nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2015‒07‒04
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Ethnic Diversity and the Efficiency of Public Spending in Developing Countries By Urbain Thierry YOGO
  2. Applications for Asylum in the Developed World: Modelling Asylum Claims by Origin and Destination By Hatton, Timothy J.; Moloney, Joe
  3. Children of Migrants: The Cumulative Impact of Parental Migration on their Children's Education and Health Outcomes By Xin Meng; Chikako Yamauchi
  4. Evolving Informal Remittance Methods of Myanmar Migrant Workers in Thailand By Koji Kubo
  5. The Effects of Immigration on NHS Waiting Times By Osea Giuntella; Catia Nicodemo; Carlos Vargas Silva
  6. Technological Change, Occupational Tasks and Declining Immigrant Outcomes: Implications for Earnings and Income Inequality in Canada By Casey Warman; Christopher Worswick
  7. Migration-induced Transfers of Norms. Political Empowerment?The case of Female Political Empowerment By Elisabetta Lodigiani; Sara Salomone
  8. Migration Processes in Russia in 2014 By Lilia Karachurina
  9. Managing Labour Mobility: A Missing Pillar of Global Governance By Jose Antonio Alonso

  1. By: Urbain Thierry YOGO
    Abstract: This paper examines the effect of ethnic diversity on the efficiency of public spending in a set of developing countries. For this purpose, we use Data Envelopment Analysis to assess the efficiency of public spending in the sectors of health, education and infrastructure in 77 developing countries over the period 1996-2012. Further, we investigate the effect of ethnic diversity on the cross country variation in efficiency. Two main findings emerge. First, barely 12% of the sample of countries under study makes an efficient use of public expenditure. Second, no matters the level of aggregation, ethnic polarization is positively associated with higher efficiency. In contrast, ethnic fractionalization does have a negative or at the best no effect on efficiency, especially at the finest level of disaggregation.
    Keywords: Ethnic diversity, Public spending efficiency, developing countries
    JEL: O23 O11 H5
    Date: 2015–06
  2. By: Hatton, Timothy J.; Moloney, Joe
    Abstract: This paper outlines trends in asylum applications to industrialized countries, with a particular focus on Australia. Following a survey of existing studies we specify and estimate a model to explain asylum applications in 19 major destination countries from 48 source countries over the period from 1997 to 2012. We find that the political terror scale has a strong positive effect on applications while lack of civil liberties also has a positive effect. Origin country GDP per capita has a negative effect on the number of asylum claims while destination country unemployment rates also have a negative effect. We also explore the effects of asylum policies in destinations countries. Tougher policies relating to access to territory and to the processing of asylum claims have negative deterrent effects, but those relating to welfare conditions do not. The sharp tightening of Australian asylum policy in 2001 and subsequent easing from 2008 had larger than average effects.
    Keywords: asylum policy; asylum seekers; refugees
    JEL: F22 I38 J15 J61
    Date: 2015–06
  3. By: Xin Meng (Research School of Economics, CBE, Australian National University); Chikako Yamauchi (GRIPS)
    Abstract: In the past 15 years, around 160 million Chinese rural workers migrated to cities for work. Because of restrictions on migrant access to local health and education system, many migrant children are left-behind in rural villages and growing up without parental care. This paper examines how parental migration affects children's health and education outcomes in the long run. Using the Rural-Urban Migration Survey in China (RUMiC) data, we measure the share of children's lifetime during which parents were away from home. We instrument this measure of parental absence with weather changes in their home villages when parents were aged 16-25, or when they were most likely to initiate migration. Results show a sizable adverse impact of exposure to parental migration on the health and education outcomes of children, in particular boys. We also find that what the literature has always done (using contemporaneous measure for parental migration) is likely to underestimate the effect of exposure to parental migration on children's outcomes.
    Date: 2015–06
  4. By: Koji Kubo (Institute of Developing Economies, Japan External Trade Organization)
    Abstract: We shed light on diverse informal remittance methods of Myanmar migrant workers in Thailand. Based on the questionnaire survey of migrant workers, we examine the determinants in their choice of informal remittance methods. The empirical results indicate that the accessibility of payment points in Myanmar is an important determinant; migrants sending remittances to town can choose potentially more efficient operators who employ bank branches as payment points. On the assumption that informal operators’ use of bank branches stimulates competition among them, we argue that expanding branch network of Myanmar banks adds to efficiency of the informal remittance market.
    Keywords: migrant worker remittances, informal remittance methods, Myanmar
    JEL: E26 O16 O17
    Date: 2015–06
  5. By: Osea Giuntella (University of Oxford, IZA); Catia Nicodemo (University of Oxford, CHSEO, IZA); Carlos Vargas Silva (University of Oxford, COMPAS)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effects of immigration on access to health care in England. Linking administrative records from the Hospital Episode Statistics (2003-2012) with immigration data drawn from the UK Labor Force Survey, we analyze how immigrant inflows affected waiting times in the National Health Service. We find that immigration reduced waiting times for outpatient referrals and did not have significant effects on waiting times in Accident and Emergency (A&E) and elective care. However, there is evidence that immigration increased waiting times for outpatient referrals in more deprived areas outside London. These effects are concentrated in the years immediately following the 2004 EU enlargement and vanish in the medium-run (e.g., 3 to 4 years). Our findings suggest that these regional disparities are explained by both differences in the health status of immigrants moving into different local authorities and in natives’ internal mobility across local authorities.
    Keywords: Immigration, waiting times, access to health care, welfare
    JEL: I10 J61
    Date: 2015–05–06
  6. By: Casey Warman; Christopher Worswick
    Abstract: The earnings and occupational task requirements of immigrants to Canada are analyzed. The growing education levels of immigrants in the 1990s have not led to a large improvement in earnings as one might expect if growing computerization and the resulting technological change was leading to a rising return to non-routine cognitive skills and a greater wage return to university education. Controlling for education, we find a pronounced cross-arrival cohort decline in earnings that coincided with cross-cohort declines in cognitive occupational task requirements and cross-cohort increases in manual occupational task requirements. The immigrant earnings outcomes had only a small effect on overall Canadian earnings inequality.
    JEL: J15 J24 J31 J61 J71
    Date: 2015–06
  7. By: Elisabetta Lodigiani (Department of Economics, University Of Venice Cà Foscari); Sara Salomone (IRES, Université catholique de Louvain)
    Abstract: This paper empirically investigates the effect of transnational migrants on gender equality in the country of origin measured by the share of women enrolled in the lower chamber of National Parliaments. We test for a ‘migration-induced transfer of norm’ using panel data from 1960 to 2010 in ten-year intervals. Total international migration has a significant effect on female political empowerment in countries of origin conditional on the initial female parliamentary participation in both origin and destination countries. Reverse causality issues are taken into account and results are tested under specific geo-political and temporal subsamples.
    Keywords: International Migration, Gender Discrimination, Panel Data, Endogeneity
    JEL: F22 J16 D72 C33
    Date: 2015
  8. By: Lilia Karachurina (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy)
    Abstract: In 2014, both sudden growth in public interest in migration issues and explosive increase in the number of statutory acts initiated in that field were observed. A new surge of interest in migration was triggered by the Biryulovo developments in October and the election campaign of the Mayor of Moscow which took place a little earlier. This paper deals with a wide range of migration issues. ?
    Keywords: Russian economy; migration; labor migration; domestic migration
    JEL: J11 J61 J62 F22
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Jose Antonio Alonso
    Abstract: The increasing problems associated with international migration call for nations to manage migratory flows in a more realistic way both at national and international levels. However, global initiatives undertaken to date in this field have seen very limited success. This paper adopts a political economy approach for identifying the interests of affected social groups with a view towards building feasible policy responses. A dual proposal for global governance of migration is suggested, based on a combination between the establishment of universal minimum standards and the promotion of bilateral and regional interaction driven by problem-solving goals.
    Keywords: International migration, global governance, development, mobility of labor, migratory policy
    JEL: F22 F24 J61 J83 K31 O15
    Date: 2015–06

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