nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2015‒04‒19
ten papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Unaccompanied Minors and Separated Refugee Children in Sweden: An Outlook on Demography, Education and Employment By Celikaksoy, Aycan; Wadensjö, Eskil
  2. Migration Externalities in Chinese Cities By Pierre-Philippe Combes; Sylvie Démurger; Shi Li
  3. Analyzing Indian Diaspora: Pyramid Impact on Reforms & Migration Pattern By Sapovadia, Vrajlal
  4. Moving People with Ideas - Innovation, Inter-regional Mobility and Firm Heterogeneity By Riccardo Crescenzi; Luisa Gagliardi
  5. The Geography of Development: Evaluating Migration Restrictions and Coastal Flooding By Klaus Desmet; Dávid Krisztián Nagy; Esteban Rossi-Hansberg
  6. A generic approach to investment modelling in recursive dynamic CGE models By Piyasiri Wickramasekara
  7. Should I Stay, Should I Go Back or Should I Move Further? Contrasting Answers under Diverse Migration Regimes By Michael Landesmann; Sandra M. Leitner; Isilda Mara
  8. Immigration as a Policy Tool for the Double Burden Problem of Prefunding Pay-as-you-go Social Security System By Hisahiro Naito
  9. Immigration, Regional Conditions, and Crime: Evidence from an Allocation Policy in Germany By Piopiunik, Marc; Ruhose, Jens
  10. How do female migration and gender discrimination in social institutions mutually influence each other? By Gaëlle Ferrant; Michele Tuccio

  1. By: Celikaksoy, Aycan (SOFI, Stockholm University); Wadensjö, Eskil (Stockholm University)
    Abstract: The number of unaccompanied minors has increased over the past ten years in Sweden, the European country that receives the most children from this group. Some of them emigrate after a period of time in Sweden, but the vast majority stay. Most of the arriving children are teenage boys who have not yet turned 18. However, the largest increase over the latest years is observed for the younger age groups. Furthermore, gender composition is also age dependent, where it is quite balanced for the younger age groups unlike the oldest age group. In the years following their arrival, most of them are enrolled in schools. When it comes to those aged 20 or over, the proportion undergoing education is higher among women but a higher proportion of men are employed. The group that neither works nor studies is much larger among women than among men.
    Keywords: unaccompanied minors, refugee children, migration, education
    JEL: J13 J15
    Date: 2015–04
  2. By: Pierre-Philippe Combes (Aix-Marseille University (Aix-Marseille School of Economics), CNRS & EHESS, 2, Rue de la Charité,13002 Marseille, France; Sciences Po, Department of Economics, 28, Rue des Saints-Pères, 75007 Paris, France. Also affiliated to the CEPR.); Sylvie Démurger (Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69007, France ; CNRS, GATE Lyon St Etienne,F-69130 Ecully, France); Shi Li (School of Business, Beijing Normal University, China; IZA, Bonn, Germany)
    Abstract: We analyse the impact of internal migration in China on natives’ labour market outcomes. We find evidence of a large positive correlation of the city share of migrants with natives’ wages. Using different sets of control variables and instruments suggests that the effect is causal. The large total migrant impact (+10% when one moves from the first to the third quartile of the migrant variable distribution) arises from gains due to complementarity with natives in the production function (+6.4%), and from gains due to agglomeration economies (+3.3%). Finally, we find some evidence of a stronger effect for skilled natives than for unskilled, as expected from theory. Overall, our findings support large nominal wage gains that can be expected from further migration and urbanisation in China.
    Keywords: Migration, urban development, agglomeration economies, wage disparities, China
    JEL: O18 J61 R23 J31 O53
    Date: 2015
  3. By: Sapovadia, Vrajlal
    Abstract: This paper attempts to work on transnational migration of Indians after 1800 AD and limits it on two aspects; i. those who were born in India after independence (August 1947) and are living outside India permanently ii. Those who or their parents were born in United India in or after 19th century and are permanently living outside India. The paper aims to analyze the pattern of migration of Indians over time and its impact on India. Beside we discuss economic, social and political impact and how it influenced reform in education, societal & political, we argue that the flow have distinct character in each wave based on the destination, factor behind migration, skill set of migrant.
    Keywords: Indian diaspora, migration, NRIs
    JEL: Z10
    Date: 2015–04–03
  4. By: Riccardo Crescenzi; Luisa Gagliardi
    Abstract: This paper looks at the link between inter-regional mobility, innovation and firms' behavioural heterogeneity in their reliance on localised external sources of knowledge. By linking patent data (capturing inventors' inter-regional mobility) with firm-level data (providing information on firms' innovation inputs and behaviour) a robust identification strategy makes it possible to shed new light on the geographical mobility-innovation nexus. The analysis of English firms suggests that firm-level heterogeneity - largely overlooked in previous studies - is the key to explain the innovation impact of inter-regional mobility over and above learning-by-hiring mechanisms. A causal link between inflows of new inventors into the local labour market and innovation emerges only for firms that make the use of external knowledge sources an integral part of their innovation strategies.
    Keywords: Innovation, Labour Mobility, Inter-regional Migration, Spillovers
    JEL: O31 O15 J61 R23
    Date: 2015–04
  5. By: Klaus Desmet; Dávid Krisztián Nagy; Esteban Rossi-Hansberg
    Abstract: We study the relationship between geography and growth. To do so, we first develop a dynamic spatial growth theory with realistic geography. We characterize the model and its balanced growth path and propose a methodology to analyze equilibria with different levels of migration frictions. We bring the model to the data for the whole world economy at a 1°×1° geographic resolution. We then use the model to quantify the gains from relaxing migration restrictions as well as to describe the evolution of the distribution of economic activity in the different migration scenarios. Our results indicate that fully liberalizing migration would increase welfare more than three-fold and would significantly affect the evolution of particular regions in the world. We then use the model to study the effect of a spatial shock. We focus on the example of a rise in the sea level and find that coastal flooding can have an important impact on welfare by changing the geographic-dynamic path of the world economy.
    JEL: E2 F11 F18 F22 F43 O1 O4 R23
    Date: 2015–04
  6. By: Piyasiri Wickramasekara
    Abstract: There has been increased emphasis on the linkages between international migration and development at international, regional and national levels in the past two decades. This recognition of migration as a developmental tool has generated calls for mainstreaming migration in development with some origin countries making specific attempts at incorporating migration concerns into their development agendas. Yet this approach is being promoted in a context where there is still inadequate understanding of the precise linkages between migration and development. The paper reviews the situation in South Asia with respect to mainstreaming arguments. It first reviews the analytical issues involved in mainstreaming including definitions and mechanisms proposed. Next the main linkages identified between migration and development – remittances, return migration and diasporas – are discussed in relation to country experiences in South Asia. Some contradictions in the mainstreaming discourse are highlighted followed by some conclusions and policy implications.
    Keywords: development, South Asia, labour migration, mainstreaming migration
    JEL: F22 F24 J61 O15 O53
    Date: 2015
  7. By: Michael Landesmann (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Sandra M. Leitner (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw); Isilda Mara (The Vienna Institute for International Economic Studies, wiiw)
    Abstract: Abstract EU integration, the process of EU enlargement and further visa liberalisation have encouraged increased population movements across Europe, some of which have taken new forms compared to previous migration waves. In particular, some destination countries have experienced high levels of temporary migration from poorer parts of Europe. Using a new set of survey data, we seek to obtain a deeper understanding of the factors affecting migration decisions by comparing migrants from three different sending countries in three destination countries under different migration regimes Poles in the UK, Romanians in Italy and Serbs in Austria. The surveys were conducted in 2011 and 2012 and cover migrants who migrated between 2004 and 2012, which for Polish migrants in the UK corresponds to a phase with free mobility and full access to the labour market; for Romanian migrants in Italy it coincides first with visa liberalisation and then with full access to the labour market starting with Romania’s EU accession in 2007; lastly, for Serbian migrants in Austria this includes a visa liberalisation regime from 2010 onwards. The surveys undertaken in the different (host) countries were using an almost identical methodology, thereby allowing for a direct comparison of the factors underlying the decision to migrate. Thus, migration preferences with regard to permanent, return and out-migration under different migration regimes, restrictive versus free mobility, could be analysed. At individual country level results show the weaker preference for permanent migration amongst the highest skilled which points to a lower attachment to a particular destination country. Furthermore, a change in the migration regime towards freer mobility contributes to the intensification of temporary and outward mobility among the highly skilled.
    Keywords: return migration, out-migration, permanent migration, EU enlargement, visa regime, labour mobility
    JEL: J15 J61 C30
    Date: 2015–01
  8. By: Hisahiro Naito
    Abstract: The eect of accepting more immigrants on welfare in the presence of a pay-asyou-go social security system is analyzed theoretically and quantitatively in this study. First, it is shown that if intergenerational government transfers initially exist from the young to the old, the government can lead an economy to the (modied) golden rule level within a nite time in a Pareto-improving way by increasing the percentage of immigrants to natives (PITN). Second, by using the computational overlapping generation model, I calculate both the welfare gain of increasing the PITN from 15.5 percent to 25.5 percent in 80 years and the years needed to reach the (modied) golden rule level in a Pareto-improving way in a model economy. The simulation results show that the present discounted value of the Pareto-improving welfare gain of increasing the PITN is 23 percent of initial GDP. It takes 112 years for the model economy to reach the golden rule level in a Pareto-improving way.
    Date: 2015–04
  9. By: Piopiunik, Marc; Ruhose, Jens
    Abstract: After the collapse of the Soviet Union, more than 3 million people with German ancestors immigrated to Germany under a special law granting immediate citizenship. Exploiting the exogenous allocation of ethnic German immigrants by German authorities across regions upon arrival, we find that immigration significantly increases crime. The crime impact of immigration depends strongly on local labor market conditions, with strong impacts in regions with high unemployment. Similarly, we find substantially stronger effects in regions with high preexisting crime levels or large shares of foreigners.
    Keywords: Immigration; crime; allocation policy
    JEL: F22 J15 K42 R10
    Date: 2015–03–24
  10. By: Gaëlle Ferrant; Michele Tuccio
    Abstract: Using the Social Institutions and Gender Index (SIGI) from the OECD Development Centre, this paper provides evidence of the two-way relationship between gender inequality in social institutions and South-South migration. Discriminatory social institutions in both origin and destination countries are one additional determinant of female migration. Gender inequality appears to be both a pull and a push factor for migrant women. On one hand, higher gender discrimination at home reduces female emigration, since women’s restricted opportunities and low decision-power limit their possibility to move abroad. On the other hand, lower discrimination in the destination country attracts female immigration. However, they have no significant impact on male migration, suggesting that male and female incentives to migrate differ.<BR>Cet article étudie l’influence réciproque entre discriminations de genre au sein des institutions sociales et migration. D’un côté, le niveau de discrimination de genre dans les institutions sociales du pays d’origine et du pays d’accueil influence significativement la migration des femmes dans les pays du Sud. Ainsi les discriminations auxquelles les femmes font faces dans les lois formelles et informelles, les normes sociales et pratiques coutumières dans leurs pays d’origine constituent un déterminant supplémentaire à la migration : lorsque les discriminations dans les pays d’origine sont trop fortes, elles entravent les opportunités de migration des femmes et réduisent ainsi les flux migratoires Sud-Sud. En outre, le niveau de discrimination dans les institutions sociales des pays d’origine semblent aussi jouer un rôle important, les femmes étant attirés par des pays ayant des niveaux de discrimination plus faibles que dans leurs pays d’origine. Ce type d’inégalité n’a pas d'impact significatif sur les hommes, suggérant que les facteurs de migration diffèrent entre les hommes et les femmes.
    Keywords: social institutions, gender inequality, South-South migration, Inégalités de genre, migrations Sud-Sud, institutions sociales
    JEL: F22 J16 O15
    Date: 2015–04–08

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