nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2014‒08‒09
eleven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Gender Discrimination and Common Property Resources: a Model By Casari, Marco; Lisciandra, Maurizio
  2. Family Migration and Relative Earnings Potentials By Mette Foged
  3. Cultural Diversity and Economic Policy By Dirk Dohse; Robert Gold
  4. Does regional ethnic diversity moderate the negative effect of school ethnic diversity on educational performance? By Sjaak Braster; Jaap Dronkers
  5. Age at Immigration and High School Dropouts By Sarit Cohen Goldner; Gil S. Epstein
  6. Immigration and Careers of European Workers: Effects and the Role of Policies By Cristina Cattaneo; Carlo V. Fiorio; Giovanni Peri
  7. The effect of spatial mobility and other factors on academic productivity : some evidence from a set of highly productive economists By Pedro Albarrán; Raquel Carrasco; Javier Ruiz-Castillo
  8. Where now after ten years of Eastern enlargement? By Andor, László
  9. Transferability of Human Capital and Immigrant Assimilation: An Analysis for Germany By Leilanie Basilio. Thomas K. Bauer; Anica Kramer
  10. On the importance of macroeconomic factors for the foreign student’s decision to stay in the host country By Kristine Vasiljeva
  11. Human Capital Outflow and Economic Misery:Fresh Evidence for Pakistan By Ali, Amjad; Mujahid, Noreen; Rashid, Yahya; Shahbaz, Muhammad

  1. By: Casari, Marco; Lisciandra, Maurizio
    Abstract: In an open economy with common property resources at the community level, marriage and migratory decisions crucially depend on inheritance rules on the commons. Motivated by the traditional management of the commons in the Italian Alps, we present a model that fits the evolution of property rights observed over six centuries. Women’s rights over the commons were progressively eroded from the Middle Ages until 1800, when there was an almost universal adoption of a patrilineal inheritance system. Communities switched from an egalitarian system to a patrilineal inheritance system in an attempt to protect the per capita endowment of common resources from outside immigration. The model shows that inheritance rules have clear-cut implications for marriage strategies, migratory flows, and fertility rates.
    Keywords: Inheritance; commons; migration; institutions; property rights
    JEL: D10 J12 J13 J16
    Date: 2014–08–01
  2. By: Mette Foged (University of Copenhagen)
    Abstract: I document that couples are more likely to migrate if household income is disproportionally due to one partner, and that families react equally strong to a male and female relative earnings advantage. A unitarian model of family migration in which families may discount wives’ private gains is used to derive testable implications regarding the type of couples that select into migrating. The empirical tests show that gender-neutral family migration cannot be rejected against the alternative of husband-centered migration. The lower response of family migration to the human capital held wives than the human capital of husbands, documented in the literature, may be attributed to more intense colocation problems and lower income among female-headed households. The more severe colocation problem stems from stronger educational homogamy among highly educated women relative to highly educated men. The results hold for internal as well as international migration of couples
    Keywords: Internationalmigration,familymigration,colocationproblem,selection
    JEL: F22 D19 J61
    Date: 2014–07
  3. By: Dirk Dohse; Robert Gold
    Abstract: This paper discusses policy implications from the empirical results obtained in the preceding tasks and, in particular, from a survey among city representatives and representatives of migrant organizations in 40 European cities. It argues that cultural diversity is a distinct aspect of migration that must be taken into account when designing policies. Moreover, it pleads for integrating migration and innovation policies to better use the economic potentials linked to migration. In order to achieve this goal, local actors should be incorporated into the design and implementation of (future) integration policies to take adequately into account the regional heterogeneity in diversity effects observed.
    Keywords: Regional Development, Urban Development, Cultural Diversity
    JEL: M13 O18 R11
    Date: 2014–07
  4. By: Sjaak Braster (Erasmus Universiteit Rotterdam); Jaap Dronkers (University Maastricht)
    Abstract: This paper address the question whether ethnic diversity in school classes in the context of major cities and metropolises, where children from an early age grew up with the phenomenon of ethnic diversity, has a positive effect on the educational performance of migrant pupils. We use PISA 2006 data with 8,521 immigrant students from 35 origin countries, living in 15 destination countries, and all 72,329 native students in these countries. Native students and students with an immigrant background have been analyzed separately, using a multilevel analysis. We find that the effect of school ethnic diversity outside cities is quite negative on the educational performance of migrant and native pupils. In cities the effect of school ethnic diversity is smaller but still negative for both migrant and native pupils. But in large cities the effect of school ethnic diversity on educational performance is positive for both migrant and native pupils.
    Date: 2014–07
  5. By: Sarit Cohen Goldner (Bar-Ilan University); Gil S. Epstein (Bar Ilan University)
    Abstract: We focus on high school dropout rate among male and female immigrant children. We consider the relationship between the dropout rate and age of arrival of the immigrants. Using repeated cross sectional data from the Israeli Labor Force Surveys of 1996-2011 we show that the share of high school dropouts among immigrant children who arrived from the Former Soviet Union during 1989-1994 is at least as double than among natives in the same age group. Further, we show that among immigrant youth there is a monotonic negative relation between age at arrival and the share of high school dropouts. To understand our results we present a theoretical framework that links between age at arrival in the host country, language proficiency, quality of education and wages.
    Keywords: Immigrants, age at arrival, high-school dropouts
    JEL: I21 J24 J61
    Date: 2014–08
  6. By: Cristina Cattaneo (FEEM, Italy); Carlo V. Fiorio (University of Milano, Italy); Giovanni Peri (UC, Davis. USA)
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze the response of career, employment and wage of native Europeans to immigration. We then ask how individual country’s policies affect these responses. We use data on 11 EU countries, over the period 1995-2001. We also use the 1991 distribution of immigrants by nationality across European labor markets to construct a version of the enclave-based instrument to proxy for the flow of immigrants, that is exogenous to local demand shocks. We find that native Europeans are more likely to upgrade to more skilled and better paid occupations, when a larger number of immigrants enter their labor market. We find no evidence of an increased likelihood of non-employment or geographical mobility. We find that more flexible labor markets in a country are a key factor to have employment upgrading in response to immigration.
    Keywords: Immigrants, Europe, Occupation Upgrading, Mobility, Labor Market Policies
    JEL: J61 O15
    Date: 2014–06
  7. By: Pedro Albarrán; Raquel Carrasco; Javier Ruiz-Castillo
    Abstract: This paper analyzes a sample of economists from two sources: faculty members working in2007 in a selection of the 81 top Economics departments in the world, and Fellows of the Econometric Society active at that date but working elsewhere in other institutions. Productivity is measured in terms of a quality index that weights the publications of each individual in four journal equivalent classes. Consider the partition of any set into the following three groups: those who study and work in the same country (stayers), those who study the Ph.D. abroad but come back to the country where they obtained a first degree (brain circulation), and those who complete their education at home but move abroad after the Ph.D., plus those who leave their country to study the Ph.D. and remain abroad in 2007 (two different forms of brain drain). From the point of view of a country or a geographical area, there are three types of movers: brain circulation, brain drain,and migrants constituting a brain gain for the country or the geographical area in question. We investigate the following four issues. (1) and (2). Controlling for demographic and career variables,we study the productivity of movers versus stayers for the individuals working in 2007 in the U.S. or in the EU. (3) The potential deleterious effect of academic in breeding practices on researchers' productivity. (4) The existence of productivity differences among economists from different countries.
    Date: 2014–07
  8. By: Andor, László
    Abstract: The aim of this article is to evaluate the situation of the Central and Eastern European countries within the EU on the 10th anniversary of the Eastern Enlargement. Since 2004, the region has shown a trend to catch up with Western Europe in terms of both employment and economic performance. However, the financial and economic crisis which started in 2008 disrupted the previous trends of convergence for some, and greater differences emerged between individual countries' performances. The eastward enlargement has practically doubled labour mobility within the EU, and this phenomenon is likely to be sustained as long as income disparities between Member States persist. The 2004 and 2007 enlargements brought more welfare to the countries receiving mobile workers, whereas countries of origin bear the real risks of labour mobility from east to west. Today, it can be said that most of the newer Member States, irrespective of the varying speeds of convergence have developed within the EU as an 'inner periphery'. In order to make better use of the potential for economic growth in Central-Eastern Europe, investing in human capital should become a priority. The major question for the second decade of our enlarged European Union - aside from the reform of the monetary union - is whether the EU’s eastern region can continue to catch up without the internal socio-economic polarisation observed thus far, and whether the latter process can in fact be reversed.
    Keywords: European Union, enlargement, economic integration, labour mobility
    JEL: F15
    Date: 2014–07–31
  9. By: Leilanie Basilio. Thomas K. Bauer; Anica Kramer
    Abstract: This paper investigates the transferability of human capital across countries and the contribution of imperfect human capital portability to the explanation of the immigrant-native wage gap. Using data for West Germany, our results reveal that, overall, education and in particular labor market experience accumulated in the home countries of the immigrants receive signifiantly lower returns than human capital obtained in Germany. We further find evidence for heterogeneity in the returns to human capital of immigrants across countries. Finally, imperfect human capital transferability appears to be a major factor in explaining the wage differential between natives and immigrants.
    Keywords: Human Capital, Rate of Return, Immigration, Assimilation
    JEL: J61 J31 J24
    Date: 2014
  10. By: Kristine Vasiljeva (Department of Economics and Business, Aarhus University, Denmark)
    Abstract: The paper tests empirically whether the macroeconomic variables suggested by migration theories have a significant impact on the foreign student’s decision to stay in their host country. The analysis is based on the combination of country level macroeconomic variables and individual micro-level data. The entire population of post-graduate students who immigrated to Denmark after the enlargement of the European Union in 2004 is studied. The difference in mean labour income between the home and the host countries is found to be significantly and negatively related to the foreign student’s decision to stay in their host country. Moreover, the more hierarchical society in the home country is, the lower probability of male students staying in the host country. The differences in the unemployment rates, welfare benefits and business cycles between countries do not significantly affect the student’s probability of staying. The employment outcome of student migrants has also been analysed and it is positively related to English language knowledge, but not to the abovementioned macroeconomic and culture related variables.
    Keywords: student migration, return migration, European Union migration, immigrant labour, register data
    JEL: F22 J61 I29
    Date: 2014–07–15
  11. By: Ali, Amjad; Mujahid, Noreen; Rashid, Yahya; Shahbaz, Muhammad
    Abstract: This paper visits the impact of economic misery on human capital outflow using time series data over the period of 1975-2012. We have applied the combined cointegration tests and innovative accounting approach to examine long run and causal relationship between the variables. Our results affirm the presence of cointegration between the variables. We find that economic misery increases human capital outflow. Foreign remittances add in human capital outflow from Pakistan. The migration from Pakistan to rest of world is boosted by depreciation in local currency. Income inequality is also a major contributor to human capital outflow. The present study is comprehensive effort and may provide new insights to policy makers for handling the issue of human capital outflow by controlling economic misery in Pakistan.
    Keywords: Economic misery, human capital outflow, Pakistan
    JEL: C0
    Date: 2014–07–27

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