nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2015‒09‒26
twelve papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Why Do Fewer Agricultural Workers Migrate Now? By Fan, Maoyong; Gabbard, Susan; Pena, Anita Alves; Perloff, Jeffrey M
  2. Migration and Deforestation in Indonesia By Rivayani Darmawan; Stephan Klasen; Nunung Nuryantono
  3. Migrant Networks and Job Search Outcomes: Evidence from Displaced Workers By Colussi, Tommaso
  4. Which Human Capital Characteristics Best Predict the Earnings of Economic Immigrants? By Hou, Feng; Picot, Garnett; Bonikowska, Aneta
  5. Framing the Immigrant Movement as about Rights, Family, or Economics: Which Appeals Resonate and for Whom? By Bloemraad, Irene; Voss, Kim; Silva, Fabiana
  6. Country-Specific Preferences and Employment Rates in Europe By Simone Moriconi; Giovanni Peri
  7. A "Healthy Immigrant Effect" or a "Sick Immigrant Effect"? Selection and Policies Matter By Constant, Amelie F.; García-Muñoz, Teresa; Neuman, Shoshana; Neuman, Tzahi
  8. Regional Shocks, Migration and Homeownership By Florian Oswald
  9. Foreign inventors in the US:\r\n Testing for Diaspora and Brain Gain Effects By Stefano BRESCHI; Francesco LISSONI; Ernest MIGUELEZ
  10. Changes in Migration Patterns and Remittances: Do Females and Skilled Migrants Remit More? By Maëlan Le Goff; Sara Salomone
  11. Migration, remittances and educational levels of household members left behind: Evidence from rural Morocco By Jamal BOUOIYOUR; Amal MIFTAH
  12. The impact of remittances on household investments in children's human capital: Evidence from Morocco By Jamal BOUOIYOUR; Amal MIFTAH

  1. By: Fan, Maoyong; Gabbard, Susan; Pena, Anita Alves; Perloff, Jeffrey M
    Abstract: The share of agricultural workers who migrate within the United States has fallen by approximately 60% since the late 1990s. To explain this decline in the migration rate, we estimate annual migration - choice models using data from the National Agricultural Workers Survey for 1989 – 2009. On average over the last decade of the sample, one - third of the fall in the migration rate was due to changes in the demographic composition of the workforce, while two - thirds was due to changes in coefficients (“structural†change). In some years, demographic changes were responsible for half of the overall change.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, migration, agricultural workers, demographics
    Date: 2014–10–01
  2. By: Rivayani Darmawan (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Stephan Klasen (Georg-August-University Göttingen); Nunung Nuryantono (Bogor Agricultural University)
    Abstract: Indonesia now has the highest deforestation rate in the world, with an average increase of about 47,600 ha per year. As a result, the nation is one of the largest emitters of greenhouse gases in the world and putting its rich biodiversity at risk. Although the literature discussing the political economy of Indonesia commercial’s logging is growing, only a small amount focuses on the relationship between migration and deforestation. Migration may contribute to the forest cover change, as migrants often face serious constraints from the local residents in claiming the land, and thus tend to find new forest land which can be used as a means of living or converted into an agricultural plantation. This paper empirically investigates the relationship between recent in-migration and deforestation in Indonesia. By combining available population census data with the satellite image data MODIS, we find a significant positive relationship between migration and deforestation at the district level using a fixed effects panel econometric framework. The results also suggest that the expanding oil palm production is one significant driver for the fast disappearance of Indonesia’s forest.
    Keywords: deforestation; migration; oil palm; Indonesia
    JEL: Q23 R14 J61
    Date: 2015–09–19
  3. By: Colussi, Tommaso (IZA)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how immigrants' job search outcomes are affected by the labor market outcomes of workers from the same country of origin they are connected to. Connections are identified based on having worked for the same firm in the past. Using matched employer-employee micro data from Italy and an instrumental variables approach, I show that an increase in the employment prospects of socially connected workers improves immigrants’ job search outcomes. The analysis of post-displacement outcomes sheds light on the different mechanisms generating the social effect.
    Keywords: migration, job displacements, networks
    JEL: J61 J63
    Date: 2015–09
  4. By: Hou, Feng; Picot, Garnett; Bonikowska, Aneta
    Abstract: While an extensive literature examines the association between immigrants' characteristics and their earnings in Canada, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the relative importance of various human capital factors, such as language, work experience and education when predicting the earnings of economic immigrants. The decline in immigrant earnings since the 1980s, which was concentrated among economic immigrants, promoted changes to the points system in the early 1990s and in 2002, in large part, to improve immigrant earnings. Knowledge of the relative role of various characteristics in determining immigrant earnings is important when making such changes. This paper addresses two questions. First, what is the relative importance of observable human capital factors when predicting earnings of economic immigrants (principal applicants), who are selected by the points system? Second, does the relative importance of these factors vary in the short, intermediate, and long terms? This research employs Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB).
    Keywords: Education, training and learning, Ethnic diversity and immigration, Labour, Labour market and income, Wages, salaries and other earnings
    Date: 2015–08–26
  5. By: Bloemraad, Irene; Voss, Kim; Silva, Fabiana
    Abstract: Although social movement scholars in the United States have long ignored activism over immigration, this movement raises important theoretical and empirical questions. Which movement frames resonate most with the “public� Is the rights “master†frame persuasive in making the case for noncitizens? We leverage survey experiments—largely the domain of political scientists and public opinion researchers—to examine how much economic, human/citizenship rights, and family unity frames resonate with Californians. We pay particular attention to how potentially distinct “publics,†or sub-groups, might react to each frame. We find that alternative framings resonate with—at best—one particular political subgroup of the public and, dauntingly, frames that resonated with one group often alienated others. Thus, while activists and political theorists may hope that appeals to human rights can expand American notions of membership, such a frame does not help the immigrant rights movement. Instead, attitudes toward legalization change the most when the issue is framed as about family unity. But this only holds among self-reported conservatives. These findings underscore the challenges confronting the immigrant movement and the need for scholars to reevaluate how historically progressive rights language does little for immigrant claims-making.
    Keywords: Social and Behavioral Sciences, frame resonance, immigrant rights movement, public opinion, survey experiments, legalization
    Date: 2014–05–01
  6. By: Simone Moriconi (Università Cattolica di Milano and CREA, University of Luxembourg); Giovanni Peri (University of California, Davis)
    Abstract: European countries exhibit significant differences in employment rates of adult males. Differences in labor-leisure preferences, partly determined by cultural values that vary across countries, can be responsible for part of these differences. However, differences in labor market institutions, productivity, and skills of the labor force are also crucial factors and likely correlated with preferences. In this paper we use variation among first- and second-generation cross-country European migrants to isolate the effect of culturally transmitted labor-leisure preferences on individual employment rates. If migrants maintain some of their country of origin labor-leisure preferences as they move to different labor market conditions, we can separate the impact of preferences from the effect of other factors. We find country-specific labor-leisure preferences explain about 24% of the top-bottom variation in employment rates across European countries.
    Keywords: Labor-Leisure Preferences, Cultural Transmission, Employment, Europe, Migrants
    JEL: J22 J61 Z10
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Constant, Amelie F. (George Washington University, Temple University); García-Muñoz, Teresa (Universidad de Granada); Neuman, Shoshana (Bar-Ilan University); Neuman, Tzahi (Hebrew University, Jerusalem)
    Abstract: An extensive body of research related to immigrants in a variety of countries has documented a "healthy immigrant effect" (HIE). When immigrants arrive in the host country they are healthier than comparable native populations, but their health status may deteriorate with additional years in the country. HIE is explained through the positive self-selection of the health of immigrants and the positive selection, screening and discrimination applied by the host countries. In this paper we study the health assimilation of immigrants within the context of selection and migration policies. Using SHARE data we are able to compare Israel and Europe that have fundamentally different migration policies. Israel has virtually unrestricted open gates for Jewish people around the world, who in turn have ideological rather than economic considerations to move. European countries have selective policies with regards to the health, education and wealth of migrants, who self-select themselves. Our hypothesis is that the HIE, evidenced in many countries will not be found in Israel. Instead, immigrants to Israel may arrive with lower health than that of natives and improve their health with residence in the country, due to the universal health coverage and generous socio-economic support of the government. Our results provide evidence that a) immigrants to Israel have compromised health and suffer from many health ailments upon arrival, making them less healthy than comparable natives. Their health does not improve for up to twenty years of living in Israel, after which they become similar to natives; b) immigrants to Europe have better health than natives upon arrival and up to eleven years since arrival in the host country, after which they are not significantly different than natives. Our results are important for policy.
    Keywords: self-reported health status, immigration, Europe, Israel, older population, multilevel regression, SHARE
    JEL: C22 J11 J12 J14 O12 O15 O52
    Date: 2015–09
  8. By: Florian Oswald (UCL)
    Abstract: This paper estimates a lifecycle model of consumption, housing choice and migration in the presence of aggregate and regional shocks, using the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP). Using the model I estimate the value of the migration option and the welfare impact of policies that may restrict mobility. The option to move is equivalent to 4.4% of lifetime consumption. I also find that, were the mortgage interest-rate deduction to be eliminated, the aggregate migration rate would increase only marginally by 0.1%. Following a general equilibrium correction, house prices are reduced by 5%, which results in a 1% increase in home ownership. In a new steady state the elimination of the deduction is equivalent to an increase of 2.4% of lifecycle consumption.
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Stefano BRESCHI; Francesco LISSONI; Ernest MIGUELEZ
    Abstract: We assess the role of ethnic ties in the diffusion of technical knowledge by means of a database of patent filed by US-resident inventors of foreign origin, which we identify through name analysis. We consider ten important countries of origin of highly skilled migration to the US, both Asian and European, and test whether foreign inventors’ patents are disproportionately cited by: (i) co-ethnic migrants (“diaspora” effect); and (ii) inventors residing in their country of origin (“brain gain” effect). We find evidence of the diaspora effect for Asian countries, but not for European ones, with the exception of Russia. Diaspora effects do not translate necessarily into a brain gain effect, most notably for India; nor brain gain occurs only in presence of diaspora effects. Both the diaspora and the brain gain effects bear less weight than other knowledge transmission channels, such as co-invention networks and multinational companies.
    Keywords: migration, brain gain, diaspora, diffusion, inventors, patents
    JEL: F22 O15 O31
    Date: 2015
  10. By: Maëlan Le Goff; Sara Salomone
    Abstract: Migrants’ remittances to developing countries have significantly increased and turn out to be the second largest source of finance for developing countries after foreign direct investment. Besides, the composition of international migration flows has also changed being characterized by a growing feminization and brain drain. In reviewing the literature on remittances, this survey shows that to fully estimate the role of remittances as a lifeline for developing countries the two above recent phenomena cannot be ignored. Indeed, using an original dataset on bilateral remittances and estimating a gravity model in which the gender and the skill dimensions of the migrants are taken into account, we find that both are positively associated with annual remittances received by origin countries. In particular, the main effect seems to be driven by skilled female migrants which presumably represent an important loss in terms of human capital in the perspective of a developing country.
    Keywords: International migration;Remittances;Brain Drain
    JEL: J16 F22
    Date: 2015–09
  11. By: Jamal BOUOIYOUR; Amal MIFTAH
    Abstract: In this paper, we empirically investigate the relationship between international migration and education attainment levels. We ask whether rural children who live in households that experience migration or/and receiving remittances are more likely to complete school at a given age than children who live in non-migrant households. Higher secondary and higher education levels are examined separately. Our results clearly show that children in remittance-receiving households complete significantly more years of schooling. In particular, remittances increase the probability of a male child completing high school. However, the evidence suggests that the international migration lowers deeply the chances of children completing higher education. Evidence also indicates the utmost importance of households' socio-economic status in determining to what extent the household mitigates the possible detrimental effects of migration on their children's educational outcomes.
    Keywords: International migration; Education; Remittances; Morocco
    JEL: F24 I22 O15 O55
    Date: 2015–09
  12. By: Jamal BOUOIYOUR; Amal MIFTAH
    Abstract: Using a nationally-representative household data set from Morocco, the present study seeks to estimate the effects of migrants' remittances on household investments in children's human capital. Three findings emerge. First, children in remittance-receiving households are more likely to attend school and less likely to drop out compared with those in non-remittance-receiving households. Second, children's participation in labor market decreases in the presence of international remittances. Third, we find remittances to be associated with significantly lower level of no schooling for girls. These findings support the growing view that remittances can help increase the educational opportunities, especially for female children.
    Keywords: Child Labor; Education; Gender Inequality; Remittances; Morocco
    Date: 2015–09

This nep-mig issue is ©2015 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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