nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2014‒07‒21
seven papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Skill Mismatch and Migration in Egypt and Tunisia By Nordman, Christophe Jalil; David, Anda Mariana
  2. Access to Higher Public Education and Locational Choices of Undocumented Migrants By Cebula, Richard; Nair-Reichert, Usha
  3. Employment of Undocumented Immigrants and the Prospect of Legal Status: Evidence from an Amnesty Program By Carlo Devillanova; Francesco Fasani; Tommaso Frattini
  4. The impact of product quality on the pro-trade elasticity of immigrants By Giorgia Giovannetti; Mauro Lonati
  5. Return Migration of Foreign Students By Govert E. Bijwaard; Qi Wang
  6. Diaspora transferts statut social et inégalité By Jellal, Mohamed
  7. Diaspora transferts et volatilité économique By Jellal, Mohamed

  1. By: Nordman, Christophe Jalil; David, Anda Mariana
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to shed light on the issue of skill mismatch in the context of return migration in Egypt and Tunisia. Using data on both return and potential migrants in Egypt and Tunisia, we analyze the skills that migrants acquire before and during migration and the way these skills are used upon return. We find evidence of skill mismatch, especially in Tunisia. The undereducation phenomenon is more prevalent among return migrants, indicating that they make up for their lower education using their migration experience. Finally, we estimate the determinants of skill mismatch on the Egyptian and Tunisian labour markets and find a significant negative effect of return migration on the probability of being undereducated.
    Keywords: Migration de retour; inadéquation des qualifications; marché du travail; éducation; Tunisie; Egypte; Return migration; skill mismatch; labor market; education; Tunisia; Egypt;
    JEL: J24 F22 O15 I25
    Date: 2014–04
  2. By: Cebula, Richard; Nair-Reichert, Usha
    Abstract: Many states have experienced a large influx of undocumented migrants in recent years. This has created new demands on higher educational systems at the state level. Some states have passed legislation to restrict the access of undocumented migrants to higher public education whereas others provide access in various forms including in-state tuition. Our research examines a related issue that has not been researched much, namely, the impact of educational access on the location decisions of undocumented migrants in the US. Undocumented migrants appear to locate in states with high average median real per capita incomes. There is also evidence of clustering of undocumented migrants in states with large migrant networks. The effect of educational access on the percentage of undocumented workers in a state is mixed and small in most specifications, a finding perhaps indicative of a trade-off between competing priorities the choice of location.
    Keywords: undocumented migration; illegal immigration; migrant clustering; higher public education access
    JEL: H26 J61 J62 J69
    Date: 2014–07–03
  3. By: Carlo Devillanova (Bocconi University, Dondena and CReAM); Francesco Fasani (Queen Mary – University of London, LdA, CReAM and IZA); Tommaso Frattini (University of Milan, LdA, CReAM and IZA)
    Abstract: This paper estimates the causal effect of the prospect of legal status on the employment outcomes of undocumented immigrants. Our identification strategy exploits a natural experiment provided by the 2002 amnesty program in Italy that introduced an exogenous discontinuity in eligibility based on date of arrival. We find that the prospect of legal status significantly increases the employment probability of immigrants that are potentially eligible for the amnesty relative to other undocumented immigrants. The size of the estimated effect is equivalent to about two thirds of the increase in employment that undocumented immigrants in our sample normally experience in their first year after arrival in Italy. These findings are robust to several falsification exercises.
    Keywords: Illegal immigration, Natural experiment, Legalization
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2014–06–26
  4. By: Giorgia Giovannetti; Mauro Lonati
    Abstract: This paper investigates the links between product quality and the pro-trade effect of ethnic networks using a large panel on trade flows and bilateral stocks of immigrants with information for 19 OECD destination countries and 177 origin countries. In line with the approach of Rauch and Trindade (2002) we classify traded goods according to their quality level and separately estimate pro-trade elasticity of ethnic networks for each subgroup. We allow for heterogeneity of immigrants according to both the level of per capita income of their country of origin and their education level. The pro-trade effect of immigrants increases with the quality of traded goods. We show that this trend does not depend on the relatively high concentration of differentiated products in top quality subgroups. By comparing the trend of elasticities across samples, it emerges that immigrants from highly industrialized economies are relatively more likely to be part of networks which create more business opportunities for top-quality products. In addition, given their lower liquidity constraints and advantages in human capital, we find a greater impact of high-skilled migrants consistent across all quality levels. Finally, contrary to the recent findings of Ehrhart et al. (2014) and Bratti et al. (2014), regardless the quality of traded goods as we enlarge the sample by adding immigrants from low and middle income economies we find lower pro-trade elasticities.
    Keywords: F10, F11, F14, F22
    Date: 2014
  5. By: Govert E. Bijwaard (Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI)); Qi Wang
    Abstract: Using administrative panel data, this paper presents a comprehensive empirical analysis of the return of recent foreign students in the Netherlands. We focus on how individual labour market changes and marriage formation influence their decision to leave. Our model allows for correlated unobserved heterogeneity across the migration, the labour market and the marriage formation processes. The large size of the data permits us to stratify the analysis by five groups based on the country of birth. The empirical analyses reveal that employment hardly affects return behaviour of students and unemployment induces them to leave. Marriage in the Netherlands makes the students more prone to stay. The size of the impact of these life course experiences on return differs by income, age at entry, business cycle and gender.
    Keywords: student migration, correlated hazards, labour dynamics, marriage formation, return migration
    JEL: F22 J64 J12 C41
  6. By: Jellal, Mohamed
    Abstract: We consider a model that extends the scope of social preferences of the families of the migrants. This extension allows us to show that if some poor families receive remittances and social culture affects the composition of their consumption, then in presence of strong social inequality, poor families tend to consume more conspicuous goods in order to hide their real hierarchical social position. This finding may explain why remittances are more allocated to consumption rather to the productive investments.
    Keywords: Diaspora, Remittances, Social Preferences, Social Status, Inequality
    JEL: A13 D63 F22 F24 O1 O12 R2 Z13
    Date: 2014–07–15
  7. By: Jellal, Mohamed
    Abstract: This paper attempts to clarify theoretically the link between remittances , industrialization by foreign capital as well as the size of its volatility. In particular, the model shows clearly that if the flows of foreign capital induce volatility in the economy, the bulk of remittances from the diaspora seems to have the opposite effect, it tends to play a stabilizing role of fluctuations in the economy of the country of origin of the diaspora.
    Keywords: Diaspora, Remittances, Foreign Capital, Volatility, Stabilization
    JEL: F21 F22 F24 O12 O14
    Date: 2014–07–12

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