nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2014‒06‒02
24 papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Settlers and surnames: An atlas illustrating the origins of settlers in 19th century America. By Eff, Ellis Anthon
  2. Climate Variability and International Migration: The Importance of the Agricultural Linkage By Cai, Ruohong; Feng, Shuaizhang; Pytlikova, Mariola; Oppenheimer, Michael
  3. Technological Progress and Economic Geography By Tabuchi, Takatoshi; Thisse, Jacques-François; Zhu, Xiwei
  4. A Global View of Cross-Border Migration By di Giovanni, Julian; Levchenko, Andrei A.; Ortega, Francesc
  5. Return Migration, Self-Selection and Entrepreneurship in Mozambique By Batista, Catia; McIndoe Calder, Tara; Vicente, Pedro C.
  6. The Effect of Immigration on Native Self-Employment By Fairlie, Robert
  7. Breaking out of poverty traps: Internal migration and interregional convergence in Russia By Guriev, Sergei; Vakulenko, Elena
  8. First-Come First-Served: Identifying the Demand Effect of Immigration Inflows on House Prices By Rosa Sanchis-Guarner
  9. Migration and work: the cohesive role of vocational training policies By Elena Ragazzi; Lisa Sella
  10. Unemployment of Non-western Immigrants in the Great Recession By Cerveny, Jakub; van Ours, Jan C
  11. Immigrant Selection over the Business Cycle: The Spanish Boom and the Great Recession By Jesús Fernández-Huertas Moraga
  12. Migration, Education and the Gender Gap in Labour Force Participation By Ilhom Abdulloev; Ira Gang; Myeong-Su Yun
  13. Determinants of Health Professionals’ Migration in Africa: a WHO based Assessment By Asongu Simplice
  14. The Ups and Downs in Women's Employment: Shifting Composition or Behavior from 1970 to 2010? By Giovanni Mastrobuoni; Paolo Pinotti
  15. Human Capital Mobility: Implications for Efficiency, Income Distribution, and Policy By Wildasin, David
  16. Bridges or Buffers? Motives behind Immigrants’ Religiosity - A Comparative Study of Europe and the United States By García-Muñoz, Teresa; Neuman, Shoshana
  17. Spillover effects of studying with immigrant students; a quantile regression approach By Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan C
  18. Formal Volunteering as Method of Integration for Immigrants: Case Study Vienna, Austria By Holly Geber
  19. The great migration : urban aspirations By Keith, Michael
  20. Women Entrepreneurs from Minority Groups: Best Practices amongst Women from Suriname in The Hague By Rachel Kurian
  21. Mitigating long-run health effects of drought: Evidence from South Africa By Dinkelman, Taryn
  22. Ethnic and Racial Self-Employment Differences and Possible Explanations By Fairlie, Robert
  23. Tipping points? Ethnic composition change in Dutch big city neighbourhoods By Ong C.
  24. "To Have and Have Not": Migration, Remittances, Poverty and Inequality in Algeria By David Margolis; Luis Miotti; El Mouhoub Mouhoud; Joël Oudinet

  1. By: Eff, Ellis Anthon
    Abstract: An atlas of settlement patterns in 19th century America is produced based on microdata from the 1880 census of the United States and the 1881 census of the United Kingdom. The first part of the atlas shows migration from state or country of parental origin to county of residence, for persons born prior to 1840; the resulting maps illustrate population movements between approximately 1820 and 1880. The second part of the atlas examines the surnames of the 16 longest-settled eastern states, for males born prior to 1840 and living in the same state in which their fathers were born. Assigning these surnames to foreign countries and the historic counties of England and Scotland, the resulting maps show the probable origins, by counties, of these eastern states.
    Keywords: surnames, North American Population Project, settling of America
    JEL: F22 N31 O15 R23 Z1
    Date: 2013–04–15
  2. By: Cai, Ruohong (Princeton University); Feng, Shuaizhang (Shanghai University of Finance and Economics); Pytlikova, Mariola (KORA - Danish Institute for Local and Regional Government Research); Oppenheimer, Michael (Princeton University)
    Abstract: While there is considerable interest in understanding the climate-migration relationship, particularly in the context of concerns about global climatic change, little is known about underlying mechanisms. We analyze a unique and extensive set of panel data characterizing annual bilateral international migration flows from 163 origin countries to 42 OECD destination countries covering the last three decades. We find a positive and statistically significant relationship between temperature and international outmigration only in the most agriculture-dependent countries, consistent with the widely-documented adverse impact of temperature on agricultural productivity. In addition, migration flows to current major destinations are especially temperature-sensitive. Policies to address issues related to climate-induced international migration would be more effective if focused on the agriculture-dependent countries and especially people in those countries whose livelihoods depend on agriculture.
    Keywords: international migration, climate variability, agricultural productivity
    JEL: Q54 J10
    Date: 2014–05
  3. By: Tabuchi, Takatoshi; Thisse, Jacques-François; Zhu, Xiwei
    Abstract: New economic geography focuses on the impact of falling transport costs on the spatial distribution of activities. However, it disregards the role of technological innovations, which are central to modern economic growth, as well as the role of migration costs, which are a strong impediment to moving. We show that this neglect is unwarranted. Regardless of the level of transport costs, rising labor productivity fosters the agglomeration of activities, whereas falling transport costs do not affect the location of activities. When labor is heterogeneous, the number of workers residing in the more productive region increases by decreasing order of productive efficiency when labor productivity rises.
    Keywords: labor heterogeneity; labor productivity; migration costs; new economic geography; technological progress
    JEL: J61 R12
    Date: 2014–03
  4. By: di Giovanni, Julian; Levchenko, Andrei A.; Ortega, Francesc
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the global welfare impact of observed levels of migration using a quantitative multi-sector model of the world economy calibrated to aggregate and firm-level data. Our framework features cross-country labor productivity difference, international trade, remittances, and a heterogeneous workforce. We compare welfare under the observed levels of migration to a no-migration counterfactual. In the long run, natives in countries that received a lot of migration -- such as Canada or Australia -- are better off due to greater product variety available in consumption and as intermediate inputs. In the short run the impact of migration on average welfare in these countries is close to zero, while the skilled and unskilled natives tend to experience welfare changes of opposite signs. The remaining natives in countries with large emigration flows -- such as Jamaica or El Salvador -- are also better off due to migration, but for a different reason: remittances. The welfare impact of observed levels of migration is substantial, at about 5 to 10% for the main receiving countries and about 10% in countries with large incoming remittances. Our results are robust to accounting for imperfect transferability of skills, selection into migration, and imperfect substitution between natives and immigrants.
    Keywords: International Trade; Migration; Remittances; Welfare
    JEL: F12 F15 F22 F24
    Date: 2014–03
  5. By: Batista, Catia (Universidade Nova de Lisboa); McIndoe Calder, Tara (Central Bank of Ireland); Vicente, Pedro C. (Universidade Nova de Lisboa)
    Abstract: Does return migration affect entrepreneurship? This question has important implications for the debate on the economic development effects of migration for origin countries. The existing literature has, however, not addressed how the estimation of the impact of return migration on entrepreneurship is affected by double unobservable migrant self-selection, both at the initial outward migration and at the final inward return migration stages. This paper uses a representative household survey conducted in Mozambique in order to address this research question. We exploit variation provided by displacement caused by civil war in Mozambique, as well as social unrest and other shocks in migrant destination countries. The results lend support to negative unobservable self-selection at both and each of the initial and return stages of migration, which results in an under-estimation of the effects of return migration on entrepreneurial outcomes when using a 'naïve' estimator not controlling for self-selection. Indeed, 'naïve' estimates point to a 13 pp increase in the probability of owning a business when there is a return migrant in the household relative to non-migrants only, whereas excluding the double effect of unobservable self-selection, this effect becomes significantly larger – between 24 pp and 29 pp, depending on the method of estimation and source of variation used.
    Keywords: international migration, return migration, entrepreneurship, self-selection, business ownership, migration effects in origin countries, household survey, Mozambique, sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: F22 L26 O15
    Date: 2014–05
  6. By: Fairlie, Robert
    Abstract: A rapidly growing literature examines the impact of immigrants on the labor market outcomes of native-born Americans.  However, the impact of immigration on natives in entrepreneurship has not been examined, despite the over-representation of immigrants in that sector and theoretical reasons why the impact might be greater for the self-employed.  We first present a new general equilibrium model of self-employment and wage/salary work.  For a range of plausible parameter values, the model predicts small negative effects of immigration on native self-employment rates and earnings.  Using 1980 and 1990 Census microdata, we then examine the relationship between changes in immigration and native self-employment rates and earnings across 132 of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States.  We find evidence supporting the hypothesis that self-employed immigrants displace self-employed natives.  The effects are much larger than those predicted by simulations of the theoretical model.  Immigrants, however, do not have a negative effect on native self-employment earnings.  Our findings are similar if we weight immigration rates by the propensity of immigrant groups to be self-employed or if we try alternative estimation techniques and specifications. A rapidly growing literature examines the impact of immigrants on the labor market outcomes of native-born Americans.  However, the impact of immigration on natives in entrepreneurship has not been examined, despite the over-representation of immigrants in that sector and theoretical reasons why the impact might be greater for the self-employed.  We first present a new general equilibrium model of self-employment and wage/salary work.  For a range of plausible parameter values, the model predicts small negative effects of immigration on native self-employment rates and earnings.  Using 1980 and 1990 Census microdata, we then examine the relationship between changes in immigration and native self-employment rates and earnings across 132 of the largest metropolitan areas in the United States.  We find evidence supporting the hypothesis that self-employed immigrants displace self-employed natives.  The effects are much larger than those predicted by simulations of the theoretical model.  Immigrants, however, do not have a negative effect on native self-employment earnings.  Our findings are similar if we weight immigration rates by the propensity of immigrant groups to be self-employed or if we try alternative estimation techniques and specifications.
    Keywords: Business, entrepreneurship, inequality, immigration, business ownership, self-employment, labor
    Date: 2014–05–15
  7. By: Guriev, Sergei; Vakulenko, Elena
    Abstract: We study barriers to labor mobility using panel data on gross region-to-region migration flows in Russia for 1995-2010. We find that barriers that hindered internal migration in 1990s have been generally eliminated by the end of 2000s. In 1990s many poor Russian regions were in poverty traps: potential migrants wanted to leave those regions but could not afford to finance the move. In 2000s (especially in late 2000s), these constraints were no longer binding. Overall economic growth and development of financial markets allowed even the poorest Russian regions to grow out of poverty traps resulting in convergence between Russian regions in 2000s.
    Keywords: internal migration; liquidity constraints; poverty traps
    JEL: J61 R23
    Date: 2013–10
  8. By: Rosa Sanchis-Guarner
    Abstract: An inflow of immigrants into a region affects house prices in three ways. In the short run, housing demand increases due to the increase in foreign-born population. In the long run, immigrants affect native location decisions and housing supply conditions. Previous research on the effect of immigration on local house prices has argued that the impact of immigrant demand cannot be separated from the demand changes due to native relocation or that the impact of immigrants on native mobility has no consequences on the estimates. In this paper I propose a methodology to pin down the immigrant demand effect. I apply it to Spanish data during the period 2002-2010 and I show that overlooking the impact of immigration on native mobility induces a sizeable bias in the short-run estimates. My results are robust to controlling for changes in housing supply.
    Keywords: Immigration, housing markets, instrumental variables
    JEL: J61 R12 R21
    Date: 2014–05
  9. By: Elena Ragazzi (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth,Turin, Italy); Lisa Sella (Ceris - Institute for Economic Research on Firms and Growth,Turin, Italy)
    Abstract: Migration and work are truly connected notions, both because one major cause of migration is the search of better working conditions, and because work is a fundamental vehicle of social cohesion, especially for the migrants. Hence, the European social model strongly connects social cohesion and employment policies, fostering sustainable growth and integration by offering increasing job opportunities, particularly concerning the weak categories. Therefore, work is a pillar of active citizenship and a fundamental step in individuals’ self-construction and the development of social abilities. In such context, vocational training represents a twofold integration channel, combining both education and work paths. Hence, the European Commission (2010) fosters a cohesive growth through vocational education and training (VET) policies, promoting a modern VET system and increasing its quality and efficiency. In Italy, the role of VET is particularly important for first- and second-generation immigrants, who are more likely to attend VET courses than different education paths. However, Italy is the only European country where VET is perceived like a segregation path, rather than like a port of entry to active citizenship and true integration. In fact, Cedefop (2011) notices that high linguistic barriers and rigid teaching methods characterize the Italian vocational education, while it stresses the high flexibility of Italian vocational training, including an higher adaptability to immigrants’ needs. The present work discusses the hypothesis of “subordinate integration” of immigrants into the Italian VET system. In particular, it examines the effectiveness of Piedmont VT policies in fostering employability of weak subjects. The results of a CATI survey on a representative sample of Piedmont VT students suggest no specific discrimination to the detriment of immigrants, whose individual background and work assimilation is similar to that of Italian VT students. Moreover, the net impact evaluation suggests a positive impact of training courses on strangers, which is generally higher for communitarian immigrants. Hence, immigrants’ participation to VT courses in Italy seems to denote a sort of normalization strategy of their specific differences, rather than a subordinate integration scheme.
    Keywords: impact evaluation, migration, vocational training, work.
    JEL: I28 J15 J61 O15
    Date: 2013–12
  10. By: Cerveny, Jakub; van Ours, Jan C
    Abstract: This paper examines whether unemployment of non-western immigrant workers in the Netherlands was disproportionally affected by the Great Recession. We analyze unemployment data covering the period November 2007 to February 2013 finding that the Great Recession affected unemployment rates of non-western immigrant workers in absolute terms more than unemployment rates of native workers. However, in relative terms there is not much of a difference. We also find that the sensitivity of individual job finding rates to the aggregate state of the labor market does not differ between natives and non-western immigrants. In combination our findings suggest that the Great Recession did not have a different impact on the unemployment of non-westerns immigrants and native Dutch.
    Keywords: Great Recession; non-western immigrants; unemployment
    JEL: J15 J64
    Date: 2013–09
  11. By: Jesús Fernández-Huertas Moraga
    Abstract: Spain received more immigrants than any other European country during its boom between 1997 and 2007 but continued receiving them during the recession that followed. This paper documents the selection of these immigrants in terms of their productive characteristics both before and after the peak of the boom. Pre-crisis immigrants were typically positively selected although selection was less positive for some over-represented national groups. Post-crisis immigration became even more positively selected, as well as older and more feminized.
    Date: 2014–05
  12. By: Ilhom Abdulloev (Rutgers University-New Brunswick); Ira Gang (Rutgers University-New Brunswick); Myeong-Su Yun (Tulane University)
    Abstract: Women who want to work often face many more hurdles than men. This is true in Tajikistan where there is a large gender gap in labour force participation. We highlight the role of two factors – international migration and education – on the labour force participation decision and its gender gap. Using probit and decomposition analysis, our investigation shows that education and migration have a significant association with the gender gap in labour force participation in Tajikistan. International emigration from Tajikistan, in which approximately 93.5% of the participants are men, reduces labour force participation by men domestically; increased female education, especially at the university and vocational level, increases female participation. Both women acquiring greater access to education and men increasing their migration abroad contribute to reducing the gender gap.
    Keywords: migration, education, gender gap, labour force participation, Tajikistan
    JEL: J01 J16 O15
    Date: 2014–05
  13. By: Asongu Simplice (Yaoundé/Cameroun)
    Abstract: Purpose – How do economic prosperity, health expenditure, savings, price-stability, demographic change, democracy, corruption-control, press-freedom, government effectiveness, human development, foreign-aid, physical security, trade openness and financial liberalization play-out in the fight against health-worker crisis when existing emigration levels matter? Despite the acute concern of health-worker crisis in Africa owing to emigration, lack of relevant data has made the subject matter empirically void over the last decades. Design/methodology/approach – A quantile regression approach is used to assess the determinants of health-worker emigration throughout the conditional distributions of health-worker emigration. This provides an assessment of the determinants when existing emigrations levels matter. Findings – Findings provide a broad range of tools for the fight against health-worker brain-drain. As a policy implication, blanket emigration-control policies are unlikely to succeed equally across countries with different levels of emigration. Thus to be effective, immigration policies should be contingent on the prevailing levels of the crisis and tailored differently across countries with the best and worst records on fighting health worker emigration. Originality/value – This paper has examined the theoretical postulations of a WHO report on determinants of health-worker migration.
    Keywords: Welfare; Health; Human Capital; Migration; Africa
    JEL: D60 F22 I10 J24 O15
    Date: 2013–09
  14. By: Giovanni Mastrobuoni (University of Essex and Collegio Carlo Alberto); Paolo Pinotti (Universita Bocconi and BAFFI Center)
    Abstract: We exploit exogenous variation in legal status following the January 2007 European Union enlargement to estimate its effect on immigrant crime. We difference out unobserved timevarying factors by 1) comparing recidivism rates of immigrants from the “new” and “candidate” member countries and 2) using arrest data on foreign detainees released upon a mass clemency that occurred in Italy in August 2006. The timing of the two events allows us to set up a difference-in-differences strategy. Legal status leads to a 50 percent reduction in recidivism and explains one-half to two-thirds of the observed differences in crime rates between legal and illegal immigrants.
    Keywords: immigration, crime, legal status
    JEL: F22 K42 C41
    Date: 2014–01
  15. By: Wildasin, David (University of Kentucky)
    Abstract: Mobility of highly-skilled workers affects and is affected by labor market conditions, taxes, and other policies. This paper documents the demographic and fiscal importance of international migration, especially in aging societies, reviews the efficiency and distributional effects of mobility, and analyzes the economic incidence of fiscal transfers to low-skilled workers that are financed by taxes on imperfectly-mobile high-skilled workers in a dynamic model, distinguishing the short-run, transitional, and long-run gains and losses to contributors and beneficiaries.
    Keywords: migration, taxes, redistribution, dynamic incidence
    JEL: J11 J24 J61 H2 H5
    Date: 2014–05
  16. By: García-Muñoz, Teresa; Neuman, Shoshana
    Abstract: Abstract: This study reviews and evaluates the motives and incentives behind immigrants’ religiosity, focusing on the two sides of the Atlantic – Europe and the United States. The contribution of the study is mainly empirical, trying to identify indicators for the type of incentive – whether immigrants’ religiosity serves as a ‘bridge’ or a ‘buffer’ in the process of adaptation to the receiving country. The statistical analysis draws on data from several waves of the European Social Survey (ESS), the American General Social Survey (GSS), and the International Social Survey Program (ISSP). Estimation of extended ‘mass participation equations’ and ‘prayer equations’ leads to the following findings: (a) immigrants are indeed more religious than the populations in the receiving countries, both in Europe and in the United States; and (b) while in the United States the religiosity of immigrants serves as a bridge between the immigrants and the local population, in Europe it has mainly the function of a buffer and of a “balm for the soul”. There is an extensive literature on the ‘bridge versus buffer’ (or ‘bridge versus boundary’) theories and their different implications in the United States and in Europe. However, to the best of our knowledge, our paper presents an innovative attempt to disentangle the two types of motives and to show that while the former is more relevant in the United States, the latter dominates in Europe.
    Keywords: bridge; buffer; Europe; immigration; integration; religion; The United States
    JEL: J11 J15 Z12 Z13
    Date: 2013–10
  17. By: Ohinata, Asako; van Ours, Jan C
    Abstract: We analyze how the share of immigrant children in the classroom affects the educational attainment of native Dutch children in terms of their language and math performance at the end of primary school. Our paper studies the spill-over effects at different parts of the test score distribution of native Dutch students using a quantile regression approach. We find no evidence of negative spillover effects of the classroom presence of immigrant children at the median of the test score distribution. In addition, there is no indication that these spill-over effects are present at other parts of the distribution.
    Keywords: Educational attainment; Immigrant children; Peer effects
    JEL: I21 J15
    Date: 2013–11
  18. By: Holly Geber
  19. By: Keith, Michael
    Abstract: The great 21st-century migration into cities will present both a great challenge for humanity and a significant opportunity for global economic growth. This paper describes the diverse patterns that define this metropolitan migration. It then lays out a framework for understanding the costs and benefits of new arrivals through migration's externalities and the challenges and policy tradeoffs that confront city stakeholders. The paper concludes by suggesting ways municipalities, by optimizing flexibility, can make migration more productive and less destructive in shaping the'good city'and the'smart city.'There are few paths to global economic growth that do not run through cities, and even fewer that do not depend on growing the city in population size, scale, and economic exchange. Historically, cities have grown by concentrating the economic advantages of number and density, the social potential of innovation, and the cultural possibilities of newness. By bringing together the factors of production, land, labor, capital, and enterprise, in ever more recombinant forms, cities offer the possibility of securing new economic advantages and scaling them up.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Municipal Financial Management,Housing&Human Habitats,Anthropology,National Urban Development Policies&Strategies
    Date: 2014–05–01
  20. By: Rachel Kurian (Assistant Professor, International Labour Economics, Institute of Social Studies, Erasmus University Rotterdam)
    Abstract: This paper is a contribution to this field of knowledge of female migrant entrepreneurship, an occupation that continues to be taken up a relatively small group of women. It considers the experiences of ‘successful’ businesswomen from the Surinamese community in and around The Hague, and identifies ‘best practices’ that optimised the development and management of their enterprises.2 The paper pays special attention to the ways in which ethnicity and gender influenced these practices, as well as the women’s own perception of their success. When analysing the experiences of migrant women entrepreneurs, the paper considers two important questions put forward by Baycan-Levent in her study on “Migrant Female Entrepreneurship in OECD countries” (2010). Where these women, in the main, ethnic entrepreneurs or women entrepreneurs? Did the fact that they were migrant and female entrepreneurs mean that they had to overcome “double barriers or, whether in fact were they exposed to more opportunities?” (2010:229). Based on these discussions, the paper puts forward priorities for government policies and policies and programmes to support the female immigrant entrepreneurship and promote these ‘best practices’.
    Date: 2014–05
  21. By: Dinkelman, Taryn
    Abstract: Drought is Africa’s primary natural disaster and a pervasive source of income risk for poor households. This paper documents the long-run health effects of early life exposure to drought and investigates an important source of heterogeneity in these effects. Combining birth cohort variation in South African Census data with cross-sectional and temporal drought variation, I estimate long-run health impacts of drought exposure among Africans confined to homelands during apartheid. Drought exposure in early childhood significantly raises later life male disability rates by 4% and reduces cohort size. Among a subset of homelands – the TBVC areas – disability effects are double and negative cohort effects are significantly larger. I show that differences in spatial mobility restrictions that influence the extent of migrant networks across TBVC and non-TBVC areas contribute to this heterogeneity. Placebo checks show no differential disability impacts of drought exposure across TBVC and non-TBVC areas after the repeal of migration restrictions. The results show that although drought has significant long-run effects on health human capital, migrant networks in poor economies provide one channel through which families mitigate these negative impacts of local environmental shock
    Keywords: disability and early life health; drought; local shocks; migration; South Africa
    JEL: I15 J61 N37 O15
    Date: 2014–02
  22. By: Fairlie, Robert
    Abstract: We show that entrepreneurship rates differ substantially across 60 ethnic and racial groups in the United States.  These differences exist within broad combinations of groups such as Asians and Hispanics, and are almost as great after regression controls, including age, education, immigrant status, and time in the country.  We then provide evidence on a number of theories of entrepreneurship.  An ethnic/racial group's self-employment rate is positively associated with the difference between average self-employment and wage/salary earnings for that group.  Ethnic/racial groups which immigrate from countries with high business ownership rates do not have high business ownership rates in the U.S.  Finally, we find that the more advantaged ethnic/racial groups, measured by wage/salary earnings, self-employment earnings, and unearned income, and not the more disadvantaged groups, have the highest self-employment rates.
    Keywords: Business, entrepreneurship, inequality, race, immigration, business ownership, self-employment, labor
    Date: 2014–05–15
  23. By: Ong C. (UNU-MERIT)
    Abstract: Micro-level studies using individual and household data have shown that residential location choices are influenced by neighbourhood ethnic composition. Using three conurbation samples in the Netherlands - Amsterdam metropolitan area, Rotterdam-The Hague metropolitan area, and the countrys largest conurbation, the Randstad metropolitan area - this paper analyses the evolution of neighbourhood ethnic composition as a social interaction outcome of disaggregated household behaviour. The potential tipping point in neighbourhood ethnic composition, beyond which white flight or the departure of native or advantaged households occurs, is tested. The share in neighbourhood population of native Dutch and western minority did not exhibit the hypothesised tipping behaviour in its growth rate with respect to initial share of non-western minority. This paper argues that the large social housing sector, centralised tax regime, and strong regulatory role of the state in housing and urban planning, are the main explanatory factors for the relative constancy in Dutch neighbourhood ethnic composition. Keywords Ethnic segregation; Neighbourhood; Tipping point; Urban renewal; Regression discontinuity
    Keywords: Economics of Minorities, Races, and Immigrants; Non-labor Discrimination; Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics: General; Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics: Housing Demand; Housing Supply and Markets; Regional Development Planning and Policy;
    JEL: J15 R00 R21 R31 R58
    Date: 2014
  24. By: David Margolis (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris, Paris School of Economics - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne, IZA - Forschungsinstitut zur Zukunft der Arbeit (Institute for the Study of Labor) - Bonn Universität - University of Bonn); Luis Miotti (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université de Paris Nord (ancienne affiliation) - Université Paris XIII - Paris Nord - CNRS : UMR7115); El Mouhoub Mouhoud (UP9 - Université Paris 9, Dauphine - Université Paris IX - Paris Dauphine, LEDa - Laboratoire d'Economie de Dauphine - Université Paris IX - Paris Dauphine); Joël Oudinet (CEPN - Centre d'Economie de l'Université de Paris Nord (ancienne affiliation) - Université Paris XIII - Paris Nord - CNRS : UMR7115)
    Abstract: This article analyses the distributional impact of remittances across two regions of Algerian emigration (Nedroma and Idjeur) using an original survey we conducted of 1,200 households in 2011. Remittances and especially the role played by foreign pensions decrease the Gini index by nearly 4 % for the two Algerian regions, with the effect in Idjeur being twice as large as Nedroma. At the same time, they help reduce poverty by nearly 13 percentage points. Remittances have a strong positive impact on very poor families in Idjeur but much less in Nedroma, where poor families suffer from a "double loss" due to the absence of their migrants and the fact that the latter do not send money home.
    Keywords: Remittances; Migration; Poverty; Inequality; Algeria
    Date: 2013–11–06

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