nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2015‒08‒01
thirteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Individual and Contextual Factors Explaining Latino Entrepreneurship in Rural Communities in the Midwest By Payen Diaz de la Vega, Andrick
  2. Assessing the impact of migration and remittances on technology adoption in rural Senegal By Kaninda Tshikala, Sam; Fonsah, Esendugue Greg
  3. Causes and Impact of Migration on Economic Development of Kyrgyzstan By Sydygalieva, Zhamilia
  4. Labor Responses to Rainfall Variability in Rural Ethiopia: A Model of Migration, Off-farm Activities and Remittance By Gao, Jianfeng; Mills, Bradford F.
  5. Migration and Remittance and Their Impacts on Food Security in Nepal By Regmi, Madhav; Paudel, Krishna P.; Williams, Deborah
  6. The MIRAB Model of Small Island Economies in the Pacific and their Security Issues: A Draft By Tisdell, Clem
  7. The Spillover Effects of Public Works on Migration, Labor Allocation and Wages: Evidence from National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme, India By Prasann, Ashesh
  8. Product Complexity, Quality of Institutions and the Pro-Trade Effect of Immigrants By Anthony Briant; Pierre-Philippe Combes; Miren Lafourcade
  9. International Migration, Remittance Income, and Income Diversification Strategies among Rural Farm Households in Transitional Albania By Seidu, Ayuba; Onel, Gulcan
  10. Illegal Immigration and the Shadow Economy By Carmen Camacho; Fabio Mariani; Luca Pensieroso
  11. Customer discrimination and employment outcomes: Theory and evidence from the French labor market By Pierre-Philippe Combes; Bruno Decreuse; Morgane Laouénan; Alain Trannoy
  12. Immigration, occupational choice and public employment By Luca Marchiori; Patrice Pieretti; Benteng Zou
  13. Workplace-anchored migration in US counties By Han, Yicheol; Goetz, Stephan J.

  1. By: Payen Diaz de la Vega, Andrick
    Abstract: This study examines the likelihood of Latino immigrants becoming entrepreneurs in three rural communities in the Midwest. The sustainable livelihoods strategies framework and the human ecology model frame the analysis of entrepreneurship, where both the Latino immigrant strategy depends on capitals as well as the context and opportunities created by settling in a new community. The effect of migration patterns and length of stay, perceptions and experience in the context of the settling community (context of reception indexes) and the agency of individuals in acculturating, and the capitals (social, human, cultural and economic) of Latinos are factors analyze in becoming entrepreneurs. The data was collected through a household questionnaire, applied to a sample of 460 Latino households, located in three Midwestern communities selected to represent a diversity of economic pull factors, and analyzed to determine the likelihood of becoming an entrepreneur as a function of the different capitals, the context of reception or community climate, and the strategies used by Latinos.
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics,
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Kaninda Tshikala, Sam; Fonsah, Esendugue Greg
    Abstract: The paper analyzes the impact of migration and remittances on the use of new technologies in rural Senegal. Data were analyzed using a three-stage least squared model. The results reveal that internal and international migrations as well as international remittances have a positive impact on the adoption of new technologies.
    Keywords: Migration, remittances, Technology adoption, 3SLS, Senegal, Community/Rural/Urban Development, International Development,
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Sydygalieva, Zhamilia
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Environmental Economics and Policy, Financial Economics,
    Date: 2013–10
  4. By: Gao, Jianfeng; Mills, Bradford F.
    Abstract: This study aims to investigate the impacts of rainfall variability on migration, off-farm activities and transfers in rural Ethiopia. We develop a theoretical model in which migration, (on-farm, off-farm and urban) labor supplies and transfers are jointly decided from household utility maximization. Several hypotheses are developed from the model about the impact of rainfall variability on these decisions. These hypotheses are tested against a panel dataset we compile by matching household data with village-level historical rainfall data. We find that the share of out-migrated household members decreases with mean rainfall level and increases with the standard deviation of rainfall in main (Kiremt) growing seasons of the five years prior to the survey. Per capital off-farm labor supply and participation in public transfer programs decreases with mean rainfall level in the Kiremt season of the year prior to the survey, and increases with the standard deviation of rainfall in the Kiremt seasons of the five years prior to the survey. The level and standard deviation of rainfall may have no effect on the amount of transfers that households receive from former household members and the informal social safety nets (ISSN).
    Keywords: Farm Management, Labor and Human Capital,
    Date: 2015
  5. By: Regmi, Madhav; Paudel, Krishna P.; Williams, Deborah
    Keywords: children, adult, household food security, ordered probit, remittance, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Security and Poverty, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods, O13, O19,
    Date: 2014–01
  6. By: Tisdell, Clem
    Abstract: The MIRAB economic model of Pacific island microstates was developed in the mid-1980s by the New Zealand economists, Bertram and Watters, and dominated the literature on the economics of small island nations until alternative models were proposed two decades later. Nevertheless, it is still an influential theory. MIRAB is an acronym for migration (MI), remittance (R) and foreign aid (A) and the public bureaucracy (B); the main components of the MIRAB model. The nature of this model is explained and the importance of distinguishing between the two processes involved in it (one based on foreign aid and the other on overseas remittance) is emphasised. Evidence is given of the importance of migration and overseas remittance for the functioning of some Pacific island microstates, such as Tonga. Yet, it is argued that no single model adequately typified the economic situations of Pacific microstates because of their diversity. Even economies that have been classified as MIRAB economies can be very different. The newer SITE and PROFIT models have similar limitations. In order to understand adequately the economic situation of Pacific island microstates (including their economic vulnerability, their sustainability, and political merchantabilities), it is necessary to take a more holistic approach which takes account of historical, cultural and environmental factors. This is illustrated by the case of Nauru.
    Keywords: Aid, economics of small island nations, migration, MIRAB model, Nauru, Pacific island microstates, sea level rise, remittances., Community/Rural/Urban Development, Consumer/Household Economics, Food Security and Poverty, International Development, Labor and Human Capital, Political Economy, P4, O1, O2,
    Date: 2014–01
  7. By: Prasann, Ashesh
    Abstract: Rural workfare programs guaranteeing work at above market wages are intended to provide security to the unemployed during the agricultural off-season and are an increasingly used feature of labor market policy in developing countries. In recent work, India’s National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme (NREGS), the largest rural workfare program in the world, has been attributed with crowding out work, raising private sector wages and lowering rural-urban migration. However, the empirical literature is agnostic about the sign and magnitude of spillovers generated by the large scale program. This paper studies the spatial spillover effects of NREGS on migration, time allocation and casual wages in areas which did not receive the program over the study period. Standard economic theory predicts that wage differentials across labor markets linked by migration should lead to equalization of wages in a competitive equilibrium. This analysis exploits the plausibly exogenous variation in wage differentials introduced by the staggered rollout of NREGS across contiguous program and non-program districts. It then tests the hypothesis that the program generated labor market spillovers to non-program districts using a nationally representative employment survey. Our results show that on average, real wage for casual labor increased by 2.7% with every additional program neighbor in non-program districts. Additionally, the impact of having only program neighbors was estimated to be a 17.5% rise in real wage for casual labor in non-program districts, relative to districts without any NREGS neighbors. The effects on individual level labor supply, non-labor force participation and unemployment are not statistically significant. Together, these results provide empirical support for predicted effects from theory.
    Keywords: Public Works, Spillovers, Spatial, Labor Market, International Development, Labor and Human Capital,
    Date: 2015–05
  8. By: Anthony Briant (Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques); Pierre-Philippe Combes (Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille); Miren Lafourcade (Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics (EEP-PSE))
    Abstract: The paper assesses the trade-creating impact of foreign-born residents on the international imports and exports of the French regions where they are settled. The protrade effect of immigrants is investigated along two intertwined dimensions: the complexity of traded goods and the quality of institutions in partner countries. The trade-enhancing impact of immigrants is, on average, more salient when they come from a country with weak institutions. However, this positive impact is especially large on the imports of simple products. When we turn to complex goods, for which the information channel conveyed by immigrants is the most valuable, immigration enhances imports regardless of the quality of institutions in the partner country. Regarding exports, immigrants substitute for weak institutions on both simple and complex goods.
    Date: 2014–01
  9. By: Seidu, Ayuba; Onel, Gulcan
    Abstract: The overarching consensus in the applied migration literature is that international migration is typically used to transition out of agricultural sector by rural households in transition economies. In this paper, using data on rural Albanian households, we examine whether international migration of some household members affects the household’s nonfarm activity choices and earnings generated from these activities. In addition, we test whether remittance income received from migrant household members have an indirect effect on households’ agricultural production. We find no apparent relationship between nonfarm activity choice and the number of international migrants in the farm household. However, we find that remittance income is positively and significantly related to households’ propensity to reallocate farm labor to nonfarm self-employment activities, resulting in higher income from non-farm self-employment. In addition, remittance income affects farm income in a positive and significant way. This suggests that previous studies likely underestimated the overall impact of international migration on agricultural production in rural Albania, as they usually ignored the additional remittance income effect. Overall, our empirical findings support the basic tenets of rural income diversification, where the farm household has a diversified portfolio of income-generating activities, in addition to farming. The results suggest that international migration facilitates income diversification among Albanian farm households rather than their exit out of agriculture.
    Keywords: international migration, remittances, nonfarm income, transition economies, rural Albania., Consumer/Household Economics, International Development, Labor and Human Capital,
    Date: 2015
  10. By: Carmen Camacho (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne); Fabio Mariani (IRES - Université Catholique de Louvain et IZA - Bonn); Luca Pensieroso (IRES - Université Catholique de Louvain)
    Abstract: We build a general equilibrium model in which both illegal immigration and the size of the informal sector are endogenously determined and interact in a non-trivial way. We show that policy measures such as tax reduction and detection of informal activities can be used as substitutes for border enforcement, in order to contrast illegal immigration. In our framework, a welfare-maximising Government will never choose to drive illegal immigration to zero, but will set the tax rate to a lower value if it includes illegal immigration in its objective function
    Keywords: Illegal immigration; Clandestine workers; Informal sector; Shadow economy; Black market; Taxation; Immigration policy
    JEL: O17 F22 J61
    Date: 2015–06
  11. By: Pierre-Philippe Combes (Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille); Bruno Decreuse (Groupement de Recherche en Économie Quantitative d'Aix-Marseille); Morgane Laouénan (Sciences Po LIEPP); Alain Trannoy (Aix-Marseille School of Economics)
    Abstract: The paper investigates the link between the over-exposure of African immigrants to unemployment in France and their under-representation in jobs in contact with customers. We build a two-sector matching model with ethnic sector-specific preferences, economy-wide employer discrimination, and customer discrimination in jobs in contact with customers. The outcomes of the model allow us to build a test of ethnic discrimination in general and customer discrimination in particular. We run the test on French individual data in a cross-section of local labor markets (Employment Areas). Our results show that there is both ethnic and customer discrimination in the French labor market.
    Keywords: Discrimination; Matching Frictions; Jobs in Contact; Ethnic Unemployment; Local Labor Markets
    JEL: J15 J61 R23
    Date: 2014–04
  12. By: Luca Marchiori; Patrice Pieretti; Benteng Zou
    Abstract: This paper investigates the theoretical effects of immigration in an occupational choice model with three sectors: a low-skilled, a high-skilled and a public sector. The originality of our approach is to consider (i) intersectoral mobility of labor and (ii) public employment. We highlight the fact that including a public sector is crucial, since omitting it implies that low-skilled immigration unambiguously reduces wages and welfare of all workers. However, when public employment is considered, we demonstrate that immigration increases wages in the high-skilled and the public sectors, provided that the immigrant workforce is not too large and the access to public jobs is not too easy. The average wage of natives may also increase accordingly. Moreover, immigration may improve workers? welfare in each sector. Finally, the mechanism underlying these results does not require complementarity between natives and immigrants.
    Keywords: Immigration, occupational choice model, public employment
    JEL: J24 J61 J45 H44
    Date: 2015–07
  13. By: Han, Yicheol; Goetz, Stephan J.
    Abstract: Residential amenities and access to employment are major factors in migration decisions. Yet traditional migration models are unable to reveal the causes (and effects) of migration because current data capture only movers who change their place of residence; depending on how far they move, these migrants may or may not also change their jobs. Migration flows thus could be categorized into two groups depending on whether the migrants also change their workplace. In this paper, we identify the number of movers who do and do not change their workplace by using overlapping county-to-county migration and commuting data. We refer to this as workplace-anchored and unanchored migration. Then we compare the local factors that affect both types of migration. Our analysis reveals that the most important local factors that separate workplace-anchored and unanchored migration are the poverty rate, commuting time, and age demographics of the origin and destination counties.
    Keywords: migration, commuting, residential amenities, Community/Rural/Urban Development,
    Date: 2015

This nep-mig issue is ©2015 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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