nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2015‒05‒02
eleven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Immigrant Student Performance in Math: Does it Matter Where You Come From? By Gianna Claudia Giannelli; Chiara Rapallini
  2. The Effect of State Taxes on the Geographical Location of Top Earners: Evidence from Star Scientists By Enrico Moretti; Daniel Wilson
  3. Fertility, Regional Demographics, and Economic Integration By Hiroshi Goto; Keiya Minamimura
  4. Employment Polarization and Immigrant Employment Opportunities By Hanna Wielandt; ; ;
  5. IMMIGRATION: CHOOSING AN ADAPTATION STRATEGY By Konstantin Yanovskiy; Sergey Shulgin
  6. Does Migration Lead to Regional Convergence in Russia? By Elena Vakulenko
  7. The impact of labor mobility on unemployment: a comparison between Jordan and Tunisia By Marouani, Mohamed Ali; David, Anda
  8. Migration and Employment Interactions in a Crisis Context: the case of Tunisia By Anda David; Mohamed Ali Marouani
  9. Discrimination against migrants in Austria An experimental study By Doris Weichselbaumer
  10. Are Immigrants a Shot in the Arm for the Local Economy? By Gihoon Hong; John McLaren
  11. Spaniards in the wider World By Marcén, Miriam; Bellido, Héctor

  1. By: Gianna Claudia Giannelli (Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa); Chiara Rapallini (Dipartimento di Scienze per l'Economia e l'Impresa)
    Abstract: The performance gap in math of immigrant students is investigated using PISA 2012. The gap with respect to non-immigrant schoolmates is first measured. The hypothesis that first (second) generation students coming from (whose parents come from) countries with a higher performance in math fare better than their immigrant peers coming from lower-ranked countries is then tested on a sample of about 13,000 immigrant students. The estimated average immigrant-native score gap in math amounts to -12 points. The results show that immigrant students coming from higher-ranked origin countries have a significantly lower score gap, and are thus relatively less disadvantaged. For example, coming from a country in the top quintile for math and having attended school there for one year improves the absolute score gap by nearly 39 points, the highest coefficient among the variables that reduce the gap, such as parental education and socio-economic status.
    Keywords: mathematical skills, migration, countries of origin
    JEL: I25 J15 O15
    Date: 2015
  2. By: Enrico Moretti; Daniel Wilson
    Abstract: Using data on the universe of U.S. patents filed between 1976 and 2010, we quantify how sensitive is migration by star scientist to changes in personal and business tax differentials across states. We uncover large, stable, and precisely estimated effects of personal and corporate taxes on star scientists’ migration patterns. The long run elasticity of mobility relative to taxes is 1.6 for personal income taxes, 2.3 for state corporate income tax and -2.6 for the investment tax credit. The effect on mobility is small in the short run, and tends to grow over time. We find no evidence of pre-trends: Changes in mobility follow changes in taxes and do not to precede them. Consistent with their high income, star scientists migratory flows are sensitive to changes in the 99th percentile marginal tax rate, but are insensitive to changes in taxes for the median income. As expected, the effect of corporate income taxes is concentrated among private sector inventors: no effect is found on academic and government researchers. Moreover, corporate taxes only matter in states where the wage bill enters the state’s formula for apportioning multi-state income. No effect is found in states that apportion income based only on sales (in which case labor’s location has little or no effect on the tax bill). We also find no evidence that changes in state taxes are correlated with changes in the fortunes of local firms in the innovation sector in the years leading up to the tax change. Overall, we conclude that state taxes have significant effect of the geographical location of star scientists and possibly other highly skilled workers. While there are many other factors that drive when innovative individual and innovative companies decide to locate, there are enough firms and workers on the margin that relative taxes matter.
    JEL: H71 J01 J08 J18 J23 R0
    Date: 2015–04
  3. By: Hiroshi Goto (Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration (RIEB), Kobe University, Japan); Keiya Minamimura (Graduate School of Economics, Kobe University)
    Abstract: To explain the links between population distribution and economic integration, we construct a spatial economics model with endogenous fertility. A higher population concentration increases real wages and child-raising costs, thus lowering the fertility rate. However, people migrate to more populated regions to obtain higher real wages. We show that mobility across regions results in more people flowing into highly populated regions, but lowers fertility rates there. The population growth path resembles a logistic curve in the early phase, but population decreases in the last phase. Additionally, economic integration leads to population concentration and decreases population size in the whole economy.
    Keywords: Population change, Migration, Agglomeration, Trade freeness
    JEL: F15 J13 R12 R23
    Date: 2015–04
  4. By: Hanna Wielandt; ; ;
    Abstract: Building on the task-based approach of technological change, this paper discusses the interaction between occupational polarization (e.g. a gradual increase of native employment in the lowest and highest-paying jobs) and employment opportunities of immigrant workers. Using high quality administrative data for Germany, I first show that technological change is positively related to employment growth of natives in low-paying occupations that are also typically held by immigrant workers. In a second step, I show that labor markets in which native employment in those low-paying occupations grew more also experienced a larger decline in immigrant employment rates. The findings are consistent with the idea that the reallocation of natives towards low paying occupations induces stronger competition in the low-skill labor market, a segment in which foreign workers are typically employed. The results suggest that this relationship is more relevant for recent immigrants who have been in Germany for less than 5 years, and that approximately one third of the decline in employment rates could be associated with occupational polarization of native employment.
    Keywords: Job Tasks, Polarization, Technological Change, Immigration
    JEL: J24 J31 J62 O33 R23
    Date: 2015–04
  5. By: Konstantin Yanovskiy (Gaidar Institute for Economic Policy); Sergey Shulgin (RANEPA)
    Abstract: Modern approaches to immigration policies in most developed countries make the problems of adaptation for new arrivals more severe. Protracted failure to adapt among immigrants (and even of their descendants) turns into recurrent problems vis-a-vis the law, and even extends into large scale incidents. With time, immigrant failure to adapt intensifies, while its localization in space extends to increasingly larger areas. Motivation for maintaining non-selective and non-working immigration are available in plenty for many bureaucrats and “leftist politicians”[1]. In conditions of immigration of this kind, many of the immigrants become recipients of state aid, turning into a manipulated electorate. In essence, we are here talking about importing manipulated electorates from countries which lack democratic traditions. The cases of Canada and Australia demonstrates that the mechanism of selective immigration allows for an optimal combination of satisfying labor market needs with moderate costs of adaptation for the new citizens. This means that the costs are moderate for all: for the new immigrants, for their neighbors, and for society as a whole.
    Keywords: : Government's immigration strategy; immigrants' adaptation incentives; civic skill and human capital; private property devaluation; immigrants electoral behavior.
    JEL: D72 D73 D78
    Date: 2015
  6. By: Elena Vakulenko (-)
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of migration on wage, income and the unemployment rate. Using the official Russian statistical database from 1995 to 2010, we calculate a dynamic panel data model with spatial effects. There is a positive spatial effect for wage, income and unemployment rate. There is no significant impact of migration on the unemployment rate. We find a negative relationship between net internal migration and both wages and income, which is explained by the positive effect of emigration and negative effect of immigration for income. However, the migration benefits are not big enough to make a difference on the Gini index across regions. We conclude that migration does not affect the regional -convergence of economic indicators.
    Keywords: convergence, migration, wage, income, unemployment rate, spatial dynamic panel data models
    JEL: R23 C23
    Date: 2015–03–06
  7. By: Marouani, Mohamed Ali; David, Anda
    Abstract: Jordan and Tunisia are two non-oil exporting MENA countries characterized by high unemployment rates and significant migrant populations. A comparative analysis of the impact of international mobility in the two countries allows us to shedlight on the mechanisms through which emigration affects labor market outcomes and reciprocally. We develop a dynamic general equilibrium framework for each economy, with a full-fledged modeling of migration, labor market and education issues. The results show that the global crisis worsened the unemployment situation by increasing labor supply in both countries. This phenomenon was amplified by a significant decrease in labor demand in the Tunisian case. Developing Mode 4 type of exports improves the labor market situation, mainly for high skilled workers. As a consequence, migration and brain-drain would be reduced. Furthermore, an increase in foreign wages has higher benefits in Jordan despite a higher induced mi- gration increase in Tunisia. When the rise is limited to high-skilled migrants’ wages, low and medium skilled workers are positively affected in Tunisia and negatively in Jordan. Finally, Mode 4 and high skilled wages increases have clear positive effects on transition rates to superior education, while the other shocks have variable effects, depending on labor market structural parameters in the two countries.
    Keywords: International migration; Remittances; Labor supply; CGE; Tunisia and Jordan;
    JEL: F22 F24 J21 C68
    Date: 2013–09
  8. By: Anda David (PSL, Université Paris Dauphine, LEDa, IRD, UMR DIAL); Mohamed Ali Marouani (UMR « Développement et Société », IEDES / Université Paris1-Panthéon-Sorbonne, PSL, Université Paris-Dauphine, LEDa, IRD UMR DIAL)
    Abstract: This article analyses how a crisis impacts labor markets in origin countries through migration channels. For this purpose, we develop a novel dynamic general equilibrium model with a focus on the interlinkages be- tween migration, the labor market and education. The main innovation of the paper is the retrospective modeling in general equilibrium of the impact of an economic crisis to isolate the impact of migration on local unemployment. The impact of the crisis on education decision is captured through endogenous returns to education. The simultaneity of the crisis in Tunisia and its partners worsened the labour market situation mainly through the increase in labour supply. The main result is that migration is indeed one of the main determinants of the unemployment increase and that remittances have a higher impact than the variation of emigration flows. The low skilled bear the highest costs in terms of unemployment and wage decline. _________________________________ Cet article s’intéresse à la manière dont une crise affecte le marché du travail des pays d’origine, à travers la migration. A cet effet, nous développons un modèle d’équilibre général dynamique mettant l’accent sur les interactions entre migration, marché du travail et éducation. La principale innovation de l’article est la modélisation rétrospective en équilibre général de l’impact d’une crise économique, en isolant l’effet de la migration sur le chômage local. L’impact de la crise sur l’accumulation de capital humain est capté via l’endogénéisation des rendements de l’éducation. La simultanéité de la crise en Tunisie et dans les pays partenaires a aggravé la situation sur marché du travail tunisien, principalement à travers l’augmentation de l’offre de travail. Le principal résultat est que la migration est en effet l’un des principaux déterminants de l’augmentation du chômage et que les transferts de fonds ont un impact plus important que la variation des flux d’émigrants. En outre, les travailleurs les moins qualifiés ont été les plus affectés en termes de chômage et de baisse des salaires.
    Keywords: International migration, remittances, labour supply, CGE, Tunisia, Migration internationale, transferts de fonds, offre de travail, équilibre général calculable, Tunisie.
    JEL: F22 F24 J21 C68
    Date: 2015–03
  9. By: Doris Weichselbaumer
    Abstract: In this paper, I experimentally examine the employment opportunities of Austrians with and without migration background. Applications of candidates with a Serbian, Turkish, Chinese, Nigerian and no migration background are sent in response to job openings. Previous experiments have indicated ethnicity via the name of an applicant, however employers may not always correctly perceive this signal. Since photographs are a requirement for applications in the German speaking context, this study uses a novel approach to signal ethnic background and employs carefully matched photos as distinct visual cues. While results document employment discrimination for all groups with migration background, it is most pronounced for applicants with an African, i.e. Nigerian, background. To explain why and when discrimination occurs, a battery of firm and job specific characteristics are examined (e.g. whether team or customer contact is part of the job description). However, these help little to explain the actual level of discrimination. Discrimination in Austria therefore seems to be a general phenomenon driven by employers’ preferences that is barely affected by situational variables.
    Keywords: migration, discrimination, hiring, correspondence testing
    JEL: C93 J15 J71
    Date: 2015–02
  10. By: Gihoon Hong; John McLaren
    Abstract: Most research on the effects of immigration focuses on the effects of immigrants as adding to the supply of labor. By contrast, this paper studies the effects of immigrants on local labor demand, due to the increase in consumer demand for local services created by immigrants. This effect can attenuate downward pressure from immigrants on non-immigrants' wages, and also benefit non-immigrants by increasing the variety of local services available. For this reason, immigrants can raise native workers' real wages, and each immigrant could create more than one job. Using US Census data from 1980 to 2000, we find considerable evidence for these effects: Each immigrant creates 1.2 local jobs for local workers, most of them going to native workers, and 62% of these jobs are in non-traded services. Immigrants appear to raise local non-tradables sector wages and to attract native-born workers from elsewhere in the country. Overall, it appears that local workers benefit from the arrival of more immigrants.
    JEL: F22
    Date: 2015–04
  11. By: Marcén, Miriam; Bellido, Héctor
    Abstract: This paper examines the relationship between the education level of Spanish emigrants and their country of destination. Since Spanish emigrants were born under the same laws, economic conditions, and institutions, the differences in their destination countries can be due to dissimilarities in their level of education. To explore this, we use census microdata covering the period from 2000 to 2007, of 21 countries that receive Spanish emigrants. Results suggest that more educated Spanish emigrants are more likely to live in more remote countries, with lower unemployment rates, and where the official language is English.
    Keywords: Education, migration
    JEL: F22 I20
    Date: 2015–04–28

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