nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2015‒11‒01
24 papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Migration, allocation and reallocation of immigrants in the regional labour markets By Lasse Sigbjørn Stambøl
  2. Effects of Cultural Diversity on Economic Performance in Russian Regions By Marina Nesena; Leonid Limonov
  3. The impact of citizenship on intermarriages. Quasi-experimental evidence from two European Union Eastern Enlargements By Davide Azzolini; Raffaele Guetto
  4. Occupational choice of migrants: does NEG tell something new? By Vera Ivanova; Hanna Vakhitova; Philip Ushchev
  5. Social Networks and Employment Performances: Evidence from Rural – Urban Migration in Vietnam By Dang, Duc Anh
  6. Emigration and Democracy By Elisabetta Lodigiani; Frédéric Docquier; Hillel Rapoport; Maurice Schiff
  7. The Earnings Advantage of Landed Immigrants Who Were Previously Temporary Residents in Canada By Hou, Feng; Bonikowska, Aneta
  8. Does immigration fosters the Algerian exports ? A Static and Dynamic Analysis By Lamara Hadjou
  9. Natural Disaster, Migration, and Regional Development By Daisuke Ikazaki
  10. Immigration Policy and Macroeconomic Performance in France By Ekrame Boubtane; Dramane Coulibaly; Hippolyte D'Albis
  11. Residential Assimilation of Immigrants: A Cohort Approach By David C Maré; Ruth M Pinkerton; Jacques Poot
  12. Do foreign workers reduce trade barriers? Microeconomic evidence By Martyn Andrews; Thorsten Schank; Richard Upward
  13. Population Aging, Migration Spillovers and the Decline in Interstate Migration By Serena Rhee; Fatih Karahan
  14. City of God Redux: Inequality, Migration, and Violent Crime in Brazil between 1980 and 2000 By Tiago Freire
  15. The Naturalization of U.S. Immigrants: Why Citizenship Rates Differ by State By Tamara M. Woroby; Melissa A. Osborne Groves
  16. Labor Market Outcomes of Highly Educated Immigrants: Does Your Name Matter? By Dafeng Xu
  17. Are there evidences of race to the bottom and welfare migration in Brazilians municipalities? By Erika Ribeiro; Eduardo Almeida
  18. Return migration to East Germany: Spatial patterns and the relevance for regional labor markets By Michaela Fuchs; Antje Weyh
  19. Shaking up the Equilibrium: Natural Disasters, Immigration and Economic Geography By Philipp Ager; Casper Worm Hansen; Lars Lønstrup
  20. Economic, social and cultural problems in the district of Tirana, after 90 years, as a result of internal migration By Manjola Xhaferri; Mirela Tase
  21. National Income Taxation and the Geographic Distribution of Population By Hildegunn Stokke; Jørn Rattsø
  22. Forming of the new ethnic image of St.Petersburg By Anton Krasnov; Dmitriy Zhitin
  23. Visa Waivers, Multilateral Resistance and International Tourism: Some Evidence from Israel By Daniel Felsenstein; Michael Beenstock; Ziv Rubin
  24. Spatial and social mobility By Matthias Wrede; Rainald Borck

  1. By: Lasse Sigbjørn Stambøl
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to analyse immigrants? mobility, both geographically and in terms of transitions into and out of the regional labour markets in Norway, in order to uncover the extent to which the workings of local labour markets contribute to integration versus exclusion. For comparisons, we have followed groups of Norwegian-born children of immigrants and the general population in and out of jobs in the same local labor markets through the same period. We also investigate whether migration contribute to change the labor market status of immigrants (like in job, in education, unemployed or outside labor force) using a ?cohort-analysis? where we follow selected cohorts of immigrants through some years after they immigrated for the first time. To measure the specific effects of migration on change of labor market status, we have compared the labor market status achieved by those who relocate compared with corresponding groups in the population that does not move. Among immigrants, we have selected the cohorts in 2004 and 2008 and then followed each of them through the five subsequent years after recorded immigrated for the first time. The analyses are undertaken based on micro panel data featuring all immigrants in Norway, mostly recognized by their reason for immigration, from the turn of millennium to as recent year as possible. Particular attention is given to examining the mobility of immigrants and native control groups relative to the gross demand for labour in regional labour markets measured by means of a complete annual regional vacancy account for each of the years involved in the study. These data and methods also allow us to specify each person's labor market status in each year during the investigation period, thus also each person's annual change in employment status during the same period. Preliminary results show that immigrants have been of great importance in order to cover part of the demand for labor in the regional labor markets. On the other hand, the results indicate that immigrants have replaced some labor without immigrant background, alongside a tendency that new immigrants replace previous immigrants in the regional labor markets. Domestic migration has to a certain extent been beneficial for immigrants to obtain employment or to carry out an education. The effect of relocation as the ease of access varies, however, according to the immigrants? reason for immigration and their regional settlement patterns by centrality. Some groups have both immediate and permanent positive impact of moving with respect to work participation, while others may have positive short-term but not long-term effects or vice versa
    Keywords: Migration; Immigration; Labour partcipation
    JEL: J1 J6
    Date: 2015–10
  2. By: Marina Nesena; Leonid Limonov
    Abstract: Cultural diversity in modern Russian society is determined, first, by the composition of the ethnic and cultural space, sometimes historically rooted in the distant past, and, second, by migration. Given the spatial characteristics of Russia, cultural diversity of cities and regions is driven not only by international, but also by internal migration. When studying the topic of cultural diversity, economic researchers are primarily interested in assessing its effects on economic performance. Over the past decades, the topic has been explored by a wide range of researchers. ?Is a culturally diversified community more successful than a homogenous one?? is one of the major questions addressed in such research. Conclusions from theoretical models offered by M. Berliant and M. Fujita with respect to the impact of cultural diversity on economic growth and its role in the creation of new knowledge suggest that productivity of knowledge creation in a region with a homogeneous culture is lower than where cultures are diverse and R&D workers are heterogeneous. The empirical literature on effects of cultural diversity offers both positive and negative evidence. The authors of this study aim to explore the cultural diversity of Russia and assess its economic value. This paper presents the first outcomes of the study. To assess cultural diversity the Simpson?s index was used. Empirical research was conducted using an open system of cities modeled by G. Ottoviano and G. Peri in which ?diversity? has impact on both performance of firms and satisfaction of customer needs through localized externalities. Preliminary evaluation of correlation between growth of income, wages and increase in the share of foreign migrants, and the share of non-native population shows that regardless of the characteristics of a region, significant correlation is only observed between growth of income, wages and share of international migration. Econometric estimation of the theoretical model used regressions of wages and rent. Per capita income and average monthly wage were alternately used as dependent variables in the regression of income. Explanatory variables were indices reflecting cultural diversity: the Simpson?s index based on country of origin, the Simpson?s index among foreign migrants and the share of foreign migrants in the population of a region. Control variables in the regressions were a set of standard control variables used in regressions of income and growth [Temple.1999; Bellini et al. 2009] that reflect differences between regions in human capital, the share of agricultural employment in total employment in the region, population density and market potential of the region.
    Keywords: Cultural diversity; migration; productivity; regional economy
    JEL: O4 R1
    Date: 2015–10
  3. By: Davide Azzolini; Raffaele Guetto
    Abstract: According to the assimilation theory, immigrants’ acquisition of the citizenship of the destination country should increase the number of intermarriages as a result of immigrants' enhanced integration. Status exchange theory, instead, would predict a negative impact of citizenship acquisition, as the latter eliminates one of the possible ‘rewards’ that immigrants obtain in marrying a member of the native population. This paper provides a causal assessment of the impact of immigrants' citizenship acquisition on intermarriages exploiting the 2004 and 2007 European Union Eastern Enlargements, following which citizens of new EU member countries became EU citizens. The study focuses on intermarriages between Italian men and foreign women and applies the Synthetic Control Method to data of the Italian Register of Marriages. Our findings support the status exchange theory and are explained by the particularly difficult socioeconomic integration of immigrant women in Italy. Results point to the existence of heterogeneous effects of EU enlargement across immigrant groups, being larger for the least socioeconomically integrated groups.
    Keywords: assimilation, citizenship, European Union enlargement, intermarriage, quasi-experiment
    Date: 2015–10
  4. By: Vera Ivanova; Hanna Vakhitova; Philip Ushchev
    Abstract: We consider an empirical model in which individuals choose jointly their destination country and occupational choice. We plan to estimate this model using Ukrainian micro-data. The main results (to be yet obtained) will shed light on joint determinants of workers' migration decisions and their occupational choice in destination regions.
    Keywords: labor migration; occupational choice; new economic geography
    JEL: J61 J62 R13
    Date: 2015–10
  5. By: Dang, Duc Anh
    Abstract: This paper considers the effects of social network on income and employment dynamics of rural-urban migrants in Vietnam. Estimation of a causal effect is challenging because unobserved factors affects both employment performances and social networks. I address this endogeneity problem by using instrumental variable method. The results suggest that social networks improve migrant’s earnings and make wage earners willing to change their jobs.
    Keywords: migration, social network, employment
    JEL: D02 J61
    Date: 2015–10–26
  6. By: Elisabetta Lodigiani (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari); Frédéric Docquier (FNRS and IRES, Université Catholique de Louvain?); Hillel Rapoport (Paris School of Economics, University Paris 1 Pantheon-Sorbonne and Migration Policy Center, European University Institute); Maurice Schiff (IZA-Bonn, Institute for the Study of Labor)
    Abstract: International migration is an important determinant of institutions, not considered so far in the development literature. Using cross-section and panel analysis for a large sample of developing countries, we find that openness to emigration (as measured by the natives’ average emigration rate) has a positive effect on home-country institutional development (as measured by standard democracy indices). The results are robust to a wide range of specifications and identification methods. Remarkably, the cross-sectional estimates are fully in line with the implied long-run relationship from dynamic panel regressions.
    Keywords: Migration, Institutions, Democracy, Development
    JEL: O15 O43 F22
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Hou, Feng; Bonikowska, Aneta
    Abstract: Although most Canadian temporary foreign worker programs did not include provisions that allow participants to apply for permanent residency until recently, a substantial number of temporary foreign workers have become landed immigrants since the 1980s. For instance, from 2008 to 2012, about 32,000 temporary foreign workers gained permanent residency each year, accounting for 13% of the total inflow of landed immigrants. This paper examines the earnings of economic immigrants who initially arrived as temporary residents and held a work or study permit, and compares them to economic immigrants who were directly selected as permanent residents from abroad.
    Keywords: Ethnic diversity and immigration, Labour, Labour market and income, Wages, salaries and other earnings
    Date: 2015–10–23
  8. By: Lamara Hadjou
    Abstract: Abstract Algeria has a large immigrant population. It is the third largest African community in the world after that of Egypt and Morocco. Its role in the international trade of Algeria has never been object of evaluation study. In line with the recent literature developed since the 1990s, through the work of Gould (1994), on the relationship between immigration and international trade, we propose in this paper to assess the impact of Algerian immigration networks on Algerian exports. It is clear that immigrants represent an opportunity for diversification and intensification of Algerian exports. However, the involvement of immigrants in trade flows is not evident. It is then necessary to assess first the impact and degree of involvement, to propose later, elements of trade policy that can improve the impact. Keywords : immigration, export, Algeria
    Keywords: F1
    JEL: F22
    Date: 2015–10
  9. By: Daisuke Ikazaki
    Abstract: As described in this paper, a simple matching theory is constructed to ascertain how natural disasters affect regional economic activities and migration. Section 2 introduces a simple matching theory model based on previous studies. This theory explains how the unemployment rate, a measure of market tightness, the wage rate, and other important variables are determined. Section 3 describes integration of the elements of natural disasters into the model of section 2. Assuming that agglomeration increases productivity, then in a typical case, one can infer an inverted U-shaped relation between utility (Wu) and the regional population (L). When a natural disaster occurs, production factors are decreased, thereby reducing productivity. Consequently, people move from the affected areas to other cities: population drain occurs. Section 4 extends the model presented in section 3. In section 4.1, regional loyalty is considered. Damage caused by natural disasters decreases the utility of each household in the affected areas. However, presuming that the utility difference between the domicile (hometown) and other regions is low, then it seems likely that people will tend to remain in their hometown even if monetary gains could be made by migrating to other areas. Consequently, multiple steady states exist. In 4.2, we assume that productivity depends on public capital, which is degraded by a natural disaster.Â@Immediately following the natural disaster, people in the affected areas might migrate to other regions. The effects of fiscal policies to recover public capital are also discussed. Results show that once migration and a population drain occur, such fiscal policies might deteriorate the regional economy further: excess supply of public capital increases the onus of the region. Such reconstruction policies decrease the household utility. Fiscal policies might engender further population outflow.
    Keywords: atural disaster; Migration; Matching theory; Regional economics
    JEL: C78 Q54 R11 R23
    Date: 2015–10
  10. By: Ekrame Boubtane (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Dramane Coulibaly (EconomiX - EconomiX - UP10 - Université Paris 10, Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense); Hippolyte D'Albis (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - UP1 - Université Panthéon-Sorbonne - CNRS)
    Abstract: This paper quantitatively assesses the interaction between permanent immigration into France and France's macroeconomic performance as seen through its GDP per capita and its unemployment rate. It takes advantage of a new database where immigration is measured by the flow of newly- issued long-term residence permits, categorized by both the nationality of the immigrant and the reason of permit issuance. Using a VAR model estimation of monthly data over the period 1994-2008, we find that immigration flow significantly responds to France's macroeconomic performance: positively to the country's GDP per capita and negatively to its unemployment rate. At the same time, we find that immigration itself increases France's GDP per capita, particularly in the case of family immigration. This family immigration also reduces the country's unemployment rate, especially when the families come from developing countries.
    Keywords: VAR Models,Unemployment,growth,Female and Family Migration,immigration
    Date: 2015–03–25
  11. By: David C Maré (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); Ruth M Pinkerton (Department of Premier and Cabinet); Jacques Poot (National Institute of Demographic and Economic Analysis)
    Abstract: This paper measures the process of residential assimilation for three cohorts of immigrants from each of five countries of birth entering Auckland, New Zealand between 1991 and 2006. It tracks, and compares, the changes in spatial segregation, isolation, and autocorrelation for these cohorts over time, using index measures adjusted for random location variation. We find evidence of residential assimilation, whereby immigrants become less spatially concentrated in the years following arrival. Overall concentration has nevertheless been increasing over time, with successive cohorts entering with higher levels of initial concentration. By examining the spatial location patterns of arrival cohorts, we show that entering cohorts are attracted to the current rather than initial locations occupied by the previous cohort of their compatriots. Despite differences across cohorts and over time, there is nevertheless a high degree of stability in the ‘residential footprint’ of different immigrant groups within Auckland.
    Keywords: immigration, segregation, residential location, ethnic diversity
    JEL: J61 R23
    Date: 2015–10
  12. By: Martyn Andrews; Thorsten Schank; Richard Upward
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence that foreign workers reduce firms’ trade costs and thus increase the probability that firms export. This informs both the literature on trade costs and the microeconomic literature on firms’ export behaviour. We identify the nationality of each worker in a large sample of German establishments, and relate this to the exporting behaviour of these establishments. We allow for the possible endogeneity of an establishment’s workforce by instrumenting the share of foreign workers with the regional distribution of foreign workers in the wider labour market. We find a significant effect of worker nationality on exporting which is not driven by the industrial, occupational or locational concentration of migrants. The effect is much stronger for senior occupations, which are more likely to have a role in exporting decisions by the establishment. The relationship is also stronger when we consider exports to particular regions and workers from these regions, consistent with a gravity model in which trade flows from country i to j are a function of migrants from j in i.
    Keywords: Firm exporting, foreign workers
    Date: 2015
  13. By: Serena Rhee (University of Hawaii at Manoa); Fatih Karahan (Federal Reserve Bank of New York)
    Abstract: Interstate migration in the United States has declined by 50 percent since the mid-1980s. This paper studies the role of the aging population in this long-run decline. We argue that demographic changes trigger a general equilibrium effect in the labor market, which affects the migration rate of all workers. We document that an increase in the share of middle-aged workers (40-60) in the working age population in one state causes a large fall in the migration rate of all workers in that state, regardless of their age. To understand this finding, we develop an equilibrium search model of many locations populated by workers whose moving costs differ. Firms prefer hiring local workers with high moving costs as they command lower wages due to their lower outside option. An increase in the share of middle-aged workers causes firms to recruit more from the local labor market instead of hiring from other locations, which increases the local job-finding rate and reduces everyone's migration rate ('migration spillovers'). Our model reproduces remarkably well several cross-sectional facts between population flows and the age structure of the labor force. Our quantitative analysis suggests that population aging accounts for about half of the observed decline, of which 75 percent is attributable to the general equilibrium effect.
    Date: 2015
  14. By: Tiago Freire
    Abstract: There is a long-held belief that inequality is a major determinant of violent crime, particularly homicides. Some previous studies suggest that these results hold in the short term only. This could result from measurement error in income inequality. This study addresses the issue of measurement error in inequality by using the relationship between migration and inequality. Using rainfall shocks and changes in transport costs as exogenous sources of out-migration from rural areas in Brazil between 1980 and 2000, the study shows how migration from rural areas affects income inequality in urban areas. It finds that not only is there a negative and statistically significant relationship between inequality and crime in Brazil, and that the effects are much larger than previously thought, but also that this relationship holds in the long term.
    Keywords: Crime; Inequality; Rural?Urban Migration; Brazil
    JEL: J61 J15 K42 R10
    Date: 2015–10
  15. By: Tamara M. Woroby (Department of Economics, Towson University); Melissa A. Osborne Groves (Department of Economics, Towson University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the extent to which the geographic region in which an immigrant resides influences the propensity to naturalize by specifically analyzing the variation in U.S. immigrant citizenship rates across states. By merging Census data with other forms of publically available state level data, we are able to better understand why state naturalization rates in the U.S. vary so dramatically, from a low of about 30% to a high of almost 60%. We find that while applying for citizenship is an individual decision, both institutional and group variables influence this decision. Consistent with prior research, our results indicate that a more favorable economic environment is correlated with higher naturalization rates and that the clustering of Mexicans discourages naturalization. Unique to the literature, our results also indicate that states that are more socially and politically welcoming to immigrants have statistically higher rates of naturalization, and that there are no significant negative effects on naturalization rates in states with larger numbers of undocumented immigrants. Our research contributes to the growing body of literature on naturalization decisions and supports the proposition that attitudes towards immigrants, be they authorized or undocumented, influence the extent to which the foreign born become fuller participants in U.S. society.
    Keywords: Mexican Immigration, Citizenship, Naturalization.
    JEL: J61
    Date: 2015–10
  16. By: Dafeng Xu
    Abstract: Prior empirical research shows that acculturation in the host country might be positively related to immigrants? labor market outcomes. However, whether acculturation helps highly educated immigrants in the labor market is in question, as they have completed a significant fraction of human capital accumulation in their home country. In this paper, I attempt to identify the effect of acculturation on labor market outcomes of Chinese students with bachelor?s degrees in Chinese colleges and graduate degrees in US schools. Acculturation is measured by the use of Westernized names on the online social networking site. Various statistical models show no evidence that the use of Westernized names has significant impacts on labor market outcomes.
    Keywords: J1 J6 Z1
    Date: 2015–10
  17. By: Erika Ribeiro; Eduardo Almeida
    Abstract: In 1988, the 'new' Brazilian Federal Constitution increased municipalities? responsibilities. One of those responsibilities is to conduct spending which the main goal is population welfare. Considering the possibility of specific local welfare expenditures, individuals tend to migrate to cities with higher expenditures, consequently, that offer better life quality. In other words, tends to be a welfare migration. This welfare migration could be 'desired' if immigrants are net contributors to the tax system and 'undesired' if these individuals are poor (not net contributors), generating prejudice to municipal public coffers. Hence, economists debate that 'undesired' welfare migration could drive these municipal expenditures (targeted to meet the demand for public goods) to very low values, that is, to a race to the bottom. In the presence of that phenomenon, spatial interaction between expenditures of each municipality and neighbors? expenditures would take place. This paper seeks to analysis the evidence of the race to the bottom and welfare migration in Brazilian municipalities, in 2000 and 2010, whose main source of data is Census. For this, is used Fixed Effects model and, concomitant, Spatial Durbin Model. In welfare migration tests, immigration and low-income immigration are used as dependents variables, looking for indications of 'desired' and 'undesired' welfare migration. In race to the bottom tests the dependent variable is the sum of public spending on health, education and social assistance. In this estimation, the influences of immigration and spending neighbors on local spending are tested. Results demonstrate several interesting answers, since there is no paper in the literature that verify existence of those two phenomena to Brazil and no paper was found that makes these analyzes, using both equations: one whose dependent variable are welfare expenditures and other that the dependent variable is immigration. Results provide evidence of welfare migration. However, when analyzed separately, low-income individuals do not exhibit similar behavior and, hence, there is no evidence of 'undesired' welfare migration. Moreover, despite evidence of spatial spillovers welfare expenditures, it cannot be confirmed the existence of race to the bottom, since the municipalities do not reduce their welfare expenditure in a presence of more immigration. Finally, there is evidence that increases in immigration raises welfare spending. This result suggests that an increase in immigration can generate a bigger competition for work, and to reduce the negative effects of this competition, residents choose a government that elevate those expenditures. Then, there is in Brazil, a situation that the welfare migration motivates the formation of urban centers where public expenditures become increasingly high. Therefore, it is important to develop public policies that seeks local development in order to mitigate those migration flows that concentrate people and public expenditure in certain localities, increasing further more regional inequalities.
    Keywords: Public expenditures; welfare migration; spatial econometric
    JEL: H75 C23 R1
    Date: 2015–10
  18. By: Michaela Fuchs; Antje Weyh
    Abstract: Against the background of bad labor market conditions with high unemployment, poor job prospects, and low wages, East Germany used to experience long-standing high net migration outflows. During the last years, however, the situation on the East German labor market changed fundamentally, and employers nowadays increasingly experience problems with the recruitment of qualified workers. One popular way to stabilize labor supply has become the systematic approach of East Germans who migrated to West Germany to induce their return. So far, however, the few empirical studies on this topic have relied on survey data or case studies, thereby providing only selective insights on return migration to East Germany. It is thus still an open question how many return migrants there are, which regions they return to, and how relevant their return would be for the local labor markets. In this paper, we analyze labor-market related return migration from West to East Germany and provide some answers to the question on the relevance for local labor markets. Using a unique data set that covers all labor market participants in Germany, we trace the migration and employment history of East Germans as of December 31st, 2012 from 1999 onwards. Our research adds to the existing literature in several ways. First, complementing survey-based findings, we provide detailed and comprehensive descriptive evidence on migration from West to East Germany. Second, we map the spatial migration patterns of the return migrants on the level of NUTS3-regions. Special emphasis is given to the relocation of the place of living only against the simultaneous relocation of the place of work. Third, we take a detailed look at all labor market participants. Apart from employees liable to social security, we consider unemployed, apprentices, and marginally employed. For all four groups, we investigate whether they maintained or improved their labor market status by migration. This way, we contribute to the discussion on the relevance of economic motives versus social ties as motives for return migration. Our results provide good news for the East German districts directly at the former intra-German border, the larger cities and the regions surrounding Berlin that might well profit from return migration for the stabilization of regional labor supply. However, for the remaining mostly rural regions they rather provide bad news.
    Keywords: return migration; regional labor markets; East Germany
    JEL: J30 R23
    Date: 2015–10
  19. By: Philipp Ager (Department of Business and Economics, University of Southern Denmark); Casper Worm Hansen (Department of Economics, University of Copenhagen); Lars Lønstrup (Department of Business and Economics, University of Southern Denmark)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of a large temporary shock on the agglomeration of economic activity. Using variation in the potential damage intensity of the 1906 San Francisco earthquake across counties in the American West, we ?find that the earthquake persistently decreased various measures of economic activity, such as population size and total wage expenditures. The main reason for this long-lasting effect is that the earthquake changed the location choice of migrants, who decided to settle in less affected areas of the American West. Our fi?ndings suggest that a large temporary shock can have a persistent effect on the location of economic activity.
    Keywords: Natural Disasters, Economic Development, Location of Economic Activity, Immigration
    JEL: N9 O15 O40 R11 R12
    Date: 2015–10–23
  20. By: Manjola Xhaferri (University of\); Mirela Tase (University of\)
    Abstract: - The political changes that took place after the 90s created the possibility for a free movement of the inhabitants from different regions that can be grouped as follows: - Movement or emigration outside Albania;- Movement from the villages around the city or from the administrative centers of the respective district;- Movement toward the suburbs of big centers such as: Tirana, Durrësi, Vlora, Elbasani, Shkodra etc.In our paper we have focused on the movement toward the Capital City. We have especially concentrated on the grouping of inhabitants arriving from the Northern and Southern areas of Albania and who have settled in Bathore, Baldushk, Sauk, Selite, Farke. The inhabitants have been mainly canvassed (questioned) in relation to these problems: a.Reasons of movingb.Problems of adaptation in the new environment (confrontation with the new mentality of the Capital City, employment, education etc.)c.Cohabitation with the natives (found there, including here maritial and social relations etc.) These are problems which willingly or unwillingly these new comers have had to face and will face in the future, up to the moment when they will be fully integrated in a metropolitan city such as Tirana. Here we will take into consideration the changes they have had to undergo due to the living conditions they have left behind and from which they are still affected.
    Keywords: Economic, Social, Cultural, Problems, Tirana
    JEL: Z10
  21. By: Hildegunn Stokke; Jørn Rattsø
    Abstract: Income taxation may affect the regional allocation of population when prices vary over space. Our contribution is to compare different income tax systems in a migration equilibrium model for Norway using improved measure of regional wage differences. We apply register data of individual wages for the entire population to identify wage differences, while controlling for both observable and unobservable worker characteristics and allowing for dynamic learning effects on wages. We estimate regional differences in cost of living based on detailed data on housing prices. The model is calibrated to the current nominal income tax system and compared to an undistorted equilibrium without income tax. We investigate two alternative tax systems: Real income taxation where the real tax burden is proportional to real wages and equal real taxes across regions motivated by taxation of amenities. The numerical simulations document large shifts in the regional distribution of the population as the result of income taxation. The elasticity of population with respect to tax payments comes out with a value of -2.64. Nominal income taxation creates a disincentive to locate in productive high-wage regions, and generates a deadweight loss due to locational inefficiencies equal to 0.028% of income. Real income taxation gives a geographic distribution of the population closer to the undistorted equilibrium, and hence with lower deadweight loss, while equal real taxes is the least efficient tax system.
    Keywords: Income taxation; regional taxation; cost of living; amenities
    JEL: H24 H77 J61 R23
    Date: 2015–10
  22. By: Anton Krasnov; Dmitriy Zhitin
    Abstract: Ethnic and migration processes in Russia after the collapse of The Soviet Union have significantly changed the ethnic composition of major Russian cities. On the one hand, we see continuing of assimilation of most national communities which historically lived in the largest Russian cities (Ukrainians, Belarusians, Tatars, Jews etc.). On the other hand, the increased influx of migrants from the Republic of former Soviet Union led to the formation of new large ethnic communities. The paper deals with the transformation of the ethnic population structure of Russian cities on the example of St. Petersburg. Although St. Petersburg has five million inhabitants and national minorities accounts less than 8 percent in the population, this figure is increasing. In contrast to the situation 25 years ago, today we can see the areas where the concentration of different ethnic diasporas is significantly different from the mean value of the city. Thus, there are quite clearly distinguished areas where the prevalence of a particular ethnic group is significant. But on the contrary, there are areas where some ethnic groups almost completely absent. Since St. Petersburg is observed as a combination of more than hundred municipalities, all patterns can be seen quite clearly in a spatial aspect. And the phenomenon of spatial heterogeneity of resettlement of ethnic groups in St. Petersburg is the subject of the paper. The article contains materials of the censuses of the Soviet and Russian periods. Also we used cartographic techniques and methods of mathematical statistics to calculate the indicators needed to describe the degree of localization of the various ethnic groups. In addition, the correlation analysis of the resettlement of various ethnic groups has done.
    Keywords: migrations; ethnic minorities; ethnic segregation; St.Petersburg
    JEL: J15
    Date: 2015–10
  23. By: Daniel Felsenstein; Michael Beenstock; Ziv Rubin
    Abstract: This paper tests the visa-led tourism hypothesis (VTH) which contends that easing of visa restrictions increases international tourism. Israel acts as a natural laboratory in this case with clear before and after junctures in visa restrictions. We use panel data on tourism to Israel from 60 countries during 1994-2012. In contrast to previous work we take account of non-stationarity in the data and test for the effect of multilateral resistance on tourism. Partial waivers of visa restrictions are estimated to increase tourism by 48 percent and complete waivers increase tourism by 118 percent. Other results include the adverse effect of Israel?s security situation on tourism, the beneficial effect of real devaluation on tourism, and the fact that the elasticity of tourism to Israel with respect to tourism to all destinations is very small.
    Keywords: International tourism; visa arrangements; multilateral resistance; panel data
    JEL: C23 R23
    Date: 2015–10
  24. By: Matthias Wrede; Rainald Borck
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the relationship between spatial mobility and social mobility. It develops a two-skill-type spatial equilibrium model of two regions with location preferences where each region consists of an urban area which is home to workplaces and residences and an exclusively residential suburban area. The paper demonstrates that both segregation and regional income inequality are negatively correlated with relative regional social mobility. In the model, segregation is driven by differences between urban and residential areas in commuting cost differences between high-skilled and low-skilled workers, whereas regional income inequality also depends on the magnitude of the productivity gap of low-skilled workers. A larger productivity gap does not affect segregation, but causes higher income inequality and lower relative mobility in the respective region.
    Keywords: social mobility; spatial mobility; segregation; inequality
    JEL: J62 R13
    Date: 2015–10

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