nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2015‒02‒05
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. The Impact of Syrian Refugees on Natives' Labor Market Outcomes in Turkey: Evidence from a Quasi-Experimental Design By Ceritoglu, Evren; Gurcihan Yunculer, H. Burcu; Torun, Huzeyfe; Tumen, Semih
  2. Gender Discrimination in the Allocation of Migrant Household Resources By Antman, Francisca M.
  3. Immigration and access to fringe benefits: Evidence from the Tobacco Use Supplements By Johanna Catherine Maclean; Douglas Webber; Jody L. Sindelar
  4. Burden or Relief? Fiscal Impacts of Recent Ukrainian Migration to Poland By Kaczmarczyk, Pawel
  5. The Tower of Babel in the Classroom: Immigrants and Natives in Italian Schools By Ballatore, Rosario Maria; Fort, Margherita; Ichino, Andrea
  6. Immigration and the Political Economy of Public Education: Recent Perspectives By Ortega, Francesc; Tanaka, Ryuichi
  7. Immigration, Low Income and Income Inequality in Canada: What’s New in the 2000s? By Hou, Feng; Picot , Garnett

  1. By: Ceritoglu, Evren; Gurcihan Yunculer, H. Burcu; Torun, Huzeyfe; Tumen, Semih
    Abstract: Civil war in Syria, which started in March 2011, has led to a massive wave of forced immigration from the Northern Syria to the Southeastern regions of Turkey. This paper exploits this natural experiment to estimate the impact of Syrian refugees on the labor market outcomes of natives in Turkey. Using a difference-in-differences strategy, we find that immigration has considerably affected the employment outcomes of natives, while its impact on wage outcomes has been negligible. We document notable employment losses among informal workers as a consequence of refugee inflows. The majority of those who lost their informal jobs have either left the labor force or remained unemployed. Overall, unemployment rates have increased, while labor force participation, informal employment, and job finding rates have declined among natives. Disadvantaged groups -- i.e., females, younger workers, and less-educated workers|have been affected the worst. The prevalence of informal employment in the Turkish labor markets has amplified the negative impact of Syrian refugee inflows on natives' labor market outcomes.
    Keywords: Syrian civil war; immigration; Turkey; labor market; informality; difference in differences.
    JEL: C21 J15 J21 J61
    Date: 2015–01–21
  2. By: Antman, Francisca M. (University of Colorado, Boulder)
    Abstract: This paper considers the relationship between international migration and gender discrimination through the lens of decision-making power over intrahousehold resource allocation. The endogeneity of migration is addressed with a difference-in-differences style identification strategy and a model with household fixed effects. The results suggest that while a migrant household head is away, a greater share of resources is spent on girls relative to boys and his spouse commands greater decision-making power. Once the head returns home, however, a greater share of resources goes to boys and there is suggestive evidence of greater authority for the head of household.
    Keywords: migration, intrahousehold allocation, gender discrimination, education, bargaining power
    JEL: O15 F22 D13 J16
    Date: 2015–01
  3. By: Johanna Catherine Maclean (Department of Economics, Temple University); Douglas Webber (Department of Economics, Temple University); Jody L. Sindelar (Division of Health Policy, School of Public Health, Yale University)
    Abstract: We examine the extent to which assimilation and residential ethnic enclaves are associated with immigrant access to smoking-related fringe benefits. In particular, we consider access to office smoking bans and employer-sponsored smoking cessation programs. These worksite characteristics are important and understudied fringe benefits. They are critical because they can protect immigrants from exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in the workplace and can help immigrant smokers quit smoking. We first document that immigrants have lower access to these benefits than natives. Second, we show that assimilation is positively associated with smoking-related fringe benefit access while enclave residence does not predict access.
    Keywords: Smoking, fringe benefits, immigrants, assimilation, ethnic enclaves
    JEL: I1 J1
    Date: 2015–01
  4. By: Kaczmarczyk, Pawel (Warsaw University)
    Abstract: Immigration has become recently one of the most important subjects in socio-economic debates. In many countries immigrants are commonly presented as a threat to host economies and societies. On top of this fiscal impacts of immigration are ones of the hottest and most controversial topics in recent debate on migration. Against this background this paper aims at (1) discussing and synthesizing both theoretical and empirical literature on fiscal impacts of immigration, and (2) assessing empirically net fiscal position of Ukrainian immigrants in Poland. On the theoretical level we show that there exists no clear or coherent theoretical framework to explain fiscal effects of migration. Outcomes of empirical studies are mixed and not unequivocal, but generally prove that fiscal impacts of immigration are small or negligible. In terms of explanation, type of migration, labor market incorporation (absorption) and institutional framework at destination (structure of the welfare state) are presented as critical factors. Importance of those factors is clearly supported by empirical analysis presented. Net fiscal position of Ukrainian immigrants in Poland is unequivocally positive (and more beneficial than it is in case of the natives). This is mostly due to favorable characteristics of incoming immigrants (in terms of age and education) and particular migration strategies in work (pure labor migration). These features, however, to a large extent result from modes of labor market incorporation and structural characteristics of the Polish welfare state.
    Keywords: immigration to Poland, Ukrainian migration, welfare impacts of migration, net fiscal position
    JEL: F22 H55 H61 J11 J61 J68
    Date: 2015–01
  5. By: Ballatore, Rosario Maria; Fort, Margherita; Ichino, Andrea
    Abstract: We exploit rules of class formation to identify the causal effect of increasing the number of immigrants in a classroom on natives test scores, keeping class size constant (Pure Composition Effect). We explain why this is a relevant policy parameter although it has been neglected so far. We show that the PCE is sizeable and negative at age 7 (-1.6% for language and math) and does not vanish when children grow up to age 10. Conventional estimates are instead smaller because they are confounded by endogenous class size adjustments implemented by principals when confronted with immigrant and native inflows.
    Keywords: education; immigration; integration
    JEL: C36 I20 I24 J15
    Date: 2015–01
  6. By: Ortega, Francesc (Queens College, CUNY); Tanaka, Ryuichi (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies Japan)
    Abstract: This paper reviews the recent literature on the effects of immigration on the public education of the host country, emphasizing the political economy implications. In particular, we are interested on what happens to enrollment in public schools and the quality of education in these schools. Our review of the literature, which includes both quantitative and empirical studies, suggests the following conclusions. First, immigration has triggered native flight toward private schools in a wide variety of contexts. Some studies also find that the households that switch to private schools tend to be those with higher socio-economic status. Secondly, because of these changes in school choices, one consequence of large-scale immigration is that it appears to undermine the political support for public education, resulting in a deterioration in the funding and quality of public schools that seems to affect negatively the educational outcomes of disadvantaged native students. We offer some suggestions for policies that might help mitigate the negative consequences of immigration outlined above so that host countries can maximize the overall economic benefits of immigration.
    Keywords: education, public school, immigration, naturalization
    JEL: D7 F22 H52 H75 J61 I22 I24
    Date: 2015–01
  7. By: Hou, Feng; Picot , Garnett
    Abstract: This paper documents changes in low-income and high-income rates and in family-income inequality among immigrants and Canadian-born persons over the 1995-to-2010 period. In addition, it estimates the extent to which declining low-income rates among immigrants were attributable to changing compositional characteristics over this period, and the direct role that immigration played in low-income and income-inequality trends in Canada. Both national and regional results are presented. There are four major findings. First, in contrast to the 1980s and 1990s, immigrant low-income rates declined in the 2000s. The decline was particularly evident in the western regions, but was not observed in Toronto. However, because low-income rates also declined among the Canadian-born through the 2000s, immigrants’ low-income rates relative to the Canadian-born remained high in most regions. Manitoba and Saskatchewan were exceptions in this regard. Second, changes in immigrant characteristics and selection programs accounted for about one-third of the decline in low-income rates among recent immigrants. Again, this varied by region. Third, while rising immigrant low-income rates accounted for virtually all of the increase in the national low-income rate over the 1980s and 1990s, immigrants accounted for little of the decline in the national low-income rate during the 2000s. Immigrants also accounted for little of the rise in the high-income rate observed between 1995 and 2010. Fourth, immigration contributed very little to national trends in either family-income inequality or family-earnings inequality since the mid-1990s.
    Keywords: immigrants, low income, high income, income inequality
    JEL: J31 J61
    Date: 2015–01–25

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