nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2015‒03‒05
ten papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Culture, Ethnicity and Diversity By Klaus Desmet; Ignacio Ortuño-Ortín; Romain Wacziarg
  2. The impact of immigration on the local labor market outcomes of blue collar workers: panel data evidence By Javier Ortega; Gregory Verdugo
  3. Does Early Educational Tracking Increase Migrant-Native Achievement Gaps? Differences-In-Differences Evidence Across Countries By Jens Ruhose; Guido Schwerdt
  4. Determinants of Mexico-US outwards and return migration flows: a state-level panel data analysis By Isabelle Chort; Maëlys de la Rupelle
  5. The role of immigration policies for immigrants’ selection and economic success By Irena Kogan
  6. To Have and Have Not”: Migration, Remittances, Poverty and Inequality in Algeria, By Margolis, David N.; Miotti, Luis; Mouhoud, El Mouhoub; Oudinet, Joël
  7. Asymmetric Information and Remittances: Evidence from Matched Administrative Data By Thomas Joseph; Yaw Nyarko; Shing-Yi Wang
  8. Do transfer costs matter for foreign remittances? A gravity model approach By Ahmed, Junaid; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada
  9. Immigration Policy and Macroeconomic Performance in France By Hippolyte d'Albis; Ekrame Boubtane; Dramane Coulibaly
  10. Immigration and the UK Labour Market By Jonathan Wadsworth

  1. By: Klaus Desmet; Ignacio Ortuño-Ortín; Romain Wacziarg
    Abstract: We investigate the empirical relationship between ethnicity and culture, defined as a vector of traits reflecting norms, attitudes and preferences. Using surveys of individual values in 76 countries, we find that ethnic identity is a significant predictor of cultural values, yet that within-group variation in culture trumps between-group variation. Thus, in contrast to a commonly held view, ethnic and cultural diversity are unrelated. We explore the correlates of cultural diversity and of the overlap between culture and ethnicity, finding that the level of economic development is positively associated with cultural diversity and negatively associated with the overlap between culture and ethnicity. Finally, although only a small portion of a country's overall cultural heterogeneity occurs between groups, this does not imply that cultural differences between groups are irrelevant. Indeed, we find that civil conflict becomes more likely when there is greater overlap between ethnicity and culture.
    JEL: D74 J15 P48 Z10
    Date: 2015–02
  2. By: Javier Ortega; Gregory Verdugo
    Abstract: Using a large administrative French panel data set for 1976-2007, we examine how low- educated immigration affects the wages, employment, occupations and locations of blue-collar native workers. The natives in the sample are initially in occupations heterogeneous in the presence of immigrants, which might reflect a different degree of competition with low-educated immigrants. We first show that larger immigration inflows into locations are accompanied by larger outflows of negatively selected natives from these locations. At the same time, larger immigrant inflows into occupations come with larger outflows of positively selected natives towards occupations with less routine tasks. While we find no negative impact on employment, there is substantial evidence that immigration lowers the median annual wages of natives. The estimated negative effects are also much larger in cross-section than in estimates controlling for composition effect, which is consistent with the idea that endogenous changes in occupation and location attenuate the impact of immigration on natives’ wages. We also find much larger wage decreases for workers initially in non-tradable sectors and more particularly in the construction sector, which are much less likely to upgrade their occupation or change location in response to immigration inflows.
    Keywords: immigration; wages; employment
    JEL: J15 J31
    Date: 2015–02
  3. By: Jens Ruhose (Ifo Institute and IZA, Munich, Germany); Guido Schwerdt (Department of Economics, University of Konstanz, Germany)
    Abstract: We study whether early tracking of students based on ability increases migrant-native achievement gaps. To eliminate confounding impacts of unobserved country traits, we employ a differences-in-differences strategy that exploits international variation in the age of tracking as well as student achievement before and after potential tracking. Based on pooled data from 12 large-scale international student assessments, we show that cross-sectional estimates are likely to be downward-biased. Our differences-in-differences estimates suggest that early tracking does not significantly affect overall migrant-native achievement gaps, but we find evidence for a detrimental impact for less integrated migrants.
    Keywords: Immigration, educational inequalities, educational tracking, differences-in-differences
    JEL: I21 J15 I28
    Date: 2015–03–01
  4. By: Isabelle Chort (LEDa, UMR DIAL-Paris-Dauphine); Maëlys de la Rupelle (THEMA, Université de Cergy-Pontoise)
    Abstract: (english) In this paper, we investigate the determinants of the regional patterns of Mexico-US migration flows. Along with traditional economic determinants, we examine the role played by environmental factors and violence in Mexico in determining migration patterns and their evolutions. We estimate a microgrounded gravity model of migration using a panel dataset of state-to-state emigration and return migration flows between Mexico and the US for the period 1995-2012. We exploit the time and dyadic dimension of the data to control for time-invariant and time-variant characteristics of destination states, including migration policies. Our results suggest that along with the traditional economic determinants of migration, climatic and social factors contribute to shaping regional migration patterns. _________________________________ (français) Nous étudions dans cet article les déterminants des tendances régionales des flux migratoires entre le Mexique et les Etats-Unis. A côté des déterminants économiques traditionnels des migrations, nous explorons le rôle de facteurs environnementaux et sociaux sur les caractéristiques et l’évolution des flux migratoires entre états. Nous estimons un modèle de gravité micro-fondé, à partir de données de panel sur les flux migratoires entrants et de retour entre états mexicains et états-uniens sur la période 1995-2012. Nous exploitons la dimension temporelle et dyadique de nos données pour contrôler pour les caractéristiques des états de destination susceptibles d’affecter les flux migratoires, notamment les changements de politiques migratoires. Nos résultats suggèrent que les facteurs sociaux et climatiques contribuent à expliquer les tendances régionales observées.
    Keywords: International migration, Mexico-U.S. migration, Gravity equation, Climate change, Natural disasters, Migration internationale, Mexique, Etats-Unis, Modèle de gravité, Changement climatique, Catastrophes naturelles.
    JEL: F22 J6 J68 R23
    Date: 2015–02
  5. By: Irena Kogan
    Abstract: This study aims at exploring whether host-country immigration policies related to the selection of immigrants with regard to human capital and other characteristics relevant for the labour market are effective and result in these immigrants’ more favourable economic integration. The focus in on immigration policies in two groups of countries. We compare liberal regimes (Ireland and the UK) which policies aimed at attracting highly-skilled immigrants to meet these countries’ economic needs in highly-skilled jobs with those of Southern European countries (Italy, Spain and Greece), which pursued more lax and unselective policies, trying to attract labour force for low-skilled jobs in their countries’ economies. Economic immigrants are expected to have favourable employment entry chances in each group of countries, not least due to the fact that the supply of immigrants apparently met the labour demand in host countries’ economies. We also expect that more selective policies attracting better-qualified immigrants in Ireland and the UK would lead to these immigrants’ better chances of higher-quality employment.
    Keywords: immigration policies, immigrants’ selection, immigrants’ human capital, immigrants’ labour market integration, comparative research
    JEL: J14 J24 J61
    Date: 2015–03
  6. By: Margolis, David N.; Miotti, Luis; Mouhoud, El Mouhoub; Oudinet, Joël
    Abstract: In this paper, using an original survey, we analyze the distributional impact of international migration across two regions of Algeria. A semi-parametric descriptive analysis is comple- mented with a parametric model. Remittances do not significantly change the Gini coefficient in nearly any of the counterfactual scenarios. However, migration reduced poverty by 40 per- cent, with different effects across regions for extreme poverty. Foreign transfers, especially foreign pensions, have a strong positive impact on very poor families in one region. Poor families in the other region suffer from a “double loss”: their migrants do not provide local income and they do not send much money home.
    Keywords: Inequality; migration; pensions; poverty; remittances;
    JEL: F24 O15 O55
    Date: 2015–03
  7. By: Thomas Joseph; Yaw Nyarko; Shing-Yi Wang
    Abstract: Using new data matching remittances and monthly payroll disbursals, we demonstrate how fluctuations in migrants' earnings in the United Arab Emirates affect their remittances. We consider three types of income fluctuations that are observable by families at home: seasonalities, weather shocks and a labor reform. Remittances move with all of these income changes. Remittances do not move with an individual's growth in earnings over time. The slope of the relationship between earnings and time in the UAE varies across individuals and is not easy to observe by families. Thus, a key characteristic that drives remittance behavior is the observability of income rather than other features of these fluctuations. The results are consistent with a private information model where remittances are viewed by the migrant worker as payments to their families in an income-sharing contract.
    JEL: F22 F24 J60 O15 O53
    Date: 2015–02
  8. By: Ahmed, Junaid; Martínez-Zarzoso, Inmaculada
    Abstract: Using bilateral data on remittance flows to Pakistan for 23 major host countries, in the first study of its kind, the authors examine the effect of transaction costs on foreign remittances. They find that the effect of transaction costs on remittance flows is negative and significant; suggesting that a high cost will either refrain migrant's from sending money back home or make them remit through informal channels. This can be better understood in terms of migrant networks and improvements in home and host country financial services. Distance, which has been used in previous studies as an indicator of the cost of remitting, is found to be a poor proxy.
    Keywords: remittances,geographical distance,transaction cost,financial services,Pakistan
    JEL: F22 F30 O11
    Date: 2015
  9. By: Hippolyte d'Albis (Paris School of Economics - Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne); Ekrame Boubtane (CERDI, Université d'Auvergne et Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne); Dramane Coulibaly (EconomiX, Université Paris Ouest)
    Abstract: This paper quantitatively assesses the interaction between permanent immigration into France and France's macroeconomic performance as seen through its GDP per capita and its unemployment rate. It takes advantage of a new database where immigration is measured by the flow of newly-issued long-term residence permits, categorized by both the nationality of the immigrant and the reason of permit issuance. Using a VAR model estimation of monthly data over the period 1994-2008, we find that immigration flow significantly responds to France's macroeconomic performance: positively to the country's GDP per capita and negatively to its unemployment rate. At the same time, we find that immigration itself increases France's GDP per capita, particularly in the case of family immigration. This family immigration also reduces the country's unemployment rate, especially when the families come from developing countries
    Keywords: Immigration; Female and Family Migration; Growth; Unemployment; VAR Models
    JEL: E20 F22 J61
    Date: 2015–02
  10. By: Jonathan Wadsworth
    Abstract: During periods of strong economic growth, migration is and has always been important for filling gaps in the labour market. Perceptions do not seem to line up with the existing academic evidence. On balance, the evidence for the UK labour market suggests that fears about adverse consequences of rising immigration in general and EU immigration in particular have still not, on average, materialised. It is hard to find evidence of much displacement of UK workers or lower wages, on average. Immigrants, especially in recent years, tend to be younger and better educated than the UK-born and less likely to be unemployed. Future migration trends will, as ever, depend on relative economic performance and opportunity. But we still need to know more about the effects of rising immigration beyond the labour market in such areas as prices, health, crime and welfare.
    Keywords: immigration, European Union, UK, government policy, education, labour market, jobs, wages
    Date: 2015–02

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