nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2014‒08‒16
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Children and Maternal Migration: Evidence from Exogenous Variations in Family Size By Sarma, Vengadeshvaran; Parinduri, Rasyad
  2. Labour Market Outcomes and Egypt’s Migration Potential By Mona Amer; Philippe Fargues
  3. Immigration, Naturalization, and the Future of Public Education By Tanaka, Ryuichi; Farré, Lídia; Ortega, Francesc
  4. Should Parents Work Away from or Close to Home? The Effect of Temporary Parental Absence on Child Poverty and Children’s Time Use in Vietnam By Nguyen Viet Cuong; Vu Hoang Linh
  5. Remittances and sustainability of family livelihoods in Zimbabwe: Case Study of Chegutu Town By Syden Mishi and Lilymore Mudziwapasi
  6. Aging and Migration in a Transition Economy: The Case of China By Bodvarsson, Örn B.; Hou, Jack W.; Shen, Kailing
  7. A Field Study of Chinese Migrant Workers’ Attitudes toward Risks, Strategic Uncertainty, and Competitiveness By Li Hao; Daniel Houser; Lei Mao; Marie Claire Villeval
  8. How Migrant Heterogeneity Influences the Effect of Remittances on Educational Expenditure:Empirical Evidence from the Cambodian Socio-Economic Survey By Masamune Iwasawa; Mitsuo Inada; Seiichi Fukui
  9. International Migration: The Relationship with Economic and Policy Factors in the Home and Destination Country By Ben Westmore

  1. By: Sarma, Vengadeshvaran; Parinduri, Rasyad
    Abstract: Both theoretically and empirically, childbearing decreases labour supply of females, but few papers examine the effect of children on whether women emigrate to work. Using exogenous variations in family size induced by parents’ preferences for mixed sibling-sex composition in instrumental variable estimations, we find that, in Sri Lanka where most migrants are women and mothers, children decrease labour participation of females in the domestic market but they increase the likelihood of females working abroad.
    Keywords: maternal migration, childbearing, Sri Lanka
    JEL: F22 J13 J22
    Date: 2014–05
  2. By: Mona Amer; Philippe Fargues
    Abstract: Will the radical political changes Egypt has gone through since early 2011 have an impact on emigration from the country? This all depends on young Egyptian adults, who are the potential migrants of tomorrow. In order to understand the consequences of the Egyptian revolution might for migration, a questionnaire survey was conducted amongst Egyptian youth in 2013. The objective of this paper is to analyse the Egyptian labour market together with Egyptian migration to see whether changing conditions in the labour market, in particular after the revolution of 25 January 2011, may affect migration. This study is divided into three parts. The first analyses recent trends – from 2007 to 2011 – of the labour market and in particular the evolution of the labour force in terms of participation rate and unemployment rate according to gender, age group and educational level. The second part outlines the demographic and socio-economic characteristics of Egyptian migrants, in general, and according to region of migration (Gulf Cooperation Countries and other Arab countries as opposed to OECD countries). It also presents an analysis of unemployment against the education and skill levels of Egyptian migrants. Finally, the last part presents the findings of a survey on orientation towards migration of Egyptian youth. This survey was designed by the Migration Policy Centre and was conducted through phone interviews by the Egyptian Centre for Public Opinion Research (Baseera) in 2013.
    Keywords: Egypt, Youth, Migration, Labour Market, Political Change
    Date: 2014–05
  3. By: Tanaka, Ryuichi (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies Japan); Farré, Lídia (IAE Barcelona (CSIC)); Ortega, Francesc (Queens College, CUNY)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the effects of immigration on the education system of the receiving country from a political economy perspective. Specifically, we extend the school-choice model by Epple and Romano (1996b) and Coen-Pirani (2011) by incorporating a subsidy to private schools, a distinguishing feature of Spain's education system. We calibrate the model to match key moments of Spain's economy and education system in year 2008, the end of a large episode of immigration. By means of simulations we evaluate the effects of immigration on the size and quality of Spain's public education. Our main findings are as follows. First, immigration will lead to a small increase in the size of public education in terms of enrollment. However, this increase in size masks an important composition effect. There is a large native flight away from public schools that is offset by the large inflow of immigrant children into public schools. Secondly, we predict a large reduction in the quality of public education, an 11 percent reduction in public spending per student. Our analysis suggests that these effects will unfold unevenly over time. While the changes in the size (and student composition) of public schools will take place promptly upon arrival of the immigrants, the reduction in funding will be more gradual and only fully take place once the immigrant population has been enfranchised. We also provide estimates separately for Spain's regions, which enjoy some autonomy in their education policies and experienced widely different levels of immigration.
    Keywords: education, public school, immigration, naturalization
    JEL: D7 F22 H52 H75 J61 I22 I24
    Date: 2014–07
  4. By: Nguyen Viet Cuong; Vu Hoang Linh
    Abstract: Working away from home might bring higher earnings than working near home. However, the absence of parents due to work can have unexpected effects on children. This paper examines the effects of the temporary absence of parents on the well-being of children aged 5–8 years old in Vietnam, using indicators of household poverty, per capita consumption expenditure, and child time allocation. The paper relies on OLS and fixed-effects regression and panel data from the Young Lives surveys in 2007 and 2009. It finds a positive correlation between parental absence and per capita expenditure. Parental absence tends to increase per capita food expenditure instead of per capita nonfood expenditure. Regarding the way children spend their time, there are no statistically significant effects of parental absence.
    Keywords: parental migration, child poverty, remittances, impact evaluation, Vietnam.
    JEL: O15 R23 I32
    Date: 2014–07–24
  5. By: Syden Mishi and Lilymore Mudziwapasi
    Abstract: Zimbabwe had witnessed socio-economic challenges that resulted in mass exodus of its populace across its boarders mainly from the late 1990s. Migration can be individual or household strategy for survival and remittances play a role in transforming the household income. Making use of ordinary least squares estimation techniques, this article examines the impact of international remittances on sustainability of family livelihood in small mining town of Chegutu located in Mashonaland West Province of Zimbabwe using survey data. I found out that remittances go a long way in providing income for basic services like municipal services, food, medical expenses and disturbingly to a lesser extent education.
    Keywords: Consumption, Households, International Migration, Remittances, Economics of labour migration
    JEL: D10 D12 F22 F24
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Bodvarsson, Örn B. (California State University, Sacramento); Hou, Jack W. (California State University, Long Beach); Shen, Kailing (Xiamen University)
    Abstract: Post-reform China has been experiencing two major demographic changes, an extraordinary amount of internal migration and an aging population. We present a general migration model which captures the idea that older migrants have shorter durations in the destination but possibly larger general human capital to transfer. Therefore, the incentive to migrate is ambiguously related to age. We test the theoretical implication using an extended modified gravity model, nuanced to fit the case of a transition economy. We find that shifts in China's age distribution have generated significant changes in the country's migration patterns.
    Keywords: internal migration, age distribution, reforms
    JEL: J61 J11
    Date: 2014–07
  7. By: Li Hao (Sam M. Walton College of Business, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701, USA); Daniel Houser (George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, MSN 1B2, Fairfax, VA 22030 USA); Lei Mao (Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69007, France ; CNRS, GATE Lyon St Etienne,F-69130 Ecully, France); Marie Claire Villeval (Université de Lyon, Lyon, F-69007, France ; CNRS, GATE Lyon St Etienne,F-69130 Ecully, France)
    Abstract: Using a field experiment in China, we study whether migration status is correlated with attitudes toward risk, ambiguity, and competitiveness. Our subjects include migrants and non-migrants. We find that, migrants exhibit no differences from non-migrants in risk and ambiguity preferences elicited using pairs of lotteries ; however, migrants are significantly more likely to enter competition in the presence of strategic uncertainty when they expect competitive entries from others. Our results suggest that migration may be driven more by a stronger belief in one’s ability to succeed in an uncertain and competitive environment than by risk attitudes under state uncertainty.
    Keywords: Migration, risk preferences, strategic uncertainty, ambiguity, field experiment
    JEL: C93 D03 D63 J61
    Date: 2014
  8. By: Masamune Iwasawa (Graduate School of Economics, Kyoto University and Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science); Mitsuo Inada (Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University, and Research Fellow of Japan Society for the Promotion of Science); Seiichi Fukui (Graduate School of Agriculture, Kyoto University)
    Abstract: This study explores the effects of remittances on child education that depend on three types of migration: parental, non-parental, and no migration. Measuring the effects of remittances is challenging and demands great caution because their theoretical positive impacts can be partly or fully offset by the adverse influences of family members’ migration. The magnitude of this negative impact, furthermore, depends significantly on migrant characteristics. Specifically, given that parents play an irreplaceable role in their children’s education, parental migration not only leads to a labor shortage in the household but also results in insufficient parental input. To overcome the difficulties of measuring the effects of remittances, we derive data from the Cambodian Socio-Economic Survey in 2009, which provides a sufficient sample size for the three self-selected migration types. Estimating each subsample enables us to disentangle the net impact of remittances from that of migration and measure the influence of remittances given the differences in migrant characteristics. Overall, the estimates suggest that the positive effects of remittances are partially canceled out for non-parental migration and completely eliminated when parental migration occurs.
    Keywords: Remittance; Migrant heterogeneity; Educational expenditure
    JEL: O15 I25 J13
    Date: 2014–08
  9. By: Ben Westmore
    Abstract: Unfavourable demographic trends in many OECD countries threaten the sustainability of potential labour resources, GDP growth and fiscal positions. One factor that is expected to mitigate these trends is continued inflows of migrant workers from low income economies. However, a rapid catch-up in productivity and wages in these traditional source countries vis-à-vis the OECD may weaken economic incentives for migration and imply a transition away from current migration patterns. This paper uses data of the high-skilled and low-skilled migrant stock between 92 origin and 44 destination countries to highlight the relationship between economic factors and migration. The paper also attempts to uncover links with policy and demographic factors prevailing in the origin and destination countries. The analysis suggests that higher skill-specific wages in the destination country are associated with more migration. This relationship appears to be particularly strong for migrants from middle-income countries, supporting theories of an inverted-U relationship between origin country economic development and the propensity to migrate. Policy differences between the destination and origin also appear important, for example in terms of regulations on businesses and labour markets, along with the relative quality of institutions. In some instances, the effects on high-skilled and low-skilled migrants differ markedly. Combining the estimated coefficients from the model with the skill-specific wage profile from the OECD long-term growth projections highlights the potential for weaker future migrant flows to OECD countries than implied by past trends and embedded in official projections. Migrations internationales: Les liens avec le contexte économique et stratégique dans les pays d'origine et de destination Les tendances démographiques défavorables en vigueur dans de nombreux pays de l’OCDE mettent en péril la pérennité de la main-d’oeuvre, la croissance du PIB et les situations budgétaires. L’arrivée constante de travailleurs migrants en provenance d’économies à faible revenu est un facteur qui devrait atténuer ces tendances. Toutefois, ces pays sources traditionnels rattrapent rapidement les pays de l’OCDE sur le plan de la productivité et des salaires, ce qui risque d’affaiblir les incitations économiques à l’émigration et entraîner une modification des schémas de migration actuels. Les auteurs du présent document ont eu recours à des données relatives aux migrants hautement qualifiés et faiblement qualifiés représentant 92 pays d’origine et 44 pays de destination, afin de souligner les liens entre facteurs économiques et migrations. Ils se sont également attachés à mettre au jour les relations entre le contexte stratégique et les facteurs démographiques en vigueur dans les pays d’origine et de destination. Leur analyse tend à démontrer que des salaires plus élevés pour des emplois correspondant à des compétences spécifiques sont associés à des migrations plus nombreuses. Cette relation est particulièrement forte pour les migrants originaires de pays à revenu intermédiaire, un constat qui vient confirmer les théories selon lesquelles il existe une relation en U inversé entre le développement économique des pays d’origine et la propension à migrer. Les différences au niveau des politiques publiques entre les pays de destination et les pays d’origine semblent également importantes, par exemple pour ce qui est des réglementations applicables aux entreprises et de celles en vigueur sur le marché du travail, ainsi que la qualité relative des institutions. Dans certains cas, les effets sur les migrants hautement et faiblement qualifiés varient fortement. Si l’on combine les coefficients estimés du modèle et le profil des salaires correspondant à des compétences spécifiques établi à partir des projections de croissance à long terme de l’OCDE, on s’aperçoit que les flux de migrants en direction des pays de l’OCDE pourraient être plus faibles que les tendances antérieures et les projections officielles le laissent entendre.
    Keywords: economic development, international migration, labour economics, public policy, politique publique, développement économique, migration internationale, économie du travail
    JEL: F22 J01 O15
    Date: 2014–07–17

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