nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2015‒09‒18
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Children and Parents in the Migration Context: Dissonant or Consonant Trajectories By Raisa N. Akifyeva
  2. How do Native and Migrant Workers Contribute to Innovation? A Study on France, Germany and the UK By Claudio Fassio; Fabio Montobbio; Alessandra Venturini
  3. Partner choice and timing of first marriage among children of immigrants in Norway and Sweden By Kenneth Aarskaug Wiik; Jennifer A. Holland
  4. Pushed by Poverty or by Institutions? Determinants of Global Migration Flows By Bergh, Andreas; Mirkina, Irina; Nilsson, Therese
  5. An Overview of Migration in the Czech Republic and Germany until 2013 By Hanne-Lore Bobáková; Martina Chylková
  6. Which Human Capital Characteristics Best Predict the Earnings of Economic Immigrants? By Hou, Feng; Picot, Garnett; Bonikowska, Aneta
  7. The labour market position of second-generation immigrants in Belgium By Vincent Corluy; Joost Haemels; Ive Marx; Gerlinde Verbist
  8. Bargaining Systems, Trade Union Strategies and the Cost and Benefits of Migration By Marta Kahancová; Imre Gergely Szabó
  9. International Import Competition and the Decision to Migrate: Evidence from Mexico By Kaveh Majlesi; Gaia Narciso

  1. By: Raisa N. Akifyeva (National Research University Higher School of Economics)
    Abstract: The article is drawn on a study of the families of migrants, having school-age children, from Central Asia. The transnational practices of migrants are closely tied to integration processes, and this is reflected in generational differences. In some families, children that, unlike their parents, go or used to go to a Russian school, try to distance themselves from their parents’ generation, refuse to identify with it, and do not want to speak the native language of their parents. In some ways, these trends are a consequence of parentage practices that orient children toward the local social milieu and encourage the use of Russian. Despite the significance of transnational practices in the life of migrant families, the outcome of the study demonstrates the importance of examining the intergenerational dynamics in the incorporation process
    Keywords: transnationalism, children of migrants, second generation, migrant integration, cultural orientation, identity
    JEL: F22
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Claudio Fassio; Fabio Montobbio; Alessandra Venturini
    Abstract: This paper uses the French and the UK Labour Force Surveys and the German Microcensus to estimate the effects of different components of the labour force on innovation at the sectoral level between 1994 and 2005. The authors focus, in particular, on the contribution of migrant workers. We adopt a production function approach in which we control for the usual determinants of innovations, such as R&D investments, stock of patents and openness to trade. To address possible endogeneity of migrants we implement instrumental variables strategies using both two-stage least squares with external instruments and GMM-SYS with internal ones. In addition we also account for the possible endogeneity of native workers and instrument them accordingly. Our results show that highly-educated migrants have a positive effect on innovation even if the effect is smaller relative to the positive effect of educated natives. Moreover, this positive effect seems to be confined to the high-tech sectors and among highly-educated migrants from other European countries.
    Keywords: innovation, migration, skills, human capital
    JEL: O31 O33 F22 J61
    Date: 2015–07–31
  3. By: Kenneth Aarskaug Wiik; Jennifer A. Holland (Statistics Norway)
    Abstract: Using register data from Norway and Sweden, this study addresses the relationship between partner choice and the timing of first marriage among all migrant- and non-migrant-background individuals born between 1972 and 1989, who were either native-born or who immigrated prior to age 18 (generation 1.5). In multivariate models, we analyze the differential hazards of marrying an individual of majority- or migrant-background within a competing risk framework, by migrant generation and number of foreign-born parents. Multivariate results confirmed that in both countries the marital timing patterns of migrant-background individuals who married exogamously were more similar to the majority populations than among those who married another migrant-background individual. Our findings thus suggest that the Scandinavian pattern of late marriage tends to dominate, even where the immigrant-background composition of the couple is mixed. These results are an important starting point for new insights into adaptation drawn from investigations into the family life courses of children of immigrants in Europe, a population sub group currently entering family formation ages.
    Keywords: Marriage timing; Partner choice; Exogamy; Endogamy; Sweden; Norway
    JEL: J12
    Date: 2015–06
  4. By: Bergh, Andreas (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN)); Mirkina, Irina (Lund University); Nilsson, Therese (Research Institute of Industrial Economics (IFN))
    Abstract: The existing literature on determinants of migration flows typically claims that income differences across countries should be a pushing factor for people's movement. We suggest that institutional quality is a better proxy for the factors that trigger migration. People may well want to stay in or move to relatively poor countries if institutions are good, partly because good institutions have an intrinsic value for people and partly because good institutions may be a sign of future economic growth. In contrast, low income and absolute poverty work both as push-factors and as credit constraints, so that people may want to leave, but few can afford to migrate when poverty is high. We test our hypotheses using new data on bilateral migration flows from Abel and Sander (2014), the Worldwide Governance Indicators and the World Bank data on headcount poverty, using a migration gravity model with a spatial specification. Controlling for both source and destination income levels, we find that institutional quality matters significantly for migration. Poor institutions act as a push factor, while absolute poverty in a country of origin limits migration. We also find that omitting spatial factors biases the effect of institutions upwards.
    Keywords: Global migration; Institutions; Poverty; Gravity model; Spatial analysis
    JEL: F10 F22 P48
    Date: 2015–08–10
  5. By: Hanne-Lore Bobáková (Department of Tourism and Leisure Activities, School of Business Administration, Silesian University); Martina Chylková (Department of Tourism and Leisure Activities, School of Business Administration, Silesian University)
    Abstract: The article tackles migration in the Czech Republic and Germany until 2013. After introducing migration issues and clarifying some terminology German and Czech literature dealing with this topic is characterized and the contribution target with defined hypotheses is formulated. The subsequent part presents a historical insight into migration issues in the Czech Republic and Germany, followed by research of developments in numbers of foreigners with permanent residence in both countries. The data, which is evaluated, was issued by the Czech Statistical Office.
    Keywords: migration, foreigner, emigration, refugee, residence.
    JEL: F02 F22 J61
    Date: 2015–08–31
  6. By: Hou, Feng; Picot, Garnett; Bonikowska, Aneta
    Abstract: While an extensive literature examines the association between immigrants' characteristics and their earnings in Canada, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the relative importance of various human capital factors, such as language, work experience and education when predicting the earnings of economic immigrants. The decline in immigrant earnings since the 1980s, which was concentrated among economic immigrants, promoted changes to the points system in the early 1990s and in 2002, in large part, to improve immigrant earnings. Knowledge of the relative role of various characteristics in determining immigrant earnings is important when making such changes. This paper addresses two questions. First, what is the relative importance of observable human capital factors when predicting earnings of economic immigrants (principal applicants), who are selected by the points system? Second, does the relative importance of these factors vary in the short, intermediate, and long terms? This research employs Statistics Canada's Longitudinal Immigration Database (IMDB).
    Keywords: Education, training and learning, Ethnic diversity and immigration, Labour, Labour market and income, Wages, salaries and other earnings
    Date: 2015–08–26
  7. By: Vincent Corluy (Centrum voor Sociaal Beleid Herman Deleeck – Universiteit Antwerpen; Centrum voor Economische Studiën – KU Leuven); Joost Haemels (Centrum voor Sociaal Beleid Herman Deleeck – Universiteit Antwerpen); Ive Marx (Centrum voor Sociaal Beleid Herman Deleeck – Universiteit Antwerpen); Gerlinde Verbist (Centrum voor Sociaal Beleid Herman Deleeck – Universiteit Antwerpen)
    Abstract: Belgium has one of the largest gaps in labour market outcomes between natives and individuals of foreign origin. One might expect that the children of migrants (the so-called second generation) would perform better than the first generation, as they ought to have a better knowledge of the local language, better educational qualifications and greater opportunities for work experience in the domestic labour market. On the basis of data from the ad hoc module of 2008 Labour Force Survey (LFS) we find that employment rates for generation migrants in Belgium are hardly better than those for first generation migrants. This finding stands in marked contrast what is found in neighbouring countries. Using a unique combination of data sources, we examine the labour market position of second-generation migrants in more depth. We find considerable variation in labour market outcomes by country of origin and a Fairlie decomposition yields that education is an important explanatory factor of the employment rate gap. Yet there still remains a large unexplained part.
    Keywords: Second generation immigrants, labour market outcomes, decomposition methods, educational attainment
    JEL: J15 J21 J24 J61
    Date: 2015–09
  8. By: Marta Kahancová; Imre Gergely Szabó
    Date: 2015–07–31
  9. By: Kaveh Majlesi (Lund University); Gaia Narciso (Trinity College Dublin)
    Abstract: We analyze the effects of the increase in China’s import competition on Mexican domestic and international migration. We exploit the variation in exposure to competition from China, following its accession to the WTO in 2001, across Mexican municipalities and estimate the effect of international competition on the individual decision to migrate. Controlling for individual and municipality features, we find that individuals living in municipalities more exposed to Chinese import competition are more likely to migrate to other municipalities within Mexico, while a negative effect is found on the decision to migrate to the US. In particular, we find that Chinese import competition reduces migrants’ negative self-selection: the rising international competition lowers the likelihood of low-educated, low-income people to migrate to the US, by making them more financially constrained.
    Date: 2015–09

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