nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2014‒12‒13
thirteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Unauthorized Immigration and Electoral Outcomes By Baerg, Nicole Rae; Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Quispe-Agnoli, Myriam
  2. Formation of Diaspora Entrepreneurs By S. Ram Vemuri
  3. Can selective immigration policies reduce migrants’ quality? By Vianney DEQUIEDT; Simone BERTOLI; Yves ZENOU
  4. Immigration and the Economy of Cities and Regions By Ethan Lewis; Giovanni Peri
  5. A New Profile of Migrants in the Aftermath of the Recent Economic Crisis By Cansin Arslan; Jean-Christophe Dumont; Zovanga Kone; Yasser Moullan; Caglar Ozden; Christopher Parsons; Theodora Xenogiani
  6. The effect of linguistic proximity on the occupational assimilation of immigrant men By Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana
  7. Length of Stay in the Host Country and Educational Achievement of Immigrant Students: The Italian Case By Di Liberto, Adriana
  8. Regularisations and employment in Spain. REGANE Assessment Report By Baldwin-Edwards, Martin
  9. Push and Pull Factors Associated with Migration in Nepal: An Economic Perspective By Regmi, Madhav; Paudel, Krishna P.; Williams, Deborah
  10. Migration, Economic Crisis and Adjustment in the UK By Clark, Ken; Drinkwater, Stephen; Robinson, Catherine
  11. Immigration, Search, and Redistribution: A Quantitative Assessment of Native Welfare By Battisti, Michele; Felbermayr, Gabriel; Peri, Giovanni; Poutvaara, Panu
  12. The Effects of Labor Migration on Optimal Taxation: An International Tax Competition Analysis By Soojin Kim
  13. 2000 Families: identifying the research potential of an origins-of migration studies By Ayse Guveli; Harry Ganzeboom; Helen Baykara-Krumme; Lucinda Platt; Şebnem Eroğlu; Niels Spierings; Sait Bayrakdar; Efe K Sozeri; Bernhard Nauck

  1. By: Baerg, Nicole Rae; Hotchkiss, Julie L.; Quispe-Agnoli, Myriam
    Abstract: How do inflows of unauthorized immigrants shape elections? Political economy theories often yield competing predictions and mixed empirical results. The main hurdle of empirically evaluating the impact of unauthorized immigrants on election outcomes is finding reliable data that can measure unauthorized immigration flows over time. Using a unique methodology for identifying undocumented workers across counties in the state of Georgia in the United States, we find a positive relationship between the share of the county's workforce that is unauthorized and the share of votes going to Republicans in elections. Furthermore, we show that this effect is more pronounced for the presence of unauthorized immigrants than Hispanics; is stronger in counties with higher median household income; and is substantively larger in U.S. Congressional elections than Gubernatorial or Senatorial elections. We discuss which political economy theories are most consistent with this set of findings.
    Keywords: Elections, International Migration, Undocumented, Unauthorized
    JEL: J15
    Date: 2014–11
  2. By: S. Ram Vemuri (Charles Darwin University & ZenTra)
    Abstract: “Diaspora entrepreneurs are people with a foot in two countries but by definition they live outside of the country of their origin, at least part of the time” (Winkel, 2010). They exist and their numbers are on the rise. The contemporary human landscape is dramatically changing. As diaspora become trans-national and trans-functional, increasingly governments of all echelons in several countries simultaneously consider them a valuable asset. There is evidence of competition in and between countries to engage with diaspora entrepreneurs. Rapid rises in business activities through global migration in recent years, coupled with the burden of aging populations, has created a sense of urgency for exploring the contribution diaspora entrepreneurs (DE) make to the local, national, and international economies. However, managing DE is increasingly becoming a challenge for contemporary economies; including the potential for human-made disasters as distinct voices emerge due to exacerbation of differences in class, gender, race, ethnicity, cultural affinity and relationship to the past, present and future. Part of the managerial challenge is recognising changing trends in global migration, technological advancement, ageing populations and emerging markets. These changes have extraordinary implications in terms of equity, efficiency and effectiveness. Maximising value from the operations of DE can no longer simply rely on conventional managerial practices. The underlying conditions leading to the creation of DE are the focus of this paper. These conditions allow us to categorise DE to enable policy that responds to these differences and allows for greater holistic, i.e. social, environmental, economic, individual, national and global, benefit.
    Keywords: Diasporas, diaspora process, diaspora policies, entrepreneurs, trans-national entrepreneurs, immigrant entrepreneurs, interdisciplinary approach
    JEL: A11 A12 F02 F22 N30 Z10
    Date: 2014–11
  3. By: Vianney DEQUIEDT (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur le Développement International); Simone BERTOLI (Centre d'Etudes et de Recherches sur le Développement International); Yves ZENOU
    Abstract: Destination countries have been resorting to selective immigration policies to improve migrants' quality. We propose a model that analyzes the effects of selective immigration policies on migrants' quality, measured by their wages at destination. Screening potential migrants on the basis of observable characteristics also influences their self-selection on unobservables that influences their wages. We show that the prevailing pattern of selection on unobservables influences the effect of an increase in selectivity, which can reduce migrants' quality when migrants are positively self-selected.
    Keywords: selective policies; self-selection; migrants' quality
    JEL: J61 K30 F22
    Date: 2014–09
  4. By: Ethan Lewis; Giovanni Peri
    Abstract: In this chapter we analyze immigration and its effect on urban and regional economies focusing on productivity and labor markets. While immigration policies are typically national, the effects of international migrants are often more easily identified on local economies. The reason is that their settlements are significantly concentrated across cities and regions, relative to natives. Immigrants are different from natives in several economically relevant skills. Their impact on the local economy depends on these skills. We emphasize that to evaluate correctly such impact we also need to understand and measure the local adjustments produced by the immigrant flow. Workers and firms take advantage of the opportunities brought by immigrants and respond to them trying to maximize their welfare. We present a common conceptual frame to organize our analysis of the local effects of immigration and we describe several applications. We then discuss the empirical literature that has tried to isolate and identify a causal impact of immigrants on the local economies and to estimate the different margins of response and the resulting outcomes for natives of different skill types. We finally survey promising recent avenues for advancing this research.
    JEL: F22 J61 R23
    Date: 2014–08
  5. By: Cansin Arslan; Jean-Christophe Dumont; Zovanga Kone; Yasser Moullan; Caglar Ozden; Christopher Parsons; Theodora Xenogiani
    Abstract: Growing international migration and diverse characteristics of migrant populations make internationally comparable high-quality data on migrants essential. Regular update of these data is crucial to capture the changes in size and composition of migrant populations. This document presents the first results of the update of the Database on Immigrants in OECD Countries (DIOC) for 2010/11. It describes immigrant and emigrant populations by socio-demographic characteristics and labour market outcomes in the OECD, and shows their evolution in the past decade. It also provides updated emigration rates and brain drain figures...<BR>L’accroissement des migrations internationales et les caractéristiques particulières des populations immigrés nécessitent de produire des données de qualité comparables au niveau international. La mise à jour régulière de ces données est essentielle pour bien saisir les changements dans la taille et la composition des populations migrantes. Ce document présente les premiers résultats de la mise à jour de la base de données sur les immigrés dans les pays de l'OCDE (DIOC) pour 2010/11. Il décrit les populations immigrées et émigrées selon leurs caractéristiques sociodémographiques et leurs résultats sur le marché du travail des pays de l'OCDE, et montre leur évolution au cours de la dernière décennie. Il fournit également des taux d'émigration mis à jour et des données sur la fuite des cerveaux...
    Keywords: education, international migration, emigration rates, high-skilled migrants, DIOC, migrant stocks, global crisis
    JEL: F22 J15 J24 J61 O15
    Date: 2014–11–07
  6. By: Adsera, Alicia; Ferrer, Ana
    Abstract: This paper contributes to the analysis of the integration of immigrants in the Canadian labour market by focusing in two relatively new dimensions. We combine the large samples of the restricted version of the Canadian Census (1991-2006) with both a novel measure of linguistic proximity of the immigrant’s mother tongue to that of the destination country and with information of the occupational skills embodied in the jobs immigrants hold. This allows us to assess the role that language plays in the labour market performance of immigrants and to better study their career progression relative to the native born. Results show that linguistic proximity shapes the evolution of job-skill content of immigrant jobs over time and in some cases affects patterns of wage assimilation of immigrants.
    Keywords: linguistic ability, occupational assimilation, immigration
    JEL: J15 J24
    Date: 2014–10–24
  7. By: Di Liberto, Adriana (University of Cagliari)
    Abstract: Using Italian data on language standardized tests for three different levels of schooling we investigate if the observed gap in educational attainments in 1st generation immigrants tends to lower the longer they stay in Italy, and if younger children tend to catch up faster than their older schoolmates. The analysis shows that the significant gap in language skills observed between 1st and 2nd generation immigrant students is mainly due to both the negative performance of immigrant children newly arrived in Italy, and the immigrant students' area of origin. Comparing the results across the different grades, we also find that this gap narrows at a different pace in the early or later years of an immigrant student's life. Overall, our results suggest the presence of a 'critical' age above which 1st generation immigrant students face a negative impact on their school performance, and that institutional and cultural factors play a role on immigrant language skills acquisition.
    Keywords: immigrant students, educational attainment, age at immigration
    JEL: J15 I21
    Date: 2014–10
  8. By: Baldwin-Edwards, Martin
    Abstract: This report presents the results from the collection of background information, interviews with experts and stakeholders conducted in Barcelona and Madrid in May 2013, and qualitative semi-structured interviews with migrants in these two regions of Spain. Section one provides an overview of Spain’s relatively recent emergence as a major receiver of labour immigration, along with policy responses and outcomes. The succeeding section details the current policy on regularisation (changed in 2011) and also presents the most detailed statistics available on policy outcomes, for Spain as a whole, by region, and also recent detailed data provided by the Government of Catalunya. Some older data, concerning the period 2006-2010 are also presented for Catalunya, since these data reflect a regularisation policy that has been seen as not operating with particularly good results. The third section provides in the first instance a summary of the more important literature concerning labour market outcomes of regularisations in Spain. This is followed by a synopsis of the results of the 20 interviews conducted with immigrants in Barcelona and Madrid. Some broad patterns are identified, along with tabular presentation of some major variables concerning the responses. The report concludes with some thoughts on the problematic of conducting large-scale surveys in Madrid and Barcelona to establish the impact of regularisations on the labour market and on immigrants themselves.
    Keywords: immigrants employment irregularity labour market regularisation Spain ICMPD
    JEL: J61 J68 K4 K42
    Date: 2014–02
  9. By: Regmi, Madhav; Paudel, Krishna P.; Williams, Deborah
    Keywords: Community/Rural/Urban Development, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, International Development, Labor and Human Capital, Public Economics, Research Methods/ Statistical Methods,
    Date: 2014
  10. By: Clark, Ken (University of Manchester); Drinkwater, Stephen (University of Roehampton); Robinson, Catherine (University of Kent)
    Abstract: We examine changes in migration to the UK in the period leading up to the Great Recession and in its immediate aftermath. In so doing, we pay particular attention to the changing countries of origin of recent migration flows to the UK, especially in relation to migration from other parts of the EU. The evolving patterns of migrants' socio-economic characteristics and labour market outcomes are also analysed, including how these relate to changes in the economy and migration policy. Finally, we review evidence on the impact of migration on the UK labour market and government finances.
    Keywords: policy, migration, economic performance, United Kingdom
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2014–08
  11. By: Battisti, Michele (Ifo Institute for Economic Research); Felbermayr, Gabriel (University of Munich); Peri, Giovanni (University of California, Davis); Poutvaara, Panu (University of Munich)
    Abstract: We study the effects of immigration on native welfare in a general equilibrium model featuring two skill types, search frictions, wage bargaining, and a redistributive welfare state. Our quantitative analysis suggests that, in all 20 countries studied, immigration attenuates the effects of search frictions. These gains tend to outweigh the welfare costs of redistribution. Immigration has increased native welfare in almost all countries. Both high-skilled and low-skilled natives benefit in two thirds of countries, contrary to what models without search frictions predict. Average total gains from immigration are 1.25% and 1.00% for high and low skilled natives, respectively.
    Keywords: immigration, search, labor market frictions, fiscal redistribution, cross-country comparisons
    JEL: F22 J61 J64
    Date: 2014–10
  12. By: Soojin Kim (Purdue University)
    Abstract: Two key determinants of optimal tax policies in open economies are the mobility of factors of production, capital and labor; and strategic interaction between governments in setting their policies. This paper develops a two-country, open-economy model with labor mobility and a global nancial market to study optimal taxation. Governments engage in tax competition in which they choose a labor income tax code and a capital income tax rate. A quantitative application of the model to the United Kingdom (UK) and Continental European countries (CE) shows that factor mobility and competition between governments are indeed crucial in the design of optimal policies. Incorporating labor mobility leads to a divergence in the optimal tax system: Unlike in an economy with only capital mobility, where both countries use similar capital income tax rates, the optimal capital income tax rate in the UK is lower than that in the CE when both capital and labor are mobile. This is due to the dierences in productivity between the two countries. In the calibrated economy, the UK, whose productivity is higher than that of the CE, attracts more labor through migration. Thus, the welfare-maximizing level of capital in the relatively small CE is lower than that in the UK. Moreover, I nd that capital income tax rates are higher with competition. With competition, both governments lower capital income tax rates, rendering the marginal benet of a lower tax rate to decrease. The steady-state welfare gain from implementing the Nash equilibrium policies is about 11 percent of consumption of the status quo economy.
    Date: 2014
  13. By: Ayse Guveli (University of Essex); Harry Ganzeboom (Free University Amsterdam); Helen Baykara-Krumme (Chemnitz University of Technology); Lucinda Platt (London School of Economics and Political Science); Şebnem Eroğlu (University Bristol); Niels Spierings (Radboud University Nijmegen); Sait Bayrakdar (University of Essex); Efe K Sozeri (Free University Amsterdam); Bernhard Nauck (Chemnitz University of Technology)
    Abstract: Despite extensive recent advances in the empirical and theoretical study of migration, certain critical areas in the analysis of European migration remain relatively underdeveloped both theoretically and empirically. Specifically, we lack studies that both incorporate an origin comparison and trace processes of intergenerational transmission across migrants over multiple generations and incorporating family migration trajectories. This paper outlines the development, data and design of such a study, the 2000 Families study, framed within a theoretical perspective of ‘dissimilation’ from origins and over generations. We term the study an origins-of-migration study, in that it captures the country of origin, the family origins and potentially the originating causes of migration processes and outcomes. The resulting data comprised nearly 2,000 migrant and non-migrant Turkish families with members across three or more generations, covering. 50,000 individuals. We reflect on the potential of this study for migration research.
    Keywords: Migration, Europe, Turkey, dissimilation, intergenerational transmission, originsof-migration study

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