nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2014‒12‒24
nineteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. The Fortress European City: The socio-spatial Exclusion of Asylum Seekers in Copenhagen, Madrid, and Berlin By René Kreichauf
  2. Strong versus Weak Ties in Migration By Giulietti, Corrado; Wahba, Jackline; Zenou, Yves
  3. Evading terror? Terror Attacks and Internal Migration in Israel By Johanna von Borstel; Tom Gobien; Duncan Roth
  4. Can selective immigration policies reduce migrants' quality? By Bertoli, Simone; Dequiedt, Vianney; Zenou, Yves
  5. Settlement and migration patterns among immigrants in Norway By Lasse Sigbjørn Stambøl
  6. Legal status, remittances and socio-economic impacts on rural household in Bangladesh: An empirical study of Bangladeshi migrants in Italy. By Mannan, Kazi Abdul; Farhana, Khandaker Mursheda
  7. Ethnosizing Immigrants: A Theoretical Framework By Epstein, Gil S.; Heizler (Cohen), Odelia
  8. Skills mismatch and informal sector participation among educated immigrants: Evidence from South Africa By Alexandra Doyle; Amos C Peters; Asha Sundaram
  9. Migration and Welfare State: Why is America Different from Europe? By Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim
  10. Macroeconomic Determinants of Workers’ Remittances and Compensation of Employees in Sub-Saharan Africa By Adenutsi, Deodat E.
  11. Public Opinion on Immigration: Has the Recession Changed Minds? By Hatton, Timothy J.
  12. Migration as an Adjustment Mechanism in the Crisis? A Comparison of Europe and the United States By Julia Jauer; Thomas Liebig; John P. Martin; Patrick Puhani
  13. Trends in the Returns to Social Assimilation: Earnings Premiums among U.S. Immigrants that Marry Natives By Furtado, Delia; Song, Tao
  14. Village Political Economy, Land Tenure Insecurity, and the Rural to Urban Migration Decision: Evidence from China By Giles, John T.; Mu, Ren
  15. Philippines’ bilateral labour arrangements on health-care professional migration in search of meaning By Makulec, Agnieszka
  16. Local quality of government and migration. Evidence for European regions By Ketterer, Tobias; Rodriguez-Pose, Andres
  17. Hiring New Ideas: International Migration and Firm Innovation in New Zealand By Keith McLeod; Richard Fabling; David C. Maré
  18. How far away is a Single European Labor Market? By Krause, Annabelle; Rinne, Ulf; Zimmermann, Klaus F
  19. Discrimination against people living with HIV infection in metropolitan France By Élise Marsicano; Rosemary Dray-Spira; France Lert; Christine Hamelin; ANRS-VESPA2 group

  1. By: René Kreichauf
    Abstract: The article aims to illustrate the spatial dimensions of exclusionary mechanisms applied to immigrants asking for asylum in European cities. It focuses on the housing of asylum seekers, its policies, effects, causes, conflicts and resistance, with the assumption that housing asylum seekers is relevant for the integration process of this group. The comparative study uses the cases of of Copenhagen, Berlin, and Madrid exploring following main questions: 1) To what extent does the housing of asylum seekers affect the inclusion process into the urban society, and 2) how do asylum seekers act against exclusionary mechanisms and how do they negotiate their political interests? In this context, the presentation focuses on four fields of interests: the policy and responsibilities regarding housing asylum seekers on the EU, national and local level, the illustration of the location and characteristics of housing, the conflicts that arise from housing asylum seekers in communities, and forms of resistance by asylum seekers and political activists against the housing policy. The paper illustrates that the political and societal dealings with asylum seekers and, more specifically, the location for housing of asylum seekers in either deprived neighborhoods on the outskirts (Madrid, Berlin) or outside of European cities (especially Copenhagen, but also Berlin and Madrid), and the material conditions of the housing affect the inclusion process and the image of asylum seekers and their housing. Therefore, neighborhood conflicts arise between migrants and neighborhood residents, and migrants resist (often by means of protests in the urban space) against their living conditions. However, while ruffled feelings and protests have been smoothed in Copenhagen (mostly due to political repression and small improvements regarding the asylum legislation), there is an increase of political protest and resistance by political groups and asylum seekers considering the housing situation in Berlin and Madrid, which emerged due to neighborhood conflicts, the occupation of public spaces, and solidarity movements. The European City is often described as a place of openness, integration, and emancipation (Simmel 1950; Siebel 2004). However, this research work shows how asylum seekers are systematically prevented to benefit from these features. It clarifies the disadvantageous housing situation, discrimination practices and the issue of a possible failed integration, and it finally illustrates that the European City has built a new, invisible wall that excludes "non-citizens" from the actual urban life. In regards to locally "unwanted" migration groups, the European City developed to some kind of a new Fortress City.
    Keywords: exclusion; asylum; housing; urban underclass; protest; segregation; poverty
    Date: 2014–11
  2. By: Giulietti, Corrado; Wahba, Jackline; Zenou, Yves
    Abstract: This paper studies the role of strong versus weak ties in the rural-to-urban migration decision in China. We first develop a network model that puts forward the different roles of weak and strong ties in helping workers to migrate to the city. We then use a unique longitudinal data that allows us to test our model by focusing on first-time migration. Strong ties are measured by the closest family contact (excluding household members) while weak ties are determined by the fraction of migrants from the village in which the individual resides. We address the endogeneity of the network formation in the migration decision. Our results indicate that both weak and strong ties matter in the migration decision process, although the impact of weak ties is higher than that of strong ties. We also show that one underestimates the effect of social networks on migration by not taking into account the strong ties in the mobility process. We finally find that weak and strong ties act as complements in the migration decision, which indicates that the interactive effect between weak and strong ties is particularly strong above a certain threshold of the size of weak ties.
    Keywords: China; internal migration; social networks
    JEL: J61 O15
    Date: 2014–11
  3. By: Johanna von Borstel; Tom Gobien; Duncan Roth
    Abstract: This paper empirically analyses the relationship between terror incidents and internal migration in Israel. Using a newly created database of region-to-region migration flows for the years 1998-2012, the empirical model regresses the annual flow of migrants from an origin subdistrict to a destination subdistrict on measures of terror incidents in the origin and the destination, respectively. The results indicate that terror in the destination subdistrict acts as a deterrent to migration into that region, whereas we find no evidence in support of the hypothesis that terror brings about outmigration.
    JEL: D74 J61
    Date: 2014–11
  4. By: Bertoli, Simone; Dequiedt, Vianney; Zenou, Yves
    Abstract: Destination countries have been resorting to selective immigration policies to improve migrants' quality. We propose a model that analyzes the effects of selective immigration policies on migrants' quality, measured by their wages at destination. Screening potential migrants on the basis of observable characteristics also influences their self-selection on unobservables that influences their wages. We show that the prevailing pattern of selection on unobservables influences the effect of an increase in selectivity, which can reduce migrants' quality when migrants are positively self-selected.
    Keywords: migrants' quality; selective policies; self-selection
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2014–09
  5. By: Lasse Sigbjørn Stambøl
    Abstract: The immigration to Norway has increased strongly since the turn of the millennium and especially since the eastward EU-enlargements. The aim of the paper is to investigate the regional settlement and migration patterns of immigrants mostly recognized by their reason of immigration. The immigration has changed from a gender balance during the first years of the 2000 towards a clear male dominance after 2005, mostly due to increased labour immigration. The immigration has changed from a dominance of refugees and their families towards labour immigrants and their families, where family unifications with labour immigrants exceed the family unifications with refugees since 2007. Refugees and their families show the strongest tendency to stay in Norway after immigration, while immigrants from other Nordic countries and immigrants that immigrate for education show less probability to stay in Norway and higher emigration. Labour immigrants have an average probability to emigrate among the immigrants. The immigrants in Norway have been more regional dispersed since the turn of millennium, and the capital of Oslo has reduced its share, while especially the surrounding county of Akershus and the counties in Western and Middle Norway have increased their share of immigrants. A stable immigration of refugees towards less central areas results in a strong and persistent pattern of domestic migration towards central regions for this group. Children of immigrants born in Norway, education immigrants and persons without immigrant background also move towards central areas. Labour immigrants and immigrants from other Nordic countries deviate from this pattern, by moving out of central areas in several years of the period. Refugees and their families mainly migrate in direction of other immigrants with similar background as themselves, while labour immigrants, and partly also Nordic immigrants, mainly migrate away from larger concentrations of immigrants with similar background. Refugees and their families show strong and positive relationship between domestic migration and regional employment change due to strong internal migration towards central areas, while labour immigrants and immigrants from other Nordic countries show weak and partly negative relationship between migration across regions and regional employment change. They rather move away from other labour immigrants than towards central areas. Persons without immigrant background have turned from a positive and significant towards a weak and non-significant relationship between domestic migration and regional employment change.
    Keywords: Immigration; migration
    JEL: F22 J15 J61
    Date: 2014–11
  6. By: Mannan, Kazi Abdul; Farhana, Khandaker Mursheda
    Abstract: This paper presents an overview of legal framework of EU governing residence permits, employment pass and access to integration, describing the most frequent migration pathways employed by Bangladeshis in Italy. It discusses their migration trajectories, socio-demographic profile, the importance of remittances to Bangladesh, and the impact that Italian migration policy has had upon this group, as well as other non-EU nationals more generally. In this paper rural household micro quantitative data have been collected from Bangladesh to explore the relationship between legal status, remittance and socioeconomic impact at the left behind household members. Using univariate and multivariate model, investigate the factors determining of remittance inflows and their socioeconomic impact at their left behind rural household members. The empirical results suggest that there is economic variation between the documented and undocumented Bangladeshi migrants in Italy. While international migration is unlikely to provide a secure route out of positive socio-economic impact at their household for many Bangladeshis within a restrictive immigration environment, as they become trapped in more vulnerable and less sustainable migration processes. It concludes with a discussion of the sociocultural integration of the Bangladeshi migrants in Italy and their future integration opportunities to other EU nations.
    Keywords: Documented migrant, undocumented migrant, integration
    JEL: D0 D00 K0 K00
    Date: 2014–09–01
  7. By: Epstein, Gil S. (Bar-Ilan University); Heizler (Cohen), Odelia (Academic College of Tel-Aviv Yaffo)
    Abstract: Recently, Constant, Gataullina, and Zimmermann (2009) established a new method to measure ethnic identity which they called the "ethnosizer". Using information on an individual's language, culture, social interactions, history of migration, and ethnic self-identification, the method classifies that individual into one of four states: assimilation, integration, separation or marginalization. A large body of literature has emerged examining the effects of immigrants' characteristics (age, gender, education, religion, etc.) on their ethnic identity using the ethnosizer. This note presents a basic theoretical framework to shed light on the vast collection of empirical results obtained on this topic.
    Keywords: ethnosizer, immigrants, assimilation, integration, separation, marginalization
    JEL: F22 J15 Z10
    Date: 2014–11
  8. By: Alexandra Doyle; Amos C Peters; Asha Sundaram (SALDRU and School of Economics, University of Cape Town)
    Abstract: Using South African census data, we show that immigrants with tertiary education from different origin country groups differ in their likelihood of obtaining a skilled job. Immigrants from advanced country groups outperform native internal migrants, while those from many African country groups underperform them. Immigrants with advanced degrees from certain country groups are also more likely to be employed in unskilled, informal sector jobs. Variation in outcomes across origin country groups is smaller at higher levels of education. We further explore characteristics of origin country groups correlated with immigrant outcomes. Our results suggest under-utilization of immigrant skills, which has particular implications for emerging economies grappling with skills shortages.
    JEL: F22 H52 J24 O24
    Date: 2014
  9. By: Razin, Assaf; Sadka, Efraim
    Abstract: Over the years, there emerged two key policy differences between Europe and America, both welfare and migration-states. The former has more generous welfare state and more liberal migration policies than the latter. In this paper we attempt to provide a political-economy explanation for these key differences, based on the degree of coordination among member states of the economic union, and the different levels of population aging.
    Keywords: Fiscal and Migration Competition; Fiscal and Migration Coordination
    JEL: F22 H23 J11
    Date: 2014–09
  10. By: Adenutsi, Deodat E.
    Abstract: In this paper, an attempt has been made to identify the macroeconomic determinants of migrant remittances received in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) at the disaggregated level. The underlying motivation is that, given their unique characteristics, permanent and temporary migrants are likely to respond differently to macroeconomic conditions in migrant-host countries and their native or migrant-home countries. For the empirical analysis, the system Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) approach was used to estimate a dynamic panel-data model involving 36 SSA countries over the period, 1980-2009. It was found that the inflows of compensation of employees and workers’ remittances to SSA are influenced by host-country macroeconomic conditions in a similar way, whereas these two forms of remittances are driven by contrasting home-country macroeconomic conditions. Remittances from permanent migrants are less altruistic than remittances from temporary migrants. To attract higher remittances on a more permanent basis, the implementation of stable macroeconomic and pro-growth policies are inevitable in labor-exporting SSA countries.
    Keywords: Workers’ Remittances, Compensation of Employees, Money, Migrant, International Migration, sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: C23 E42 F22 F24 J33
    Date: 2013–02–09
  11. By: Hatton, Timothy J.
    Abstract: It is widely believed that the current recession has soured public attitudes towards immigration. But most existing studies are cross sectional and can shed little light on the economy-wide forces that shift public opinion on immigration. In this paper I use the six rounds of the European Social Survey (2002-2012) to test the effects of economic shocks on immigration opinion for 20 countries. The recession that began in 2008 provides a useful test because its severity varied so widely across Europe. For Europe as a whole the shifts in average opinion have been remarkably mild. But trends in opinion have varied across countries, especially in the responses to a question on whether immigrants are good or bad for the economy. At the country level, pro-immigration opinion is negatively related to the share of immigrants in the population and to the share social benefits in GDP, but only weakly to unemployment. These effects differ somewhat across responses to different questions relating to immigration policy and to the desirability of immigrants. The recession also influenced other attitudes and traits that are sometimes linked to opinion on immigration.
    Keywords: Immigration attitudes; Immigration policy; Public opinion
    JEL: D72 F22 J61
    Date: 2014–06
  12. By: Julia Jauer (OECD, Paris); Thomas Liebig (OECD, Paris); John P. Martin (OECD, Paris); Patrick Puhani (Leibniz University of Hannover; CReAM/University College London; IZA/Bonn; SEW/University of St. Gallen)
    Abstract: The question of whether migration can be an equilibrating force in the labour market is an important criterion for an optimal currency area. It is of particular interest currently in the context of high and rising levels of labour market disparities, in particular within the Eurozone where there is no exchange-rate mechanism available to play this role. We shed some new light on this question by comparing pre- and post-crisis migration movements at the regional level in both Europe and the United States, and their association with asymmetric labour market shocks. We find that recent migration flows have reacted quite significantly to the EU enlargements in 2004 and 2007 and to changes in labour market conditions, particularly in Europe. Indeed, in contrast to the pre-crisis situation and the findings of previous empirical studies, there is tentative evidence that the migration response to the crisis has been considerable in Europe, in contrast to the United States where the crisis and subsequent sluggish recovery were not accompanied by greater interregional labour mobility in reaction to labour market shocks. Our estimates suggest that, if all measured population changes in Europe were due to migration for employment purposes – i.e. an upper-bound estimate – up to about a quarter of the asymmetric labour market shock would be absorbed by migration within a year. However, in the Eurozone the reaction mainly stems from migration of third-country nationals. Even within the group of Eurozone nationals, a significant part of the free mobility stems from immigrants from third countries who have taken on the nationality of their Eurozone host country.
    Keywords: Free mobility, migration, economic crisis, labour market adjustment, Eurozone, Europe, United States
    JEL: F15 F16 F22 J61
    Date: 2014–10
  13. By: Furtado, Delia (University of Connecticut); Song, Tao (University of Connecticut)
    Abstract: Previous studies show that immigrants married to natives earn higher wages than immigrants married to other immigrants. Using data from the 1980-2000 U.S. censuses and the 2005-2010 American Community Surveys, we show that these wage premiums have increased over time. Our evidence suggests that the trends cannot be explained by changes in the attributes of immigrants that tend to marry natives but are instead most likely a result of increasing returns to the characteristics of immigrants married to natives. Because immigrants married to natives tend to have more schooling, part of the increasing premium can be explained by increases in the returns to a college education. However, we find increasing intermarriage premiums even when allowing the returns to schooling as well as English-speaking ability to vary over time. We believe these patterns are driven by changes in technology and globalization which have made communication and management skills more valuable in the U.S. labor market.
    Keywords: intermarriage, wage premium, immigration, globalization
    JEL: J12 J24 J31 J61
    Date: 2014–11
  14. By: Giles, John T. (World Bank); Mu, Ren (Texas A&M University)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of land tenure insecurity on the migration decisions of China's rural residents. A simple model first frames the relationship among these variables and the probability that a reallocation of land will occur in the following year. After first demonstrating that a village leader's support for administrative land reallocation carries with it the risk of losing a future election, the paper exploits election-timing and village heterogeneity in lineage group composition and demographic change to identify the effect of land security. In response to an expected land reallocation in the following year, the probability that a rural resident migrates out of the county declines by 2.8 percentage points, which accounts for 17.5 percent of the annual share of village residents, aged 16 to 50, who worked as migrants during the period. This finding underscores the potential importance of secure property rights for facilitating labor market integration and the movement of labor out of agriculture.
    Keywords: migration, land tenure, property rights, China, village political economy
    JEL: O12 O15 J61 Q15 R23
    Date: 2014–11
  15. By: Makulec, Agnieszka
    Abstract: The report aimed to study how the three roles of BLAs -- facilitation of recruitment, protection of migrants’ rights and mitigating of negative consequences of migration for sending countries -- are secured and implemented in the BLAs on health-care professionals’ migration between one of the major health professionals’ exporting countries, the Philippines.
    Keywords: 1, 2
    Date: 2014
  16. By: Ketterer, Tobias; Rodriguez-Pose, Andres
    Abstract: In this paper we investigate the impact of local quality of government on the attractiveness of European regions to migrants. The analysis is based on panel data estimations of 254 regions for the period between 1995 and 2009. Different instrumental variable techniques have been employed in order to assess the extent to which differences in local quality of government affect migration decisions and to account for potential endogeneity concerns. The results point towards an important influence of specific factors related to the regional quality of government, such as the fight against corruption or government effectiveness, on the ability of European regions to attract future residents.
    Keywords: Europe; Institutions; Net migration; Population change; Quality of Government; Regions
    JEL: O43 R23 R50
    Date: 2014–05
  17. By: Keith McLeod (Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment); Richard Fabling (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research); David C. Maré (Motu Economic and Public Policy Research)
    Abstract: Poor productivity performance has been identified as a significant issue for New Zealand, and innovation is seen as a key mechanism for improving productivity growth. Understanding the drivers of firm innovation therefore represents an important step towards improving New Zealand’s economic performance. In this paper, we combine firm-level innovation data with worker characteristics to examine links between innovation and the presence of new arrivals – both immigrants and returning New Zealanders – in the firm’s workforce. Across a range of measures we find positive relationships between firm-level innovation and the share of new arrivals. These relationships weaken once we account for variation in firm characteristics (firm size, industry, R&D expenditure) and other worker characteristics (including the share of new and/or high skilled workers). Within new arrivals, innovation outcomes are most strongly associated with high skilled workers, though magnitudes vary depending on whether workers are returning New Zealanders or immigrants. Firms with a higher share of high skilled recent migrants were more likely to report introducing new marketing methods, new goods and services, or goods and services new to New Zealand. Firms with a higher share of high skilled returning New Zealanders were more likely to report introducing new organisational and managerial practices, and (as with migrants) goods and services new to New Zealand.
    Keywords: Innovation, workforce composition, immigrants, returning New Zealanders
    JEL: O31 J24 J61
    Date: 2014–11
  18. By: Krause, Annabelle; Rinne, Ulf; Zimmermann, Klaus F
    Abstract: A Single European Labor Market, particularly involving the free movement of workers within Europe, has been a goal of the European community since the 1950s. Whereas it may entail opportunities and drawbacks alike, the benefits—such as greater economic welfare for most citizens—are supposed to outweigh the losses. However, over fifty years after the aim was first established, a Single European Labor Market has not yet been achieved. This paper gives an overview of current European macroeconomic trends, with a particular focus on the Great Recession, and also explores the drivers of and obstacles to labor mobility. Complementarily, it analyses the results of a unique opinion survey among labor market experts, as well as formulates policy recommendations to enhance mobility. The development of a Single European Labor Market is also discussed in relation to the German model.
    Keywords: economic crisis; economic migration; European labor market integration; German model; worker mobility
    JEL: J40 J61 J68
    Date: 2014–08
  19. By: Élise Marsicano; Rosemary Dray-Spira; France Lert; Christine Hamelin; ANRS-VESPA2 group
    Abstract: A quarter of people living with HIV in France report experience of discrimination in the two preceding years. The main reported reason is their HIV status (13% of HIV-positive survey respondents). This is followed by skin colour, origin or nationality and sexual orientation (5% for each). Almost four in ten female HIV-positive immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa, and the same proportion of intravenous drug users, report discrimination, versus slightly more than one in ten heterosexual HIV-positive men who are not immigrants from sub-Saharan Africa. Some 11% of persons living with HIV report being discriminated against within the family and 8% in health care settings. Among persons in employment at the time of the survey (half of the sample), 6% reported discrimination in the workplace.
    Date: 2014

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