nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2014‒05‒24
seventeen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. International Migration and School Enrollment of the Left-Behinds in Albania: A Note By Marina Mastrorillo; Giorgio Fagiolo
  2. The impact of parents migration on the well-being of children left behind: Initial evidence from Romania By Botezat, Alina; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm
  3. Labor Mobility Within Currency Unions By Emmanuel Farhi; Ivan Werning
  4. Calling into Question the Link between Educational Achievement and Migrant Background By Sara Bonfanti
  5. The impact of immigration on youth employment By Aya Nushimoto
  6. Return Migration, Self-Selection and Entrepreneurship in Mozambique. By Catia Batista; Tara McIndoe- Calder; Pedro C. Vicente
  7. Immigration, Search, and Redistribution: A Quantitative Assessment of Native Welfare By Michele Battisti; Gabriel Felbermayr; Giovanni Peri; Panu Poutvaara
  8. A global assessment of human capital mobility: the role of non-OECD destinations By Artucm Erhan; Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar; Parsons, Christopher
  9. Immigration, the European Union and the UK Labour Market By Jonathan Wadsworth
  10. Tax Me if You Can! Optimal Nonlinear Income Tax between Competing Governments By Etienne Lehmann; Laurent Simula; Alain Trannoy
  11. Climate Variability and International Migration: The Importance of the Agricultural Linkage By Ruohong Cai; Shuaizhang Feng; Mariola Pytliková; Michael Oppenheimer
  12. The sectoral pro-trade effects of ethnic networks within a Ricardian model of trade By Mauro Lanati
  13. Climate Variability and Migration: Evidence from Tanzania By Mathilde MAUREL; Zaneta KUBIK
  14. Religion, Religious Diversity and Tourism By Johan Fourie; Jaume Roselló; Maria Santana-gallego
  15. The effects of remittances on poverty and inequality: Evidence from rural southern Morocco By Miftah, Amal; Bouoiyour, Jamal
  16. Labour migrant adjustments in the aftermath of the financial crisis By Bernt Bratsberg; Oddbjørn Raaum; Knut Røed
  17. Estimating remittances in the former Soviet Union: Methodological complexities and potential solutions By Jakhongir Kakhkharov; Alexandr Akimov

  1. By: Marina Mastrorillo; Giorgio Fagiolo
    Abstract: We study the impact of international migration on enrollment of the left-behinds in Albania using the 2008 and 2012 Living Standard Measurement Survey. We employ a 2-stage Probit model controlling for endogeneity with an instrumental-variable approach. We find that migration has a negative and significant impact on enrollment in both waves. This result holds across different sub-samples and alternative ways to proxy within-household migration. Our findings strengthen results for previous years and cast doubts on the effectiveness of recent educational reforms and migration-oriented policies in Albania.
    Keywords: Migration; Left-behinds; Albania; Enrollment; Education
    Date: 2014–05–16
  2. By: Botezat, Alina; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm
    Abstract: Many children grow up with parents working abroad. Economists are interested in the achievement and well-being of these home alone children to better understand the positive and negative aspects of migration in the sending countries. This paper examines the causal effects of parents' migration on their children left home in Romania, a country where increasingly more children are left behind in recent years. Using samples from a unique representative survey carried out in 2007 instrumental variable and bivariate probit estimates have been performed. Our initial evidence demonstrates that in Romania home alone children receive higher school grades, partly because they increase their time allocation for studying. However, they are more likely to be depressed and more often suffer from health problems especially in rural areas. --
    Keywords: parent migration,home alone children,well-being,Romania
    JEL: I12 I21 J13
    Date: 2014
  3. By: Emmanuel Farhi; Ivan Werning
    Abstract: We study the effects of labor mobility within a currency union suffering from nominal rigidities. When the demand shortfall in depressed region is mostly internal, migration may not help regional macroeconomic adjustment. When external demand is also at the root of the problem, migration out of depressed regions may produce a positive spillover for stayers. We consider a planning problem and compare its solution to the equilibrium. We find that the equilibrium is generally constrained inefficient, although the welfare losses may be small if the economy suffers mainly from internal demand imbalances.
    Date: 2014–01
  4. By: Sara Bonfanti
    Abstract: In EU societies, the role that immigrants’ children play in the educational system is fiercely debated. There exists a consensus that immigrants’ children show, on average, lower educational performances than children of natives in all EU states, regardless of grade level, type of school, age, etc. This awareness has led to the perception that the concentration of immigrants’ children negatively affects overall school educational performances. This note aims to disentangle the link between educational performance and migration background showing how the reality is much more complex. Specifically, two questions are answered. First, given that immigrants’ children represent a heterogeneous group in terms of parents’ origin, age at arrival, etc., does a multicultural background bring any kind of advantage to school performance compared with a mono-cultural one? Second, what is the effect of attending schools with a high percentage of immigrants’ children in terms of average school performance, once controlled for school socio-economic resources?
    Date: 2014–04–11
  5. By: Aya Nushimoto (Osaka School of International Public Policy, Osaka University)
    Abstract: This article provides an empirical investigation of the impact of immigration on native Japanese youth unemployment. The Japanese Population Censuses from 1990 through 2010, occurring once every 5 years, provide the data for analysis. From the raw census numbers, I created a panel data set for each of Japan's 47 prefectures. The use of panel data helps to control the heterogeneity of the prefectural data. This study also solved the endogeneity problem of the ratio of immigrants to native population, using an instrumental variable estimation for panel data model. The results of this study show that immigration inflows increase the ratio of native youth unemployment. Additionally, immigration inflows also increase the ratio of native youth non-labor force. These results imply that foreign employment could substitute for youth employment between 1990 and 2010 in Japan.
    Keywords: youth unemployment, foreign labor, unskilled, substitution or complementary relationship, Japan
    JEL: J15 J24 J61
    Date: 2014–05
  6. By: Catia Batista (Nova School of Business and Economics - Universidade Nova de Lisboa); Tara McIndoe- Calder (Central Bank of Ireland); Pedro C. Vicente (Nova School of Business and Economics - Universidade Nova de Lisboa)
    Abstract: Does return migration affect entrepreneurship? This question has important implications for the debate on the economic development effects of migration for origin countries. The existing literature has, however, not addressed how the estimation of the impact of return migration on entrepreneurship is affected by double unobservable migrant self-selection, both at the initial outward migration and at the final inward return migration stages. This paper uses a representative household survey conducted in Mozambique in order to address this research question. We exploit variation provided by displacement caused by civil war in Mozambique, as well as social unrest and other shocks in migrant destination countries. The results lend support to negative unobservable self-selection at both and each of the initial and return stages of migration, which results in an under-estimation of the effects of return migration on entrepreneurial outcomes when using a ‘naïve’ estimator not controlling for self-selection. Indeed, ‘naïve’ estimates point to a 13 pp increase in the probability of owning a business when there is a return migrant in the household relative to non-migrants only, whereas excluding the double effect of unobservable self-selection, this effect becomes significantly larger - between 24 pp and 29 pp, depending on the method of estimation and source of variation used.
    Keywords: international migration, return migration, entrepreneurship, selfselection, business ownership, migration effects in origin countries, household survey, Mozambique, sub-Saharan Africa.
    JEL: F22 L26 O15
    Date: 2014–05
  7. By: Michele Battisti; Gabriel Felbermayr; Giovanni Peri; Panu Poutvaara
    Abstract: We study the effects of immigration on native welfare in a general equilibrium model featuring two skill types, search frictions, wage bargaining, and a redistributive welfare state. Our quantitative analysis suggests that, in all 20 countries studied, immigration attenuates the effects of search frictions. These gains tend to outweigh the welfare costs of redistribution. Immigration has increased native welfare in almost all countries. Both high-skilled and low-skilled natives benefit in two thirds of countries, contrary to what models without search frictions predict. Median total gains from migration are 1.19% and 1.00% for high and low skilled natives, respectively.
    JEL: F22 J31 J61 J68
    Date: 2014–05
  8. By: Artucm Erhan; Docquier, Frederic; Ozden, Caglar; Parsons, Christopher
    Abstract: Discussions of high-skilled mobility typically evoke migration patterns from poorer to wealthier countries, which ignore movements to and between developing countries. This paper presents, for the first time, a global overview of human capital mobility through bilateral migration stocks by gender and education in 1990 and 2000, and calculation of nuanced brain drain indicators. Building on newly collated data, the paper uses a novel estimation procedure based on a pseudo-gravity model, then identifies key determinants of international migration, and subsequently uses estimated parameters to impute missing data. Non-OECD destinations account for one-third of skilled-migration, while OECD destinations are declining in relative importance.
    Keywords: Population Policies,International Migration,Gender and Development,Human Migrations&Resettlements,Voluntary and Involuntary Resettlement
    Date: 2014–05–01
  9. By: Jonathan Wadsworth
    Abstract: During periods of strong economic growth, migration is and has always been important for filling gaps in the labour market. On balance, the evidence for the UK labour market suggests that fears about adverse consequences of rising immigration in general and EU immigration in particular have still not, on average, materialised. It is hard to find evidence of much displacement of UK workers or lower wages, on average. Immigrants, especially in recent years, tend to be younger and better educated than the UK-born and less likely to be unemployed. Future migration trends will, as ever, depend on relative economic performance and opportunity. But we still need to know more about the effects of rising immigration beyond the labour market in such areas as prices, health, crime and welfare.
    Keywords: immigration, European Union, UK, government policy, education, labour market, jobs, wages
    Date: 2014–05
  10. By: Etienne Lehmann (CREST and CRED (TEPP) Universite Panth ´ eon-Assas); Laurent Simula (Uppsala Center for Fiscal Studies & Department of Economics, Uppsala University); Alain Trannoy (Aix-Marseille Universite (Aix-Marseille School of Economics) CNRS EHESS)
    Abstract: We investigate how potential tax-driven migrations modify the Mirrlees income tax schedule when two countries play Nash. The social objective is the maximin and preferences are quasilinear in consumption. Individuals differ both in skills and migration costs, which are continuously distributed. We derive the optimal marginal income tax rates at the equilibrium, extending the Diamond-Saez formula. We show that the level and the slope of the semi-elasticity of migration (on which we lack empirical evidence) are crucial to derive the shape of optimal marginal income tax.
    Keywords: optimal income tax, income tax competition, migration, labor mobility, Nash-equilibrium tax schedules
    JEL: D82 H21 H87
    Date: 2014–05–14
  11. By: Ruohong Cai (Princeton University); Shuaizhang Feng (Shanghai University of Finance and Economics, , Chinese University of Hong Kong); Mariola Pytliková (VSB-Technical University Ostrava, KORA, The Danish Institute of Local Governmental Research); Michael Oppenheimer (Princeton University)
    Abstract: While there is considerable interest in understanding the climate-migration relationship, particularly in the context of concerns about global climatic change, little is known about underlying mechanisms. We analyze a unique and extensive set of panel data characterizing annual bilateral international migration flows from 163 origin countries to 42 OECD destination countries covering the last three decades. We find a positive and statistically significant relationship between temperature and international outmigration only in the most agriculture-dependent countries, consistent with the widely-documented adverse impact of temperature on agricultural productivity. In addition, migration flows to current major destinations are especially temperature-sensitive. Policies to address issues related to climate-induced international migration would be more effective if focused on the agriculture-dependent countries and especially people in those countries whose livelihoods depend on agriculture.
    Keywords: International migration, Climate variability, Agricultural productivity
    Date: 2014–05
  12. By: Mauro Lanati
    Abstract: This paper investigates the trade migration link within a Ricardian model` a la Eaton and Kortum (2002) and it quantifies the pro-trade effects of immigrants for 18 manufactur- ing sectors in a sample of 19 OECD countries. The results are robust across different econometric specifications and they indicate pulp, paper, paper products, printing and publishing as the sector where immigration has the greatest impact on trade. The analy- sis shows that accounting for ethnic networks in the trade share equation has important implications for the estimation of trade cost elasticity parameter across all manufacturing sectors. By following a two-step approach to estimate trade cost elasticity at sector level where q is proportional to the effect of wages on exporter fixed effects, I find that in total manufacturing q decreases by 1.03 when ethnic networks are included among the determinants of trade. This drop of trade cost elasticity approximately corresponds - on average - to a welfare gain of 4.16% of national income.
    Keywords: migration; trade cost elasticity; gravity model; trade share equation.
    JEL: F10 F11 F14 F22
    Date: 2014–03–01
  13. By: Mathilde MAUREL (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne CNRS - Université Paris 1); Zaneta KUBIK (FERDI)
    Abstract: We analyze whether Tanzanian households engage in internal migration as a response to weather-related shocks. Our findings confirm that climate shocks lead to a higher probability of migration by reducing agricultural yields, which in turn induces households to send their members away in order to spatially diversify their income. This effect is, however, low, since a 1% reduction in agricultural income induced by weather shock increases the probability of migration by 3% for an average household. What is more, such mechanism is valid only for households whose income is highly dependent on agriculture, but is not significant for diversified livelihoods.
    JEL: O13 Q54 R23
    Date: 2014–05
  14. By: Johan Fourie (Department of Economics, University of Stellenbosch); Jaume Roselló (Department of Applied Economics, University Of The Balearic Islands); Maria Santana-gallego (Department of Applied Economics, University Of The Balearic Islands)
    Abstract: Religious beliefs influence many aspects of peoples’ daily lives, so it is plausible to argue that religion affects some of humanity’s most central endeavors, such as trade, migration, foreign investment and tourism. This paper investigates the role a country’s religious affiliation plays in destination choice for international tourism. To that end, a gravity model for international tourist arrivals is estimated by using a dataset of 164 countries for the period 1995-2010. Results provide evidence that religious similarity has significant explanatory power in global tourism flows even after controlling for other measures of cultural affinity. Moreover, the presence of common religious minorities in the country has a positive impact on tourism flows. However, although religious pluralism foster tourism flows between countries, religious similarity has a stronger positive effect.
    Keywords: religion, tourism demand, gravity model
    JEL: A13 L83 Z12
    Date: 2014
  15. By: Miftah, Amal; Bouoiyour, Jamal
    Abstract: In this paper, we examine the effect of migrants’ remittances on poverty and inequality. The survey data were collected in Morocco, in the rural areas of the region Souss-Massa-Draa. By applying an original approach, we estimate the counterfactual income of remittance-recipient households corresponding to a hypothetical value of its average income calculated for a scenario without remittances; this is then compared with its current income. We find that the poverty rate and the vulnerability of non-poor households are significantly dropped due to remittances. Our findings also suggest that remittance inflows have increased income inequality compared to the no-migration counterfactual situation.
    Keywords: Remittances; Poverty; Income distribution; Morocco;
    JEL: D31 F24 I32 O15 O55
    Date: 2014–05
  16. By: Bernt Bratsberg (The Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, Oslo, Norway); Oddbjørn Raaum (The Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, Oslo, Norway); Knut Røed (The Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research, Oslo, Norway)
    Abstract: Based on individual longitudinal data, we examine the evolution of employment and earnings of postâ€EU accession Eastern European labour immigrants to Norway for a period of up to eight years after entry. We find that the migrants were particularly vulnerable to the negative labour demand shock generated by the financial crisis. During the winter months of 2008/09, the fraction of immigrant men claiming unemployment insurance benefits rose from below 2 to 14 per cent. Some of this increase turned out to be persistent, and unemployment remained considerably higher among immigrants than natives even three years after the crisis. Although we find that negative labour demand shocks raise the probability of return migration, the majority of the labour migrants directly affected by the downturn stayed in Norway and claimed unemployment insurance benefits.
    Date: 2014–05
  17. By: Jakhongir Kakhkharov; Alexandr Akimov
    Keywords: Remittances, International Migration, Labor Migration, Macroeconomic Data
    JEL: F24 C82 F22
    Date: 2014–03

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