitza Dimova (Institute of Development Policy AND Management, University of Manchester and IZA, Bonn.); Gil S. Epstein (Bar Ilan University, Ramat Gan and IZA, Bonn and CReAM, London.); Ira N. Gang (Rutgers University and IZA, Bonn, CReAM, London and IOS, Regensburg.)
    Abstract: We examine agricultural child labor in the context of emigration, transfers, and the ability to hire outside labor. We start by developing a theoretical background based on Basu and Van, (1998), Basu, (1999, 2000) and Epstein and Kahana (2008) and show how hiring labor from outside the household and transfers to the household might induce a reduction in children’s working hours. Analysis using Living Standards Measurement Survey (LSMS) data on the Kagera region in Tanzania lend support to the hypothesis that both emigration and remittances reduce child labor.
    Keywords: child labor, remittances, emigration, migration
    JEL: D62 F22 I30
    Date: 2015–11–25
  3. By: Dietz, Barbara (Institute for East and Southeast European Studies, Regensburg); Gatskova, Ksenia (Institute for East and Southeast European Studies, Regensburg); Ivlevs, Artjoms (University of the West of England, Bristol)
    Abstract: We study the relationship between migration and children's education in Tajikistan – one of the poorest and most remittance-dependent economies in the world. The analysis of a unique three-wave household panel survey reveals that emigration of family members is negatively associated with children's school attendance. Receiving remittances does not offset this negative effect. Migration of non-parent family members (such as siblings) is particularly detrimental to school attendance, especially among older children and children from less educated households. This supports a conjecture that emigration in Tajikistan has a negative signaling effect on the education of children staying behind.
    Keywords: migration, remittances, schooling, Tajikistan
    JEL: J61 O15
    Date: 2015–11
  4. By: Ilhom Abdulloev (Open Society Institute Assistance Foundation in Tajikistan and IZA, Bonn); Gil S. Epstein (Bar-Ilan University, CReAM, London and IZA, Bonn); Ira N. Gang (Rutgers University, CReAM, London, IOS Regensburg and IZA, Bonn)
    Abstract: Some immigrants try to keep their ethnicity hidden while others become ever deeply more mired in their home culture. We argue that among immigrants this struggle manifests itself in the ethnic goods they choose to consume. Different types of ethnic goods have vastly different effects on immigrant assimilation. We develop a simple theoretical model useful for capturing the consequences of this struggle, illustrating it with examples of Central Asian assimilation into the Muscovite economy.
    Keywords: assimilation, migrants, culture, ethnic goods
    JEL: J15
    Date: 2015–11–25
  5. By: Ivlevs, Artjoms (University of the West of England, Bristol); Veliziotis, Michail (University of the West of England, Bristol)
    Abstract: The 2004 European Union enlargement resulted in an unprecedented wave of 1.5 million workers relocating from Eastern Europe to the UK. We study how this migrant inflow affected life satisfaction of native residents in England and Wales. Combining the British Household Panel Survey with the Local Authority level administrative data from the Worker Registration Scheme, we find that higher local level immigration increased life satisfaction of young people and decreased life satisfaction of old people. This finding is driven by the initial 'migration shock' – inflows that occurred in the first two years after the enlargement. Looking at different life domains, we also find some evidence that, irrespective of age, higher local level immigration increased natives' satisfaction with their dwelling, partner and social life.
    Keywords: immigration, life satisfaction, United Kingdom, 2004 EU enlargement
    JEL: F22 J15 I31
    Date: 2015–11
  6. By: Saenz, Mariana (Georgia Southern University); Lewer, Joshua J. (Bradley University)
    Abstract: This article contributes to immigration literature by applying a Random Utility Maximization model to derive a migration gravity model that explains factors affecting migration outflows per administrative unit and region for the country of Colombia. Negative binomial cross-sectional estimates indicate that departments sharing an international border and overall labor market conditions are significance determinants of migration patterns for the departments, but non-economic factors such as credit constraints and cultural networks also affect migration outflows. Estimation of regional migration outflows are also provided and yield unique findings per geographic location.
    Keywords: emigration, Colombia, gravity model, negative binomial regression
    JEL: F22 C25 H11
    Date: 2015–11
  7. By: Anghel, Remus Gabriel (Romanian Institute for Research on National Minorities); Piracha, Matloob (University of Kent); Randazzo, Teresa (University of Kent)
    Abstract: In the past twenty years the ever-growing levels of migrants' remittances made state agencies, international organizations, scholars and practitioners to increasingly consider remittances as one of the main engines to promote globalization and growth in the developing world. By transferring home large amounts of money, information, ideas and practices, migrants and migrant organizations are often seen as able to produce significant changes in countries and localities of origin. Focusing on cases from former socialist countries and around the world, this paper discusses the main debates surrounding the effects and uses of migrant remittances. Furthermore, using different case studies from Europe and Asia, the paper addresses the notion of social remittances, namely the transfers of ideas, practices and norms between societies of origin and destination. It highlights the ideas and practices migrants transfer home, the types of social norms it generates, and the extent to which migration produces transformations in countries of origin.
    Keywords: remittances, social remittances, former socialist countries
    JEL: F22 F24
    Date: 2015–11
  8. By: Winters, John V. (Oklahoma State University)
    Abstract: College graduates are considerably more mobile than non-graduates, and previous literature suggests that the difference is at least partially attributable to college graduates being more responsive to employment opportunities in other areas. However, there exist considerable differences in migration rates by college major that have gone largely unexplained. This paper uses microdata from the American Community Survey to examine how the migration decisions of young college graduates are affected by earnings in their college major. Results indicate that higher major-specific earnings in an individual's state of birth reduce out-migration suggesting that college graduates are attracted toward areas that especially reward the specific type of human capital that they possess.
    Keywords: graduate migration, college major, college graduates, human capital
    JEL: J24 J61 R23
    Date: 2015–11
  9. By: Naomi HATSUKANO (Bangkok Research Center, JETRO Bangkok/ IDE-JETRO)
    Abstract: Migration between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) member states will increase when the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) stimulates economic development within the region and demand for labour grows. The majority of migrant workers in ASEAN member states are lower-skilled workers; however, the free flow of lower-skilled workers is not addressed in the AEC. The ASEAN Declaration on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of Migrant Workers in 2007 and its Work Plan in 2008 are to promote regional cooperation to protect the lower-skilled migrant workers. To reduce the waiting time and cost associated with the unclear and inefficient administration, and to add more value to regular migration, it is important to promote the use of official channels. Securing workers’ welfare will also lead to increased productivity.
    Keywords: ASEAN, lower-skilled workers, regular migration, remittances
    JEL: J61
    Date: 2015–11
  10. By: Gobillon, Laurent (Paris School of Economics); Solignac, Matthieu (University of Pennsylvania)
    Abstract: We investigate the difference in homeownership rates between natives and first-generation immigrants in France, and how this difference evolves over the 1975-1999 period, by using a large longitudinal dataset. We find that the homeownership gap is large and has increased. Entries into the territory have a large negative effect on the evolution of homeownership rates for immigrants. Although entrants have on average better education than people staying in the territory for the entire period (i.e. stayers), they are younger and thus at an earlier stage in the wealth accumulation process. They are also located in large cities, where the homeownership rate is lower, and the returns to their characteristics are lower than those for stayers. Leavers have a positive effect on the evolution of homeownership rates for immigrants because they have a low access to homeownership and they exit the country. But this effect is only one-third that of entrants. For stayers, we show that returns to characteristics change in favor of immigrants, which is consistent with assimilation theories. However, among stayers who access homeownership, immigrants end up in owned dwellings that are of lesser quality than natives.
    Keywords: homeownership, immigrants, longitudinal data
    JEL: J15 R21
    Date: 2015–11
  11. By: Uri Dadush
    Abstract: The contribution that the diaspora makes to development in the country of origin is examined. Drawing on a recent World Bank survey of migrants from the MENA countries, the needs of the diaspora and the development role it can play through its organizations are reviewed. A constructive interaction with the diaspora can be greatly enhanced by supportive policies in the country of origin. The main focus of the paper is on the Middle East and North African region, and more specifically on Morocco and how it compares with other world regions where migration plays an important role. The best possible outcome for the migrants’ countries of origin would be reforms that accelerate growth and foster job creation. However, even the best designed and most assiduously implemented reforms will not yield results quickly enough for the young and burgeoning population. That is why policies that forge stronger links with the diaspora and facilitate emigration of those that cannot find good jobs at home can make sense as part of a broader development strategy. Many of today’s high income countries, such as Ireland, Italy, and Swedenwere once countries of very high emigration.
    Keywords: Diaspora, Morocco, Development, emigration, MENA region, skilled-migration, remittances, poverty, investment flows, portfolio flows, advanced countries
    Date: 2015–11
  12. By: Christian Dustmann; Giovanni Facchini; Cora Signorotto
    Abstract: We review the literature on recent demographic changes in Europe, focusing on two of the main challenges brought about by an ageing population: severe labor shortages in many sectors of the economy and growing pressures on both health and welfare systems. We discuss how and to what extent migration can contribute to address these challenges both from a short and a long term perspective. Finally, we identify several areas in which more research is needed to help devising more effective policies to cope with a greying society.
    Keywords: Population, Migration, Ageing
    Date: 2015

This nep-mig issue is ©2015 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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