nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2015‒08‒30
fourteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. The impact of Syrians refugees on the Turkish labor market By Del Carpio,Ximena Vanessa; Wagner,Mathis Christoph
  2. The Impact of Naturalizations on Job Mobility and Wages: Evidence from France By Joachim Jarreau
  3. The Effect of Legal Status on Immigrant Wages and Occupational Skills By Steigleder, Quinn; Sparber, Chad
  4. Why Work More? The Impact of Taxes, and Culture of Leisure on Labor Supply in Europe By Mocan, Naci; Pogorelova, Luiza
  5. Number of Siblings and Educational Choices of Immigrant Children: Evidence from First- and Second-Generation Siblings By Dominique Meurs; Patrick A. Puhani; Friederike von Haaren
  6. Effectiveness of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (MGNREGP) to Check Migration among the Rural Households By Kundu, AMIT
  7. Visa Policies, Networks and the Cliff at the Border By Simone BERTOLI; Jesús FERNÁNDEZ-HUERTAS MORAGA
  8. Remittances and Relative Concerns in Rural China By Akay, Alpaslan; Bargain, Olivier B.; Giulietti, Corrado; Robalinod , Juan D.; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
  9. Introducing duration dependant emigration in the DREAM population projection model By Marianne Frank Hansen
  10. Political-Security, Economy, and Culture within the Dynamics of Geopolitics and Migration: On Philippine Territory and the Filipino People By John X. LAMBINO
  11. Relative Income and Life Satisfaction of Turkish Immigrants: The Impact of a Collectivistic Culture By Dumludag, Devrim; Gokdemir, Ozge; Vendrik, Maarten C.M.
  12. The Impact of Immigrants on Public Finances: A Forecast Analysis for Denmark By Marianne Frank Hansen; Marie Louise Schultz-Nielsen; Torben Tranæs
  13. ICT for the Employability and Integration of Immigrants in the European Union: Methodological Final Report of a Survey in three Member States By Francisco Lupiañez; Cristiano Codagnone; Rosa Dalet
  14. People and Machines: A Look at the Evolving Relationship Between Capital and Skill In Manufacturing 1860-1930 Using Immigration Shocks By Jeanne Lafortune; José Tessada; Ethan Lewis

  1. By: Del Carpio,Ximena Vanessa; Wagner,Mathis Christoph
    Abstract: Civil war in Syria has resulted in more than four million refugees fleeing the country, of which 1.8 million have found refuge in Turkey, making it the largest refugee-hosting country worldwide. This paper combines newly available data on the 2014 distribution of Syrian refugees across subregions of Turkey with the Turkish Labour Force Survey, to assess the impact on Turkish labor market conditions. Using a novel instrument, the analysis finds that the refugees, who overwhelmingly do not have work permits, result in the large-scale displacement of informal, low-educated, female Turkish workers, especially in agriculture. While there is net displacement, the inflow of refugees also creates higher-wage formal jobs, allowing for occupational upgrading of Turkish workers. Average Turkish wages have increased primarily as the composition of the employed has changed because of the inflow of refugees.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Education For All,Population Policies,Street Children,Labor Policies
    Date: 2015–08–24
  2. By: Joachim Jarreau (AMSE - Aix-Marseille School of Economics - EHESS - École des hautes études en sciences sociales - Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS) - Ecole Centrale Marseille (ECM) - AMU - Aix-Marseille Université)
    Abstract: This paper studies the impact of naturalization on the labor market outcomes of foreign-born workers in France. Using a large panel dataset of workers employed in France over 1993-2001, I find that naturalization is associated with a sharp increase in job mobility: immigrants tend to change occupations and employers, in the same year as they naturalize. Turning to wages, I find evidence that naturalization commands a wage premium, which is associated with employment mobility. For workers initially in low-skill occupations, the wage premium is conditional on occupational mobility. For those in middle- or high-skilled occupations, there is also evidence of a wage premium, mostly for foreign women; this premium is associated with moves to a different firm. These results suggest that foreign citizenship constrains workers mobility, and are consistent with the hypothesis of a mismatch of foreign workers to their jobs.
    Date: 2015–02
  3. By: Steigleder, Quinn (Department of Economics, Colgate University); Sparber, Chad (Department of Economics, Colgate University)
    Abstract: Native and foreign-born workers with a high school degree or less educational attainment provide unique occupational skills to the US labor force. This regularity might be driven, in part, by limited access to occupations for immigrants lacking legal rights to work in the US. This paper exploits exogenous policy change induced by the 1986 Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) to perform triple-difference estimation examining whether legal status causes immigrants to work in occupations that use skills more similar to those of native-born workers. We find that legal status decreases the manual skill intensity of Mexican immigrants by two percentiles. It increases communication skill intensity by an equivalent amount. This effect reduces the skill gap between Mexican-born and native-born American workers by 13%.
    Keywords: Immigration, Occupational Skills, Natural Experiment
    JEL: F22 J24 J61 J31
    Date: 2015–07–31
  4. By: Mocan, Naci (Louisiana State University); Pogorelova, Luiza (Louisiana State University)
    Abstract: We use micro data from the European Social Survey to investigate the impact of “culture of leisure” and taxes on labor force participation and hours worked of second-generation immigrants who reside in 26 European countries. These individuals are born in Europe, and they have been exposed to institutional, legal and labor market structures of their countries, including the tax rates. Fathers of these individuals are first-generation immigrants who migrated from 81 different countries. We construct measures of "taste for leisure" in the country of origin of each immigrant father. We employ average and marginal taxes for each country of residence, and control for a large set of individual characteristics, in addition to attributes of the country of residence and country of ancestry. The results show that for women, both taxes and culture of leisure impact participation and hours worked. For men, taxes influence labor supply both at the intensive and the extensive margins, but culture of leisure has no impact.
    Keywords: tax, labor supply, leisure, immigrant, culture, origin
    JEL: J22 Z1
    Date: 2015–08
  5. By: Dominique Meurs; Patrick A. Puhani; Friederike von Haaren
    Abstract: We document the educational integration of immigrant children with a focus on the link between family size and educational decisions and distinguishing particularly between first- and second-generation immigrants and between source country groups. First, for immigrant adolescents, we show family-size adjusted convergence to almost native levels of higher education track attendance from the first to the second generation of immigrants. Second, we find that reduced fertility is associated with higher educational outcomes for immigrant children, possibly through a quantity-quality trade-off. Third, we show that between one third and the complete difference in family-size adjusted educational outcomes between immigrants from different source countries or immigrant generations can be explained by parental background. This latter holds true for various immigrant groups in both France and Germany, two major European economies with distinct immigration histories.
    Keywords: migration, integration, quantity-quality trade-off, decomposition
    JEL: J13 J15 J24
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Kundu, AMIT
    Abstract: An important objective of Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Programme (MGNREGP) is to curb rural out-migration. This paper on the basis of a micro-level field investigation wants to investigate the effectiveness of this programme to reduce the intensity of migration of the rural poor households to urban areas. The survey area is a mono-cropping area but job in the private non-farm employment in the locality is available moderately. Besides that, the geographical distance between the surveyed villages and the nearby urban or semi-urban areas is small which indicates very low cost of migration of the daily migrant. Incidentally, all the migrants in our sample villages are daily migrants. The local farm, average private non-farm wage and the average wage rate in the nearby urban informal sector is more than MGNREGP piece-rate. Hence seeking employment here through MGNREGP is not exogenous but endogenous in nature. In this background, it is proved that ‘motivation’ is a factor which influences the local MGNREGP job card holders to secure more person-days of employment through MGNREGP and the households who could secure more person-days of employment through MGNREGP are less prone to migrate from their native village.
    Keywords: MGNREGP, Migration, Probit Model, Endogenity
    JEL: C33 C36 J38 R23
    Date: 2014–01–15
  7. By: Simone BERTOLI (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Jesús FERNÁNDEZ-HUERTAS MORAGA (Universidad Autonoma de Madrid [Madrid]] Universidad Autonoma de Madrid [Madrid - Universidad Autónoma de Madrid - Universidad Autónoma de Madrid)
    Abstract: The scale of international migration flows depends on moving costs that are, in turn, influenced by host-country policies and by the size of migrant networks at destination. This paper estimates the influence of visa policies and networks upon bilateral migration flows to multiple destinations. We rely on a Poisson pseudo-maximum likelihood estimator to derive estimates that are consistent under more general distributional assumptions on the underlying RUM model than the ones commonly adopted in the literature. We derive bounds for the estimated direct and indirect effects of visa policies and networks that reflect the uncertainty connected to the use of aggregate data, and we show that bilateral migration flows can be highly sensitive to the immigration policies set by other destination countries, an externality that we are able to quantify.
    Date: 2015–01–05
  8. By: Akay, Alpaslan (Department of Economics, School of Business, Economics and Law, Göteborg University); Bargain, Olivier B. (Aix-Marseille Université and IZA); Giulietti, Corrado (IZA); Robalinod , Juan D. (Cornell University); Zimmermann, Klaus F. (IZA and Bonn University)
    Abstract: The paper investigates the impact of remittances on the relative concerns of households in rural China. Using the Rural to Urban Migration in China (RUMiC) dataset we estimate a series of well-being functions to simultaneously explore the relative concerns with respect to income and remittances. Our results show that although rural households experience substantial utility loss due to income comparisons, they gain utility by comparing their remittances with those received by their reference group. In other words, we find evidence of a “status-effect” with respect to income and of a “signal-effect” with respect to remittances. The magnitudes of these two opposite effects are very similar, implying that the utility reduction due to relative income is compensated by the utility gain due to relative remittances. This finding is robust to various specifications, controlling for the endogeneity of remittances and selective migration, as well as a measure of current migrants’ net remittances calculated using counterfactual income and expenditures.
    Keywords: positional concerns; remittances; subjective well-being
    JEL: C90 D63
    Date: 2015–08
  9. By: Marianne Frank Hansen (Danish Rational Economic Agents Model, DREAM)
    Abstract: During the recent decade, changes in immigration flows and immigration behaviour are important sources to explain changes in the composition of the resident immigrant population with respect to duration of residence. Considering that demographic behaviour varies considerably with the length of duration, this challenges the baseline assumption of not considering duration of residence when determining future demographic flows. This working paper explains the consequences of allowing forecasted emigration of immigrants, i.e. re-emigration, to depend on duration of residence and investigates whether including this characteristic enhances projection accuracy when facing shifts in immigration structure. The propensity to re-emigrate decreases with duration of residence. Typically emigration probabilities for individuals having immigrated within the last two years lie above the average re-emigration probability, whereas the propensity to re-emigrate lies below average when duration of residence exceeds two years. Using constant emigration probabilities depending on gender, age, origin, and number of years of duration is shown to lead to an increase in the immigrant population compared to the baseline scenario omitting emigration by duration of residence. The implications with respect to projection accuracy are assessed by performing sequential within-data population projections, respectively involving and omitting duration dependant re-emigration. Finding that future shifts in immigration behaviour severely challenge projection accuracy when taking duration of residence into account, it is suggested that duration dependant emigration should be applied with caution.
    Keywords: duration dependendent emigration, emigration, population projection
    Date: 2013–09
  10. By: John X. LAMBINO
    Abstract: The paper considers the interaction of the dual elements of the nation-state: territory and people. Particularly, it discusses the interaction of geopolitics and migration, i.e. the non-mobile territory and the mobile people, from the perspectives of political-security, economy, and culture, and how the interactions influence government policy focusing on the case of the Philippines.The paper ferrets-out the major factors in the geopolitical transformation of the Philippine Is-lands into the westernmost frontier of the United States, and how this geopolitical transformation created a migratory linkage from the Philippine Islands to the United States. The paper shows how migratory movements shaped the geopolitics of East Asia or Western Pacific before World War II by pointing out the following. One: The westward expansion of the American people ini-tially changed the geopolitical conditions in the American continent, and eventually changed the geopolitical make-up in the Western Pacific. Two: The migration of Filipinos to the United States was a key factor in the granting of Philippine independence, thereby reshaping the geopo-litical conditions in the Western Pacific region.The paper shows that the geopolitical transformation of the Philippine Islands came with the im-plantation of American culture and English language. The paper discusses how this cultural as-pect has functioned in terms of a migratory linkage by looking at the current migratory pattern of Filipinos. The paper then shows how the economic agreement the Philippines signed with the United States in 1946 to attain independence eventually led to the establishment of a migratory system as the Philippine government adopted of a labor export policy in the 1970s. The paper further shows the importance of remittances from overseas Filipinos to the Philippine economy.The paper elaborates and discusses how the political-security policies undertaken by the Philip-pines have been deeply influenced by both its geopolitical circumstance and the current situation of Filipino migration. Finally, the paper points out that the large presence of Filipinos overseas and the country’s dependence to their remittances are a cause of weakness for the Philippine state in maintaining a credible foreign and security policy.
    Keywords: Geopolitics in East Asia; Filipino Migration; Nation-state
    JEL: J61 F51 F52
    Date: 2015–08
  11. By: Dumludag, Devrim (Marmara University); Gokdemir, Ozge (Istanbul University); Vendrik, Maarten C.M. (Maastricht University)
    Abstract: This study examines the effects of social comparison with a wide range of reference groups on the life satisfaction of Turkish immigrants in the Netherlands. For two sets of ethnic and life-domain reference groups, results are obtained that deviate from the findings of recent studies and that suggest the impact of the collectivistic subculture of the Turkish immigrants. Perceived importance of income comparison with Dutch natives is positively correlated to life satisfaction, supporting an interpretation of this comparison as a positive emancipatory stimulus in the pursuit of self-improvement of the Turkish immigrants. Perceived importance of income comparison with relatives in the Netherlands is positively correlated to life satisfaction as well, which can be interpreted in terms of an underlying feeling of connectedness with one's relatives. On the other hand, Turkish immigrants who have a higher household income than relatives are significantly less satisfied with their life, suggesting the unattractiveness of deviating too much from one's relatives. For other reference groups some interesting results are obtained as well.
    Keywords: happiness, life satisfaction, relative income, social comparison, collectivistic, immigrants
    JEL: I31 Z13 J15
    Date: 2015–08
  12. By: Marianne Frank Hansen (Danish Rational Economic Agents Model, DREAM); Marie Louise Schultz-Nielsen (Rockwool Foundation Research Unit and IZA); Torben Tranæs (Rockwool Foundation Research Unit and IZA)
    Abstract: All over Europe, ageing populations threaten nations’ financial sustainability. In this paper we examine the potential of immigration to strengthen financial sustainability. We look at a particularly challenging case, namely that of Denmark, which has extensive tax-financed welfare programmes that provide a high social safety net. The analysis is based on a forecast for the entire Danish economy made using a dynamic computable general equilibrium model with overlapping generations. Net contributions to the public purse are presented both as cross-sectional figures for a long time horizon and as average individual life-cycle contributions. The main conclusion is that immigrants from richer countries have a positive fiscal impact, while immigrants from poorer countries have a large negative one. The negative effect is caused by both a weak labour market performance and early retirement in combination with the universal Danish welfare schemes.
    Keywords: immigration, public finances, forecasting, denmark
    Date: 2015–02
  13. By: Francisco Lupiañez (Open Evidence); Cristiano Codagnone (Open Evidence); Rosa Dalet (Block de ideas)
    Abstract: This is the final methodological report on the project on 'ICT to support the integration into everyday life of immigrants and minorities'. The research objectives were to describe immigrants’ ICT skills, access, usage, and to explore how they differ with respect to different profiles and broad socio-economic and other personal characteristics such as integration and employability. In order to pursue these objectives, a face-to-face survey was carried out in three countries (Bulgaria, the Netherlands, Spain). A total of 1,653 third country nationals were interviewed. An ad-hoc questionnaire was designed, based on previous studies and official statistics. It was translated into ten different languages so that it covered all the nationalities from the sample. Due to the characteristics of the target group, the dissemination strategy and data collection put special emphasis on the interviewer selection and training process. Face-to-face survey procedures and specific participant recruitment strategies were developed, considering different contact points depending on the characteristics of the target. Descriptive univariate and bivariate statistical analysis as well as multivariate statistical analysis of certain aspects have been carried out. In addition, we have also re-classified the data obtained and constructed two categorical variables: ‘Profile’ that includes as its values five meaningful and homogenous migrant profiles and ‘Connected’ and ‘Non-connected’.
    Keywords: Digital single market, connected, immigrants, skills, employability, digital, competences, migration, integration, e-inclusion, digital agenda, information and communication technologies
    JEL: I00 I18
    Date: 2015–08
  14. By: Jeanne Lafortune; José Tessada; Ethan Lewis
    Abstract: This paper estimates the elasticity of substitution between capital and skill using variation across U.S. counties in immigration-induced skill mix changes between 1860 and 1930. We find that capital began as a q-complement for skilled and unskilled workers, and then dramatically increased its relative complementary with skilled workers around 1890. Simulations of a parametric production function calibrated to our estimates imply the level of capital-skill complementarity after 1890 likely allowed the U.S. economy to absorb the large wave of less-skilled immigration with a modest decline in less-skilled relative wages. This would not have been possible under the older production technology.
    JEL: J24 N61 O33
    Date: 2015–07

This nep-mig issue is ©2015 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.