nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2015‒10‒10
sixteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. The Effects of Immigration on NHS Waiting Times By Giuntella, Osea; Nicodemo, Catia; Vargas-Silva, Carlos
  2. Environmental Disasters and Migration By Mbaye, Linguère Mously; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
  3. Do Migrant Remittances Affect Household Purchases of Physical Investments and Durable Goods? Evidence for Kenya By Farai Jena
  4. Occupational Attainment and Earnings among Immigrant Groups: Evidence from New Zealand By Maani, Sholeh A.; Dai, Mengyu; Inkson, Kerr
  5. Wage Gaps between Native and Migrant Graduates of Higher Education Institutions in the Netherlands By Gheasi, Masood; Nijkamp, Peter; Rietveld, Piet
  6. Discrimination against Migrants in Austria: An Experimental Study By Weichselbaumer, Doris
  7. Emigration, remittances and corruption experience of those staying behind By ARTJOMS IVLEVS; ROSWITHA M. KING
  8. Illegal Immigration and Multiple Destinations By MIYAGIWA Kaz; SATO Yasuhiro
  9. The Impact of Syrian Refugees on Natives' Labor Market Outcomes in Turkey: Evidence from a Quasi-Experimental Design By Ceritoglu, Evren; Gurcihan Yunculer, H. Burcu; Torun, Huzeyfe; Tumen, Semih
  10. Aging, Trade and Migration By Richard Chisik; Harun Onder; Dhimitri Qirjo
  11. The Impact of Rural-Urban Migration on the Health of the Left-behind Parents By Ao, Xiang; Jiang, Dawei; Zhao, Zhong
  12. Is Italy the “Promised Land” for Romanians Emigrants ? An Empirical Evidence of Romanian Emigrants in Italy D By Anne Marie Andreea Hordau
  13. Intergenerational Correlations of Extreme Right-Wing Party Preferences and Attitudes toward Immigration By Avdeenko, Alexandra; Siedler, Thomas
  14. Effect of consuming imported cultural goods on trading partners’ tolerance toward immigrants: The case of Japanese anime in Korea By Yamamura, Eiji; Shin, Inyong
  15. Southwest as the New Internal Migration Destination in Turkey By Ali T. Akarca; Aysit Tansel
  16. Employment vulnerability in Europe: Is there a migration effect? By Rémi Bazillier; Cristina Boboc; Oana Calavrezo

  1. By: Giuntella, Osea (University of Oxford); Nicodemo, Catia (University of Oxford); Vargas-Silva, Carlos (University of Oxford)
    Abstract: This paper analyses the effects of immigration on waiting times in the National Health Service (NHS) in England. Linking administrative records from the Hospital Episode Statistics (2003-2012) with immigration data drawn from the UK Labour Force Survey, we find that immigration reduced waiting times for outpatient referrals and did not have significant effects on waiting times in Accident and Emergency (A&E) and elective care. These results are explained by the fact that immigration increases natives' internal mobility and that immigrants tend to be healthier than the natives moving to different areas. On the contrary, we show that outpatient waiting times tend to increase in areas where native internal migrants moved into. Finally, we find evidence that immigration increased waiting times for outpatient referrals in more deprived areas outside London. The increase in average waiting times in more deprived areas is concentrated in the years immediately following the 2004 EU enlargement and vanished in the medium-run (e.g., 3 to 4 years).
    Keywords: immigration, waiting times, NHS, access to health care, welfare
    JEL: I10 J61
    Date: 2015–09
  2. By: Mbaye, Linguère Mously (African Development Bank); Zimmermann, Klaus F. (IZA and University of Bonn)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the effect of environmental disasters on migration. Although there is an increase of environmental disasters and migration over the past years, the relationship is complex. While some authors find that environmental disasters increase migration, others show that they have only a marginal or no effect or are even negative. Migration appears to be an insurance mechanism against environmental shocks. Remittances help to decrease households' vulnerability to shocks but also dampen their adverse effects. Finally, we discuss policy implications and future research avenues.
    Keywords: environmental shocks, forced migration, remittances, migration as insurance, floods, earthquakes, droughts
    JEL: J61 O15 Q54 Q56
    Date: 2015–09
  3. By: Farai Jena (Department of Economics, University of Sussex, UK)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of remittances on household decisions to purchase physical investments and durable goods in Kenya using household survey data. Remittances are found to be endogenous in the durable goods case and their effects are estimated using bivariate and IV probit models. In the physical investments case, remittances are found to be exogenous and remittance effects are estimated using univariate probit models. The evidence obtained is supportive of remittances having a positive and significant effect on the decisions by households to purchase physical investments and durable goods.
    Keywords: migrant remittances; household expenditure; physical investments; durable goods
    JEL: D12
    Date: 2015–09
  4. By: Maani, Sholeh A. (University of Auckland); Dai, Mengyu (University of Auckland); Inkson, Kerr (University of Auckland)
    Abstract: This paper concerns the prediction of career success among migrants. We focus specifically on the role of occupation as a mediating variable between the predictor variables education and time since migration, and the dependent variable career success as denoted by occupational status, linked to earnings. Following a review of the literature specifically focused on occupation, we apply Ordered Probit analysis to a sample of over 37,900 employed males surveyed in New Zealand. New Zealand provides an interesting case, as a country where migrants from diverse ethnic groups comprise a significant part of the population. We focus on the occupational attainment of immigrants and the native-born populations and provide evidence on the mediating effect of occupational attainment on earnings. Our analyses show the interplay of factors leading to occupational attainment: for example, education level is of greatest importance, and much of its effect on earnings is through occupational attainment; different immigrant groups have differentiable outcomes, and years of experience in the host country enable gradual occupational advancement. This is the first application of this analysis to New Zealand data. Our results highlight the significant mediating role of occupational attainment in explaining earnings across immigrant and native-born groups.
    Keywords: occupational attainment, earnings, immigrants, ethnic group
    JEL: J30 J31
    Date: 2015–09
  5. By: Gheasi, Masood (VU University Amsterdam); Nijkamp, Peter (VU University Amsterdam); Rietveld, Piet (VU University Amsterdam)
    Abstract: In the Netherlands the share of immigrants in the total population has steadily increased in recent decades. The present paper takes a look at wage differences between natives and migrants who are equally educated. This reduces potential skills biases in our analysis. We apply a Mincer equation in estimating the wage differences between natives and migrants. In our study we analyze only young graduates, so that conventional human capital factors cannot explain the differences in monthly gross wages. Therefore, we focused on "otherness" factors, such as parents' roots to find an alternative explanation. Our empirical results show that acquiring Dutch human capital, Dutch-specific skills, language proficiency, and integration in the long-term (second-generation with non-OECD background) are not sufficient to overcome wage differences in the Dutch labor market, especially for migrants with parents from non-OECD countries.
    Keywords: immigration, education, wage
    JEL: F22 I2
    Date: 2015–09
  6. By: Weichselbaumer, Doris (University of Linz)
    Abstract: This paper experimentally examines the employment opportunities of Austrians with and without migration background who apply to job openings. Previous experiments have indicated ethnicity via the name of an applicant, however employers may not always correctly perceive this signal. This study uses a novel approach to signal ethnic background and employs carefully matched photos as distinct visual cues. While results document employment discrimination for all groups with migration background, it is most pronounced for applicants with an African background. To explain why and when discrimination occurs, a battery of firm and job specific characteristics are examined. These, however, help little to explain the level of employment discrimination in Austria.
    Keywords: migration, discrimination, hiring, correspondence testing
    JEL: C93 J15 J71
    Date: 2015–09
    Abstract: We examine the effects of emigration and remittances on the corruption experience of migrant household members staying in the countries of origin. We hypothesize that the effects of emigration on corruption can be both positive (via migrant value transfer) and negative (via misuse of monetary remittances). Using data from Gallup Balkan Monitor survey in instrumental variable analysis, we find that having relatives abroad reduces the probability of bribing public officials but receiving monetary remittances offsets this beneficial effect. We also find that migrant households, and especially remittance-recipient households, are more likely to be extortion targets for public officials. These findings support both the direct value transfer and the indirect monetary channels of influence.
    Keywords: emigration, corruption, institutions, diaspora externalities, Western Balkans
    JEL: F22 F24 D73
    Date: 2015–03–02
  8. By: MIYAGIWA Kaz; SATO Yasuhiro
    Abstract: This paper examines the efficacy of internal and external enforcement policy to combat illegal immigration. The model features search-theoretic unemployment and policy interdependency among multiple destination countries. With one destination country, internal and external enforcement policies have similar effects. With multiple destination countries, we consider prototypal geographical configurations. In one, all destinations are contiguous with the source country, while in the other, only one destination country is contiguous with the source country. In both cases, the equilibrium external enforcement policy level is lower than the joint optimum, calling for supranational authorities to implement immigration policy. In the absence of such policy, we consider the effect of delegating border control policy to one destination country and find that delegation of authorities to the largest country can improve each destination country's welfare relative to the Nash equilibrium level.
    Date: 2015–10
  9. By: Ceritoglu, Evren (Central Bank of Turkey); Gurcihan Yunculer, H. Burcu (Central Bank of Turkey); Torun, Huzeyfe (Central Bank of Turkey); Tumen, Semih (Central Bank of Turkey)
    Abstract: Civil war in Syria, which started in March 2011, has led to a massive wave of forced immigration from the Northern Syria to the Southeastern regions of Turkey. This paper exploits this natural experiment to estimate the impact of Syrian refugees on the labor market outcomes of natives in Turkey. Using a difference-in-differences strategy, we find that immigration has considerably affected the employment outcomes of natives, while its impact on wage outcomes has been negligible. We document notable employment losses among informal workers as a consequence of refugee inflows. The majority of those who lost their informal jobs have either left the labor force or remained unemployed. Overall, unemployment rates have increased, while labor force participation, informal employment, and job finding rates have declined among natives. Disadvantaged groups – i.e., females, younger workers, and less-educated workers – have been affected the worst. The prevalence of informal employment in the Turkish labor markets has amplified the negative impact of Syrian refugee inflows on natives' labor market outcomes.
    Keywords: Syrian civil war, immigration, Turkey, labor market, informality, difference in differences
    JEL: J15 J21 J61 C21
    Date: 2015–10
  10. By: Richard Chisik (Department of Economics, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada); Harun Onder (The World Bank); Dhimitri Qirjo (Department of Economics & Finance, SUNY Plattsburgh)
    Abstract: We consider the role of demand driven changes arising from popula- tion aging and how they aect the pattern of international trade as well as trade and immigration policy. An aging society can see a wel- fare reducing reduction in its share of manufacturing output and this reduction is magnied by a decrease in trade costs (an increase in glob- alization). Immigration can ameliorate this outcome if it is directed towards younger immigrants. A unilateral tari increase can also re- duce rm delocation from aging country, however, a reciprocated tari increase will unambiguously harm the country with the older average population.
    Keywords: Demographic Transition, Consumption, Trade Policy, Immigration Policy.
    JEL: F12 J14 F22
    Date: 2015–10
  11. By: Ao, Xiang (Renmin University of China); Jiang, Dawei (Renmin University of China); Zhao, Zhong (Renmin University of China)
    Abstract: Since the reform and opening up in 1978, China has begun a period of rapid industrialization and urbanization. Along with an increasing number of rural people migrating to urban area for jobs, there are a considerable number of elderly parents left behind in the rural area. The impact of migration of the adult children on the health of their left-behind parents is ambiguous. On the one hand, the additional income from the children's jobs can allow their parents to afford better health care and nutrition; on the other hand, the migration necessarily reduces the amount of time the children have to take care of their parents. This paper uses the Rural Urban Migration in China data to empirically investigate the effect of adult children's migration on the health of the left-behind parents. Based on a linear probability model with instrumental variable correction, we find that having one additional adult child migrated to an urban area increases the probability of the left-behind elderly parents being in poor health condition by about 8%. Furthermore, parents having only one child, from low-income households, or aged above 60 years are affected more. Our results point out that the parents with only one child is the most vulnerable group and highlight the importance of establishing a formal care system for the rural elderly to complement the traditional family care in rural China.
    Keywords: left-behind parents, health, rural-urban migration, China
    JEL: O15 J14 I15
    Date: 2015–09
  12. By: Anne Marie Andreea Hordau (Cluj Napoca Technical University - Baia Mare Branch)
    Abstract: In this article we focused on the Romanian emigrants. During last years evidences have showed up that the main country destination for Romanians emigrants is Italy. In these conditions, the question who appears in everyone mind is what makes Italy so attractive? Is Italy the new “promised land“for Romanians, as it was America years ago for emigrants? What it is very easy to observe is that the mobility of migrants during the free visa regime was initially labor supply driven, whereas more recently, it has been labor demand that moved the migrant from his country of origin. Our research tries to identify the main reasons who contributed to the migrations of Romanians and to find out which was the economical impact and to suggest some recommendations.We try as well to forecast the level of remittances in the next years and to se which is its impact on Romanian economy , but also on Italian one since it is linked with the employment level of the Romanians.
    Keywords: migration, employment, earnings, education, Romanian migrants , Italy
    JEL: J11 J24 J31
  13. By: Avdeenko, Alexandra (University of Mannheim); Siedler, Thomas (University of Hamburg)
    Abstract: This study analyzes the importance of parental socialization on the development of children's far right-wing preferences and attitudes towards immigration. Using longitudinal data from Germany, our intergenerational estimates suggest that the strongest and most important predictor for young people's right-wing extremism are parents' right-wing extremist attitudes. While intergenerational associations in attitudes towards immigration are equally high for sons and daughters, we find a positive intergenerational transmission of right-wing extremist party affinity for sons, but not for daughters. Compared to the intergenerational correlation of other party affinities, the high association between fathers' and sons' right-wing extremist attitudes is particularly striking.
    Keywords: political preferences, extremism, gender differences, longitudinal data, intergenerational links
    JEL: C23 D72 J62 P16
    Date: 2015–09
  14. By: Yamamura, Eiji; Shin, Inyong
    Abstract: there is political tension and conflict between countries. Because of this historical background, political conflict exists between Korea and Japan. This paper examines the effect of viewing Japanese anime (animation) on the attitudes of Koreans toward Japanese living in Korea. The major findings of the study show that the more frequently adult Koreans view Japanese anime, the more likely they are to accept Japanese as workplace colleagues and neighbors after controlling for endogeneity bias using instrumental variables. The findings of this paper imply that via the consumption of imported cultural goods, people are exposed to positive traits of the trading partner, and thus consumers have a stronger affinity with the export country. From this, we derive the policy implication that promoting trade of modern cultural goods is effective to increase mutual understanding between trade partners, reducing political tension between them.
    Keywords: Anime; Immigrants; Workplace; Neighbor; Trade; Externality; Cool Japan.
    JEL: D12 D74 F16 Z11 Z18
    Date: 2015–10–02
  15. By: Ali T. Akarca (Department of Economics, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, USA); Aysit Tansel (Department of Economics, METU; Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA) Bonn, Germany; Economic Research Forum (ERF) Cairo, Egypt)
    Abstract: Antalya and Mugla provinces located in southwestern Turkey have emerged as new magnets for internal migration in the country. Socio-economic, demographic and labor market characteristics of immigrants coming to these two provinces from various regions are studied to uncover the reasons fueling their moves. This is accomplished through an analysis of descriptive statistics, and an analysis of a gravity model estimated. Differences and similarities between immigrants coming to these two provinces and those going to other migrant magnets, between immigrants and natives in Antalya and Mugla, and among immigrants coming to the two provinces from various origins are noted. What distinguishes Antalya and Mugla from other migrant-drawing provinces is that they attract some retirees and university students as well and their immigrants participating in the labor force are attracted mainly by jobs created in the sectors related to tourism, either directly or indirectly, rather than industry. Immigrants from different origins exhibit different characteristics and tend to specialize in different types of jobs. However, as other migrant flows, those directed at Antalya and Mugla are affected by distance adversely and by unemployment differential, past migration and population size at origin, favorably.
    Keywords: Internal migration, labor market, gravity model, Turkey, Antalya, Mugla.
    JEL: J21 J61 R23
    Date: 2015–08
  16. By: Rémi Bazillier (LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orleans - UO - Université d'Orléans - CNRS); Cristina Boboc (LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orléans - UO - Université d'Orléans, Département de Statistique et Econométrie - Academie des Etudes Economiques); Oana Calavrezo (CEE - Centre d'études de l'emploi - M.E.N.E.S.R. - Ministère de l'Éducation nationale, de l’Enseignement supérieur et de la Recherche - Ministère du Travail, de l'Emploi et de la Santé)
    Abstract: One of the most salient evolutions of labour markets in Europe is the increasing number of atypical job contracts (fixed-term contracts, temporary work) and an augmentation of job turnover. These phenomena weaken the relationship between employers and employees. The concept of employment vulnerability may be accurate to describe current evolutions. Our paper provides a set of new indicators of employment vulnerability for European countries. In the context of an important mobility of workers between European countries, emigration could be seen as a way of escaping from employment vulnerability in the country of origin. In this paper, we would like to test this hypothesis by comparing individual levels of employment vulnerability between migrants and native workers. We implement propensity score matching methods on the European Social Survey (2008). Overall, we show that migrants face the same level of employment vulnerability as natives, all other things being equal. But there are strong differences by skill-level. Low-skilled migrants have a lower level of vulnerability mainly because of a lower level of employer vulnerability. On contrary, high-skilled migrants face a higher level of vulnerability mainly explained by a higher job vulnerability.
    Keywords: labour market,vulnerability,migration,Europe
    Date: 2014

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