nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2014‒11‒01
ten papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Immigration and Internal Mobility in Canada By Michel Beine; Serge Coulombe
  2. Do Mexicans flee from violence? The effects of drug-related violence on the migration decisions in Mexico By Laura H. Atuesta; Dusan Paredes
  3. Environmental migration and labor markets in Nepal By Jean-Francois Maystadt; Valerie Mueller; Ashwini Sebastian
  4. Out of sight, out of mind? Educational outcomes of children with parents working abroad. By Joanna Clifton-Sprigg (The University of Edinburgh)
  5. Voting with their feet ? access to infrastructure and migration in Nepal By Shilpi, Forhad; Sangraula, Prem; Li, Yue
  6. Intrahousehold distribution in migrant-sending families By Lucia Mangiavacchi; Federico Perali; Luca Piccoli
  7. Foreign nurse importation to the United States and the supply of native registered nurses By Cortes, Patricia; Pan, Jessica
  8. Impact of Migration on Fertility and Abortion: Evidence from the Household and Welfare Study of Accra By Slawa Rokicki; Livia Montana; Gunther Fink
  9. "Migrant" Workers in Israeli Agriculture and Export Expansion: Is there a Link? By Kimhi, Ayal
  10. Immigration Reform and Agriculture By Feather, Peter

  1. By: Michel Beine (CREA, Université de Luxembourg); Serge Coulombe (University of Ottawa and RGIE)
    Abstract: We analyze the impact of temporary foreign workers (TFWs) and permanent immigrants on interprovincial mobility in Canada. Particular attention is given to the Canadian program of TFWs that has intensified enormously over the last 30 years. Results of the empirical analysis are analyzed through the lens of a small theoretical model that incorporates a job-matching framework (Pissaridès, 1985, 2000) in a migration model à la Harris and Todaro (1970). We find that the inflow of TFWs into a given province tends to substantially decrease net interprovincial mobility. This is not the case, however, for the inflow of permanent immigrants selected through the Canadian point system. On average, each inflow of 100 TFWs is found to decrease net interprovincial migrants within the year by about 50, a number substantially higher than is present in existing literature. This number increases to 180 in the long run. The negative impact of TFWs is ascribed to the fact that TFWs are hired directly by employers, take vacant jobs, and display employment and participation rates of close to 100 per cent. Our paper suggests that, in general, the impact of immigration on labor market conditions depends critically on the way immigrants are selected.
    Keywords: Internal Mobility, immigration, foreign workers, displacement effect
    JEL: F22 J08 J29 J61
    Date: 2014
  2. By: Laura H. Atuesta (Drug Policy Program -Centro de Investigación y Docencia Económicas (CIDE)); Dusan Paredes (Department of Economics - Universidad Católica del Norte)
    Abstract: This paper attempts to identify the existence of displacement in Mexico caused by drug-related violence. We identify two types of migrants: (i) migrants moving from nonviolent to violent states, driven by better economic opportunities and less expensive cost of living at destination; and (ii) migrants moving from violent to nonviolent states: they still migrate even if the cost of living at destination is more expensive and economic opportunities are lower. Migration theories cannot predict this second type, and our hypothesis is that these migrants are fleeing from violence, and are willing to sacrifice economic opportunities in order to gain safety.
    Keywords: Internally Displaced Population (IDP), migration probability, wage differentials.
    JEL: J61
    Date: 2014–07
  3. By: Jean-Francois Maystadt; Valerie Mueller; Ashwini Sebastian
    Abstract: While an emerging literature cites weather shocks as migration determinants, scant evidence exists on how such migration impacts the markets of receiving communities in developing countries. We address this knowledge gap by investigating the impact of weather-driven internal migration on labor markets in Nepal. An increase of 1 percentage point in net migration reduces wages in the formal sector by 4.8 percentage points. The absence of wage effects in the informal sector is consistent with the exit of low-skilled native workers from the labor market. Understanding entrepreneurial constraints and drivers of labor market exits will inform pathways to resilience.
    Keywords: Environmental migration, weather, conflict, labor markets, Nepal
    JEL: J21 J61 O15
    Date: 2014
  4. By: Joanna Clifton-Sprigg (The University of Edinburgh)
    Abstract: Impact of parental emigration on educational outcomes of children is theoretically ambiguous. Using novel data I collected on migration experience and its timing, family background and school performance of lower secondary pupils in Poland, I analyse the question empirically. Migration is mostly temporary in nature, with one parent engaging in employment abroad. As many as 63% of migrant parents have vocational qualifications, 29% graduated from high school, 4% have no qualifications and the remaining 4% graduated from university. Almost 18% of children are affected by parental migration. Perhaps surprisingly, estimates suggest that parental employment abroad has a positive immediate impact on a pupil's grade. Parental education appears pivotal; children of high school graduates benefit most. Longer term effects appear more negative, however, suggesting that a prolonged migration significantly lowers a child's grade. Interestingly, siblings' foreign experiences exert a large, positive impact on pupils' grades.
    Keywords: education of adolescents, migration
    JEL: F22 I29 J13
    Date: 2014–10–16
  5. By: Shilpi, Forhad; Sangraula, Prem; Li, Yue
    Abstract: Using bilateral migration flow data from the 2010 population census of Nepal, this paper provides evidence on the importance of public infrastructure and services in determining migration flows. The empirical specification, based on a generalized nested logit model, corrects for the non-random selection of migrants. The results show that migrants prefer areas that are nearer to paved roads and have better access to electricity. Apart from electricity's impact on income and through income on migration, the econometric results indicate that migrants attach substantial amenity value to access to electricity. These findings have important implications for the placement of basic infrastructure projects and the way benefits from these projects are evaluated.
    Keywords: Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Population Policies,Economic Theory&Research,Anthropology,Public Sector Economics
    Date: 2014–09–01
  6. By: Lucia Mangiavacchi (Universitat de les Illes Balears); Federico Perali (Universitá di Verona); Luca Piccoli (Universitat de les Illes Balears)
    Abstract: This study proposes a novel approach for estimating the rules governing the distribution of resources among wife, husband and children, using a complete collective demand system with individual Engel effects. The model contributes to the literature by explicitly modeling intrahousehold inequality and offering a powerful tool to analyze the impact of specific factors or policies on the share of resources of each household member. We apply the model to Albania, a country where gender and inter-generation inequalities are relevant social issues stemming from traditional patriarchal family values and massive international migration of male adults. The results show that the female share of resources is substantially lower respect to a fair distribution. The share of resources freed by the male migrant shifts to the left behind children but not to women, especially when migration increases the influence of women in the decision making process. This effect is increasing with the proportion of daughters.
    Keywords: Intrahousehold distribution, individual welfare, collective consumption models, sharing rule, migration, left behind, Albania.
    JEL: D13 H31 I32 O15
    Date: 2014
  7. By: Cortes, Patricia (Boston University); Pan, Jessica (National University of Singapore)
    Abstract: Importing foreign nurses has been used as a strategy to ease nursing shortages in the United States. The effectiveness of this policy critically depends on the long-run response of native-born nurses. We examine how the immigration of foreign-born registered nurses (RNs) affects the occupational choice and long-run employment decisions of native RNs. Using a variety of empirical strategies that exploit the geographical distribution of immigrant nurses across U.S. cities, we find evidence of large displacement effects—over a 10-year period, for every foreign nurse that migrates to a city, between one and two fewer native nurses are employed in that city. We find similar results at the state level using data on individuals taking the nursing board exam—an increase in the flow of foreign nurses significantly reduces the number of natives sitting for licensure exams in the states that are more dependent on foreign-born nurses compared to those states that are less dependent on foreign nurses. Using data on self-reported workplace satisfaction among a sample of California nurses, we find evidence suggesting that some of the displacement effects could be driven by a decline in the perceived quality of the workplace environment.
    JEL: J44 J61
    Date: 2014–07–31
  8. By: Slawa Rokicki; Livia Montana; Gunther Fink
    Abstract: Over the last few decades, total fertility rates, child morbidity and mortality rates have declinedin most parts of sub-Saharan Africa. One of the most striking trends observed is the rapid rate ofurbanization, and the often remarkably large gaps in fertility between rural and urban areas.While a large literature has highlighted the importance of migration and urbanization withincountries’ demographic transitions, relatively little is known regarding the impact of migrationon migrants’ reproductive health outcomes in general, and abortion in particular. In this paper,we use detailed pregnancy and migration histories collected as part of the Household andWelfare Study of Accra (HAWS) to examine the association between migration and pregnancyoutcomes among women residing in the urban slums of Accra, Ghana. We find that thecompleted fertility patterns of lifetime Accra residents are remarkably similar to those ofresidents who migrated. Our results suggest that recent migrants have an increased risk ofpregnancy, but not an increased risk of live birth in the first years post-move as compared tothose who had never moved. This gap seems to be largely explained by an increased risk ofmiscarriage or abortion among recent migrants. The increased risk of pregnancy loss may be dueto a lack of social network, increased stress, and increased access to and knowledge on abortivemeasures. Increasing access to contraceptives for recent migrants has the potential to reduce theincidence of unwanted pregnancies, lower the prevalence of abortion and contribute to improvedmaternal health outcomes.
    Date: 2014–06
  9. By: Kimhi, Ayal
    Keywords: Labor and Human Capital, Production Economics,
    Date: 2013–12
  10. By: Feather, Peter
    Keywords: Agricultural and Food Policy, Political Economy,
    Date: 2013–12

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