nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2014‒04‒18
thirty papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Unfree Labour: Did Indenture Reduce Labour Supply to Tea Plantations in Assam? By Gupta, Bishnupriya; Swamy, Anand
  2. Strong versus Weak Ties in Migration By Giulietti, Corrado; Wahba, Jackline; Zenou, Yves
  3. International Labor Mobility and Child Work in Developing Countries By Anna De Paoli; Mariapia Mendola:
  4. Immigration and the Access to Social Housing in the UK By Diego Battiston; Richard Dickens; Alan Manning; Jonathan Wadsworth
  5. Immigrant–Native Wage Inequality across Occupational Sectors in Australia By Asad Islam; Jaai Parasnis
  6. Ethnic Goods and Immigrant Assimilation By Ilhom Abdulloev; Gil S. Epstein; Ira N. Gang
  7. Migration and Macroeconomic Performance in New Zealand: Theory and Evidence By Julie Fry
  8. Migration, Crisis and Adjustment in an Enlarged E(M)U: The Spanish Perspective By Rodríguez-Planas, Núria; Farré, Lídia
  9. Immigrants and Religion By Chiswick, Carmel U.
  10. Educational Attainment, Wages and Employment of Second-Generation Immigrants in France By Gabin Langevin; David Masclet; Fabien Moizeau; Emmanuel Peterle
  11. Are Ghettos Good or Bad? Evidence from U.S. Internal Migration By Zhang, Junfu; Zheng, Liang
  12. The Impact of migration on rural poverty and inequality: a case study in China By Nong Zhu; Xubei Luo
  13. The informal labour market in India : transitory or permanent employment for migrants? By Shonchoy, Abu S.; Junankar, P. N. (Raja)
  14. Linguistic Barriers in the Destination Language Acquisition of Immigrants By Isphording, Ingo E.; Otten, Sebastian
  15. Multidimensional poverty in immigrant households: a comparative analysis within the Europe 2020 framework By Jesús Ruiz-Huerta; Rosa Martínez
  16. Which Factors Explain the Rising Ethnic Heterogeneity in Italy? An Empirical Analysis at Province Level By Cristina Cattaneo
  17. The Effects of Remittances on Poverty at the Household Level in Bolivia: A Propensity Score Matching Approach By López-Videla, Bruno; Machuca, Carlos Emilio
  18. Episodes of Non-employment among Immigrants to Canada from Developing Countries By Saïd Aboubacar; Nong Zhu
  19. The Evolution of Occupational Segregation in the U.S., 1940-2010: The Gains and Losses of Gender-Race/Ethnicity Groups By Coral del Rio; Olga Alonso-Villar
  20. Brain Drain: Why Do Some Post-Secondary Graduates Choose to Work in the United States? By Brahim Boudarbat; Marie Connolly
  21. L’effet des politiques sociales sur l’emploi des nouveaux immigrants à Montréal By Nong Zhu; Cecile Batisse
  22. Migrations, emplois et discriminations : le cas des “paysans-ouvriers” de la province du Guangdong By Nong Zhu; Cecile Batisse
  23. Travail indépendant et immigrants au Canada By Nong Zhu; Cecile Batisse
  24. L’inégalité, la pauvreté et l’intégration économique des immigrants au Canada By Nong Zhu; Denise Helly
  25. L’inégalité, la pauvreté et l'intégration économique des immigrants au Canada depuis les années 1990 By Nong Zhu; Cecile Batisse
  26. L’immigration et le triangle « croissance, inégalités et pauvreté »: une analyse du revenu du ménage By Nong Zhu; Cecile Batisse
  27. Croissance, inégalités et pauvreté : le cas des immigrants au Canada By Nong Zhu; Cecile Batisse
  28. Évolution de l’accès à l’emploi et des conditions de travail des immigrants au Québec, en Ontario et en Colombie-Britannique entre 2006 et 2012 By Brahim Boudarbat; Marie Connolly
  29. Les trajectoires résidentielles des nouveaux immigrants à Montréal : Une analyse longitudinale et conjoncturelle By Nong Zhu; Xavier Leloup
  30. La discrimination dans le revenu et l’intégration des immigrants au Canada By Nong Zhu; Saïd Aboubacar

  1. By: Gupta, Bishnupriya (University of Warwick); Swamy, Anand (Williams College)
    Abstract: Migration to tea plantations in Assam in the 19th century used indentured contracts. These contracts differed by conditions of harshness. Migration under the Special Act gained notoriety by giving tea planter the right of private arrest. Using a new set of migration by types of contract, the paper assesses if harsh terms of indenture discouraged labour flows. We find that regions using the harsh contract saw lower response to rise in the price of tea. Disaggregating by types of recruiter, we find that the response to market recruitment was high in all regions, but response to recruitment using community networks is statistically insignificant, suggesting that informational asymmetries may be an explanation for continuing migration despite concerns raised by the nationalist movement, social reformers and policy makers.
    Keywords: Jadhuram, Tea Plantations, Assam, migrant workers
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Giulietti, Corrado (IZA); Wahba, Jackline (University of Southampton); Zenou, Yves (Stockholm University)
    Abstract: This paper studies the role of strong versus weak ties in the rural-to-urban migration decision in China. We first develop a network model that puts forward the different roles of weak and strong ties in helping workers to migrate to the city. We then use a unique longitudinal data that allows us to test our model by focusing on first-time migration. Strong ties are measured by the closest family contact, while weak ties are determined by the fraction of migrants from the village in which the individual resides. We address the endogeneity of the network formation in the migration decision. Our results indicate that both weak and strong ties matter in the migration decision process, although the impact of weak ties is higher than that of strong ties. We also show that one underestimates the effect of social networks on migration by not taking into account the strong ties in the mobility process. We finally find that weak and strong ties act as complements in the migration decision, which indicates that the interactive effect between weak and strong ties is particularly strong above a certain threshold of the size of weak ties.
    Keywords: social networks, internal migration, China
    JEL: O15 J61
    Date: 2014–04
  3. By: Anna De Paoli (University of Milan Bicocca); Mariapia Mendola: (University of Milan Bicocca, Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano and IZA)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the labor market effect of international migration on child work in countries of origin. We use an original cross-country survey dataset, which combines information on international migration with detailed individual-level data on child labor at age 5-14 in a wide range of developing countries. By exploiting both within- and cross-country variation and controlling for country fixed effects, we find strong and robust evidence on the role of international mobility of workers in reducing child labor in disadvantaged households through changes in the local labor market.
    Keywords: International Migration, Child Labor, Factor Mobility, Cross-
    JEL: F22 F1 J61
    Date: 2014–04–07
  4. By: Diego Battiston; Richard Dickens; Alan Manning; Jonathan Wadsworth
    Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of immigration on the probability of being in social housing in the UK. In recent years immigrant households are slightly more likely than natives to be in social housing but once one controls for relevant household characteristics immigrants are significantly less likely to be in social housing than natives. However, there has been change over time - the immigrant penalty has fallen over time probably because of changes in allocation rules. Overall we find that the rising number of immigrants and the change in the allocation rules can explain about one-third of the fall in the probability of being in social housing with two-thirds being the result of the fall in the social housing stock.
    Keywords: Immigration, social housing
    JEL: F22 R21 H75
    Date: 2014–04
  5. By: Asad Islam; Jaai Parasnis
    Abstract: We investigate wage inequality by migrant status across white collar and blue collar occupations in Australia. We use the reweighting and recentered influence function regression methods proposed by Firpo, Fortin, and Lemieux (2009) to decompose wage differentials across its distribution. Migrants are observed to have a wage advantage, and this wage differential varies over the wage distribution as well as by occupation. Significant wage differentials are found above the median: positive for white collar workers and negative for blue collar workers. Overall, the wage advantage of migrants reflects their superior labour market characteristics, and in particular, their levels of education. A decomposition analysis indicates that migrants receive lower returns for their education. We explore the wage differences by country of origin and find that English language proficiency plays an important role.
    Keywords: RIF regressions, wage inequality, occupations, immigration, decomposition, language
    JEL: C21 D31 J15 J31
    Date: 2014–04
  6. By: Ilhom Abdulloev (Open Society Institute Assistance Foundation, Tajikistan and IZA); Gil S. Epstein (Bar-Ilan University, CReAM, IZA and Centro Studi Luca d\'Agliano); Ira N. Gang (Rutgers University, CReAM, IOS and IZA)
    Abstract: Some immigrants try to keep their ethnicity hidden while others become ever deeply more mired in their home culture. We argue that among immigrants this struggle manifests itself in the ethnic goods they choose to consume. Different types of ethnic goods have vastly different effects on immigrant assimilation. We develop a simple theoretical model useful for capturing the consequences of this struggle, illustrating it with examples of Central Asian assimilation into the Muscovite economy.
    Keywords: Assimilation, migrants, culture, ethnic goods
    JEL: J15
    Date: 2014–04–07
  7. By: Julie Fry (The Treasury)
    Abstract: New Zealand immigration policy settings are based on the assumption that the macroeconomic impacts of immigration may be significantly positive, with at worst small negative effects. However, both large positive and large negative effects are possible. Reviewing the literature, the balance of evidence suggests that while past immigration has, at times, had significant net benefits, over the past couple of decades the positive effects of immigration on per capita growth, productivity, fiscal balance and mitigating population ageing are likely to have been modest. There is also some evidence that immigration, together with other forms of population growth, has exacerbated pressures on New Zealand’s insufficiently-responsive housing market. Meeting the infrastructure needs of immigrants in an economy with a quite modest rate of national saving may also have diverted resources from productive tradable activities, with negative macroeconomic impacts. Therefore from a macroeconomic perspective, a least regrets approach suggests that immigration policy should be more closely tailored to the economy’s ability to adjust to population increase. At a minimum, this emphasises the importance of improving the economy’s ability to respond to population increase. If this cannot be achieved, there may be merit in considering a reduced immigration target as a tool for easing macroeconomic pressures. More work is required to assess the potential net benefits of an increase in immigration as part of a strategy to pursue scale and agglomeration effects through increased population, or whether a decrease in immigration could facilitate lower interest rates, a lower exchange rate, and more balanced growth going forward.
    Keywords: macroeconomics; migration; immigration; emigration; labour market; housing market; factor price equalisation; productivity; growth; scale; agglomeration
    JEL: F22 J11 J24 J61
    Date: 2014–04
  8. By: Rodríguez-Planas, Núria (IZA and IAE-CSIC); Farré, Lídia (IAE Barcelona (CSIC))
    Abstract: This paper investigates the labour market and welfare changes experienced by enlarged-EU migrants before and after 2007. For this purpose, we briefly review the Spanish socio-economic institutional background, as well as its migration policy towards enlarged-EU citizens. Then we discuss the importance of inflows and stocks of enlarged-EU migrants in Spain, including their socio-demographic, labour market and welfare use characteristics. We proceed to evaluate the impact of enlarged-EU migrants on the Spanish labour market and the welfare state, with particular attention paid to how the situation has changed for enlarged-EU migrants after 2007, in relation to other migrants and natives. After investigating the effects of enlarged-EU migrants on the native population, the paper concludes with a discussion on lessons learned.
    Keywords: immigration, EU enlargement, Great Recession
    JEL: J15 J24 J61 J62
    Date: 2014–04
  9. By: Chiswick, Carmel U. (George Washington University)
    Abstract: Religious considerations affect the decision to immigrate as well as the choice of destination country, and religious behaviors change as immigrants adjust to the economic context of their new country. This paper considers the interaction between the Economics of Religion and the Economics of Immigration, and distinguishes between religiosity per se and an immigrant's religious identity (affiliation). Religious groups are described as quasi-enclaves and immigrant churches as a subset of these. Rising full prices (wage rates) and incomes during the adjustment process affect the religious behavior of immigrants. Religious institutions (referred to as churches) also respond to systematic changes in the religious behaviors of their members.
    Keywords: international migration, immigrant adjustment, quasi-enclave, immigrant church, religiosity, religion, social change
    JEL: Z12 J61 J11 J15
    Date: 2014–04
  10. By: Gabin Langevin; David Masclet; Fabien Moizeau; Emmanuel Peterle
    Abstract: We use data from the Trajectoires et Origines survey to analyze the labor-market outcomes of both second-generation immigrants and their French native counterparts. Second-generation immigrants have on average a lower probability of employment and lower wages than French natives. We find however considerable differences between second-generation immigrants depending on their origin: while those originating from Northern Africa, Sub-Saharan Africa and Turkey are less likely to be employed and receive lower wages than French natives, second-generation immigrants with Asian or Southern- and Eastern-European origins do not differ significantly from their French native counterparts. The employment gap between French natives and second generation immigrants is mainly explained by differences in their education; education is also an important determinant of the ethnic wage gap. Finally we show that these differences in educational attainment are mainly explained by family background. Although the role of discrimination cannot be denied, our findings do point out the importance of family background in explaining lifelong ethnic inequalities.
    Keywords: labor-market discrimination, second-generation immigrants, educational attainment, family background, decomposition methods,
    JEL: I2 J15 J24 J41
    Date: 2013–09–01
  11. By: Zhang, Junfu (Clark University); Zheng, Liang (Central University of Finance and Economics)
    Abstract: It is difficult to determine whether ghettos are good or bad, partly because racial segregation may have some effects that are unobservable. To overcome this challenge, we present a migration choice model that allows for estimating the overall effects of racial segregation. The key idea underlying our empirical approach is that if segregation indeed has a negative overall effect, migrants should be willing to give up some earnings to avoid living in segregated cities. Using decennial census data from 1980 to 2000, we provide new evidence that ghettos are bad. It is shown that both black and white migrants prefer to live in less segregated cities. For example, for a one-percentage-point reduction in the dissimilarity index, the estimated marginal willingness to pay of blacks is $436 (in 1999 dollars) in 2000. Among whites, this marginal willingness to pay is $301.
    Keywords: residential segregation, internal migration, discrete choice model
    JEL: O15 R12 R23
    Date: 2014–04
  12. By: Nong Zhu; Xubei Luo
    Abstract: Large numbers of agricultural labor moved from the countryside to cities after the economic reforms in China. Migration and remittances play an important role in transforming the structure of rural household income. This paper examines the impact of rural-to-urban migration on rural poverty and inequality in a mountainous area of Hubei province using the data of a 2002 household survey. Since migration income is a potential substitute of farm income, we present counterfactual scenarios of what rural income, poverty, and inequality would have been in the absence of migration. Our results show that, by providing alternatives to households with lower marginal labor productivity in agriculture, migration leads to an increase in rural income. In contrast to many studies that suggest the increasing share of non-farm income in total income widens inequality, this paper offers support for the hypothesis that migration tends to have egalitarian effects on rural income for three reasons: (i) migration is rational self-selection – farmers with higher expected return in agricultural activities and/or in local non-farm activities choose to remain in countryside while those with higher expected return in urban non-farm sectors migrate; (ii) households facing binding constraints of land shortage are more likely to migrate; (iii) poorer households benefit disproportionately from migration.
    Keywords: Migration, poverty, inequality, China,
    JEL: D63 O15 Q12
    Date: 2014–01–01
  13. By: Shonchoy, Abu S.; Junankar, P. N. (Raja)
    Abstract: The informal economy is a very important sector of the Indian economy. The National Council of Applied Economic Research estimates that the informal sector - "unorganised sector" - generates about 62% of GDP and provides for about 55% of total employment (ILO 2002, p. 14). This paper studies the characteristics of the workers in the informal economy and whether internal migrants treat this sector as a temporary location before moving on to the organised or formal sector to improve their lifetime income and living conditions. We limit our study to the Indian urban (non-agricultural) sector and study the characteristics of the household heads that belong to the informal sector (self-employed and informal wage workers) and the formal sector. We find that household heads that are less educated, come from poorer households, and/or are in lower social groups (castes and religions) are more likely to be in the informal sector. In addition, our results show strong evidence that the longer a rural migrant household head has been working in the urban sector, ceteris paribus, the more likely that individual has moved out of the informal wage sector. These results support the hypothesis that, for internal migrants, the informal wage labour market is a stepping stone to a better and more certain life in the formal sector.
    Keywords: Labor market, Informal sector, Migrant labor, Caste, Religion, Informal labour markets, Migrant
    JEL: J15 J42 J61 O17
    Date: 2014–03
  14. By: Isphording, Ingo E. (IZA); Otten, Sebastian (Ruhr University Bochum)
    Abstract: There are various degrees of similarity between the languages of different immigrants and the language of their destination country. This linguistic distance is an obstacle to the acquisition of a language, which leads to large differences in the attainments of the language skills necessary for economic and social integration in the destination country. This study aims at quantifying the influence of linguistic distance on the language acquisition of immigrants in the US and in Germany. Drawing from comparative linguistics, we derive a measure of linguistic distance based on the automatic comparison of pronunciations. We compare this measure with three other linguistic and non-linguistic approaches in explaining self-reported measures of language skills. We show that there is a strong initial disadvantage from the linguistic origin for language acquisition, while the effect on the steepness of assimilation patterns is ambiguous in Germany and the US.
    Keywords: immigrants, language skills, linguistic distance, human capital
    JEL: F22 J15 J24 J40
    Date: 2014–04
  15. By: Jesús Ruiz-Huerta; Rosa Martínez
    Abstract: The European 2020 Strategy has launched a novel indicator for monitoring poverty reduction over the current decade, simultaneously taking into account income, material deprivation and work intensity. The present paper uses this new indicator as a springboard for a discussion of the potential of a multidimensional measure, based on these three domains, to analyse the risk of poverty and social exclusion among immigrants. It is argued that the analytical insight and internal consistency of the new Europe 2020 indicator can be enhanced by a more structured measurement approach, relying on some recent advances generated by multidimensional poverty literature. The Alkire-Foster methodology provides a natural extension to the Europe 2020 indicator, which can usefully complement the picture drawn from the at-risk-of-poverty or social exclusion statistics. In the second part of the paper, these adjusted measures are used to analyse the multidimensional poverty profiles of immigrant households in Spain and other five developed countries, as well as the changes occurring since the beginning of the economic downturn. We try to show that the Europe 2020 indicator alone may not be sufficient to reflect the growing intensity of multidimensional deprivation among immigrants in some countries.
    Keywords: poverty, deprivation, social exclusion, unemployment, immigration,
    JEL: J15 D31 I32
    Date: 2014–02–01
  16. By: Cristina Cattaneo (Fondazione Eni Enrico Mattei (FEEM))
    Abstract: The paper investigates the determinants of ethnic heterogeneity of the Italian provinces. Among other factors, the paper tests empirically whether gradual improvements in distant communication boost the generation of ethnically heterogeneous provinces. Consequently to easier communication, movers increasingly rely on an enlarged community for identity transmission, rather than on localized peer effects of the ethnic enclaves. The empirical estimation provides support to this hypothesis. Improvements in internet communications are found to increase the ethnic diversity of the Italian provinces.
    Keywords: Immigration, Ethnic Diversity, Productivity
    JEL: F22 J61 R11
    Date: 2014–03
  17. By: López-Videla, Bruno; Machuca, Carlos Emilio
    Abstract: In the last few years, Bolivia has experienced a growing migration phenomenon. Many household members migrate from their homes in order to look for better opportunities and to improve their household income. In this paper, we aim to explore the effects of remittances on Bolivian household poverty levels. We use micro data from the 2008 Household Survey, conducted by the National Institute of Statistics (INE). We calculate propensity score matching estimators in order to address the potential bias due to heterogeneous factors in the sample. Then, we estimate the average treatment effect on the treated to compare the poverty level between households which receive and do not receive remittances. Results show that remittances have a positive effect on reducing urban households’ poverty level, whereas there is no effect on rural households’ poverty.
    Keywords: Remittances, poverty, propensity score matching, Bolivia.
    JEL: E0
    Date: 2014–02–27
  18. By: Saïd Aboubacar; Nong Zhu
    Abstract: Using data from the Survey of Labour and Income Dynamics (SLID) – we analyze non-employment episodes for immigrants from developing countries and compare their situation to that of immigrants from more developed countries and Canadian-born individuals between 1996 and 2006. The methods used allowed us to draw the following conclusion: significant differences exist between these three groups in the labour market mobility, the average duration of a non-employment episode, and the factors that affect the propensity to exit from a non-employment episode. These differences demonstrate a particular disadvantage for immigrants from developing countries. In fact, they tend to spend more time in non-employment episodes compared to their counterparts from the more developed countries and compared to Canadian-born individuals. À partir des données de l’Enquête sur la Dynamique du Travail et du Revenu (EDTR), nous analysons la situation des immigrants des pays en voie de développement au Canada en matière de non-emploi et leur situation par rapport aux immigrants des pays développés et personnes nées au Canada durant la période 1996-2006. Les méthodes utilisées nous ont permis de tirer la conclusion suivante : il existe des différences importantes entre les trois groupes au niveau de la mobilité dans le marché de l’emploi, la durée moyenne passée dans un épisode de non-emploi et les facteurs qui agissent sur la propension à sortir d’un épisode de non-emploi. Ces différences démontrent un désavantage particulier pour les immigrants originaires des pays en développement. En effet, ces derniers tendent à passer beaucoup plus de temps dans un épisode de non-emploi comparativement à leurs homologues immigrants issus des pays développés et les Canadiens de naissance.
    Keywords: immigrants, labour market, developing countries, Canada, immigrants, marché de l’emploi, pays en voie de développement, Canada
    Date: 2014–01–01
  19. By: Coral del Rio (Universidade de Vigo and EQUALITAS); Olga Alonso-Villar (Universidade de Vigo, Facultade de CC. Economicas, Departamento de Economia Aplicada)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is twofold: a) To explore the evolution of occupational segregation of women and men of different racial/ethnic groups in the U.S. during the period 1940-2010; and b) to assess the consequences of segregation for each of them. For that purpose, this paper proposes a simple index that measures the monetary loss or gain of a group derived from its overrepresentation in some occupations and underrepresentation in others. This index has a clear economic interpretation. It represents the per capita advantage (if the index is positive) or disadvantage (if the index is negative) of the group, derived from its segregation, as a proportion of the average wage of the economy. Our index seems a helpful tool not only for academics but also for institutions concerned with inequalities related to gender, race, ethnicity, and migration status, among others, since it makes it possible to rank different groups in an economy or a target group across time according to its segregation nature.
    Keywords: Occupational segregation; local segregation; race; ethnicity; gender; wages; U.S.
    JEL: J15 J16 J71 D63
    Date: 2014–02
  20. By: Brahim Boudarbat; Marie Connolly
    Abstract: In this study, we examine the phenomenon of the brain drain in Canada, specifically the loss of certain post-secondary graduates to the United States. Our analysis comprises three components: a descriptive analysis of the differences between graduates who stayed in Canada and those who moved to the United States; a multivariate analysis, to identify the determinant factors of the decision to move from Canada to the United States and the decision to return to Canada afterwards; and analysis to explain the wage differentials between stayers and movers. Using the data for the last three cohorts from the National Graduates Survey, we observe that the brain drain remains relatively marginal, affecting 2% of new graduates at most. We also note a slight decrease in the brain drain for the Class of 2005 compared with the Class of 2000 in the first two years after graduation. In addition, we identify a strong movement to return to Canada (some 48% of those who left between 2000 and 2005) or a strong intention to do so (61% of the graduates of 2000 still living in the United States in 2005). Striking differences emerge in connection with certain factors, however, including level of education and field of study. For example, PhDs are by far the most likely to move to the United States. That also holds true for graduates in the fields of mathematics, computer and information sciences and architecture, engineering and related technologies. The wage differences are also high, in the order of 27% to 40% higher for graduates working in the United States, of which only one third can be explained by a variety of observable factors. Finally, we find that the graduates of 2000 who returned to Canada after a stay in the United States earned, in 2005, up to 18% more on average than those who never left Canada, all other things being equal. Canada thus benefits from the brain drain when it is not permanent. Whatever the case, we do not believe that at current levels, the brain drain of post-secondary graduates to the United States requires specific intervention on the part of public policymakers. However, the phenomenon should be monitored on an ongoing basis, as it may evolve in the future.
    Keywords: Canada, labour market, wages, employment, employment abroad, emigration, human capital, post-secondary education, economic analysis, economic statistics,
    Date: 2013–08–01
  21. By: Nong Zhu; Cecile Batisse
    Abstract: The issue of integration of immigrants into labor market has currently become essential. Serial arrangements have been put in place in Canada to promote the articulation of immigration, labor market, social security, education and social cohesion. This article mainly explores the factors to determine immigrant’s employment in Montreal. Besides individual characteristics, particular attention is paid to the impact of macroeconomic environment and redistribution policies on the employment probability of immigrants. Results indicate that immigrants actually belong to a heterogeneous group in terms of individual characteristics and employability. Some immigrants remain on the margin of labor market, which is particularly true for female, older, and less qualified migrants. Unemployment insurance benefits are found to have negative influence on the employment probability of immigrants. In addition, the impact of local unemployment rate is significantly negative, especially for low skilled immigrants. La question de l’insertion sur le marché du travail des immigrants est aujourd’hui devenue essentielle. Les dispositifs mis en place au Canada cherchent à favoriser la réarticulation entre immigration, marché du travail, protection sociale, formation et cohésion sociale. Cet article étudie l’insertion des immigrés sur le marché du travail québécois. Outre les caractéristiques individuelles, nous portons une attention particulière à l’impact de l’environnement macroéconomique et des politiques sociales de redistribution sur la probabilité de sortie d’un épisode de non-emploi de ces immigrants. Nos résultats montrent que les immigrés forment un groupe hétérogène du point de vue de leurs caractéristiques individuelles et de leur employabilité. Certains restent marginalisés sur le marché du travail. C’est le cas notamment des femmes, des migrants âgés et dans un premier temps des moins qualifiés. L’assurance chômage et les prestations sociales jouent négativement sur la sortie de l’épisode de non-emploi. Le taux de chômage local exerce un effet significativement négatif sur la probabilité d’avoir un emploi et touche essentiellement l’emploi des immigrants peu qualifiés.
    Keywords: Immigrants, employment, social policy, unemployment rate, Montreal, Immigrants, emploi, politiques sociales, taux de chômage, Montréal
    Date: 2014–01–01
  22. By: Nong Zhu; Cecile Batisse
    Abstract: The integration of rural migrants into the urban labor market has become an essential economic issue in today’s China. In the context of economic reforms, policies affecting migration in continental China have been redefined, which therefore greatly intensified the internal migration flows. Since the 1980s, the rural depopulation has been essentially linked to the migration of ming gong or “peasant-workers”, who continues to play a key role in the transition of China into a market economy. In this article, we study the integration of these rural migrants into the labor market in the Guangdong province using the original data from a 2006 survey of peasant-workers. Based on duration model estimation, the analysis focuses on the role of different characteristics, including personal, temporal (i.e. the course of employment mobility through time) and spatial (i.e. the role of place of origin) ones. Results show that migrants form a heterogeneous group in terms of personal characteristics and employability in the Pearl River delta. The insertion on the labor market of women, young and less qualified migrants is relatively easier. Geographical proximity also plays a favorable role. Finally, we examine the determinants of the wage in urban areas for peasant-workers integrating the increasingly segmented and fragmented labor market. La question de l’insertion sur le marché du travail urbain des migrants ruraux est aujourd’hui devenue essentielle en Chine. Dans un contexte de réformes économiques, les politiques migratoires en Chine continentale se sont redéfinies, intensifiant ainsi fortement les migrations internes. Depuis les années 1980, cet exode est pour l’essentiel celui des ming gong, c’est-à-dire littéralement des “paysans-ouvriers”, qui sont ainsi devenus un élément majeur de la transition de la Chine vers une économie de marché. Cet article étudie l’insertion de ces migrants ruraux sur le marché du travail de la province du Guangdong à partir d’une base de données originales issues d’une enquête sur les paysans-ouvriers, réalisée en 2006. A partir de modèles de durée, nous portons une attention particulière aux caractéristiques individuelles, temporelles (évolution de la mobilité dans l’emploi au cours du temps) et spatiales (rôle du lieu d’origine). Nos résultats montrent que les migrants forment un groupe hétérogène du point de vue de leurs caractéristiques individuelles et de leur employabilité dans le delta de la rivière des Perles. L’insertion sur le marché du travail des femmes, des jeunes et des peu qualifiés est facilitée. La proximité géographique du lieu de départ de la migration est également favorable. Nous examinons enfin les déterminants du salaire urbain des paysans-ouvriers qui s’insèrent sur un marché du travail de plus en plus segmenté et fragmenté.
    Keywords: peasant-workers, mobility, urban employment, wages, China, paysans-ouvriers, mobilité, emploi urbain, salaire, Chine
    Date: 2014–01–01
  23. By: Nong Zhu; Cecile Batisse
    Abstract: Using 2006 census data, the present study analyzes the determinants of immigrants’ participation in self-employment in Vancouver, Toronto and Montreal. Our results show that the decision to become self-employed depends largely on income gap between self-employment and paid-employment. Demographic characteristics, education, ethnicity and year of immigration are also major determinants of propensity to work independently. À l’aide des données du recensement 2006, nous étudions les facteurs motivant le travail indépendant chez les immigrants à Vancouver, Toronto et Montréal. Si la décision d’exercer une activité indépendante est fortement influencée par les caractéristiques des immigrants, à savoir les caractéristiques démographiques, le niveau d’instruction, l’appartenance ethnique et l’année d’immigration, nos résultats montrent également que la décision de travailler à son compte dépend largement de l’écart de revenu entre les activités indépendantes et salariées.
    Keywords: immigration, self-employment, income gap,Canada., immigration, travail indépendant, écart de revenu, Canada
    Date: 2014–01–01
  24. By: Nong Zhu; Denise Helly
    Abstract: À l’aide des microdonnées confidentielles des recensements, ce travail examine les facteurs de l’inégalité de revenu et de la pauvreté des immigrants au Canada des années 1990 à 2006. Les résultats montrent que les immigrants en provenance des pays en développement ont été les plus atteints par les fluctuations économiques. Ils disposent en effet de revenus inférieurs à ceux des natifs et des immigrants venus d’autres pays et, en sus, le rendement de leur capital humain a diminué entre 1991 et 2006. L’importance des flux migratoires venant des pays en développement a accru l’hétérogénéité sociale de la population immigrée, aggravant à la fois l’inégalité de revenu entre les immigrants du Sud et les autres immigrants, et entre les premiers
    Keywords: , inégalité, pauvreté, revenu, immigration, Canada.
    Date: 2014–01–01
  25. By: Nong Zhu; Cecile Batisse
    Abstract: Le changement de la composition ethnique et sociale des immigrants combiné à une segmentation du marché du travail et à un nouvel environnement économique depuis les années 1980 conduit à une nouvelle inégalité des chances sur le marché du travail et à des disparités de performance économique des immigrants. Une partie d’entre eux ne peuvent s’extraire de la pauvreté. À partir de données de recensements, la présente étude vise à analyser ces différentes formes d’inégalité et à en préciser les sources parmi les migrants originaires des pays du Sud au Canada depuis les années 1990. Une discrimination apparaît à travers un niveau de revenu inférieur à celui des autres groupes et une inégalité de revenu plus importante. Par ailleurs, le rendement du capital humain de ces immigrants a diminué entre 1996 et 2006. Enfin, l’analyse souligne le rôle important de l’emploi et des revenus du travail dans l’augmentation du niveau de vie des immigrants. Les politiques visant à améliorer le bien-être social et l’insertion des immigrants doivent donc se centrer sur l’amélioration du niveau de revenu et l’augmentation du taux d’emploi
    Keywords: , immigrants, Canada, inégalité, capital humain, marché du travail
    Date: 2014–01–01
  26. By: Nong Zhu; Cecile Batisse
    Abstract: À l’aide des microdonnées des recensements de 1991 à 2006, cet article examine les relations existant entre la croissance économique, l’inégalité de revenu et la pauvreté des immigrants au Canada. Nos résultats montrent que les immigrants originaires des pays en développement ont été les plus atteints par les fluctuations économiques. Ils sont dans l’ensemble caractérisés par un niveau de revenu inférieur à celui des autres groupes et par une inégalité de revenu plus importante. Malgré un niveau de scolarité en hausse, le rendement de leur capital humain a diminué entre 2001 et 2006. Enfin, l’analyse souligne le rôle important de l’emploi et des revenus du travail dans l’augmentation du niveau de vie des immigrants. Les stratégies d’insertion socio-économique des immigrants doivent donc se centrer sur l’amélioration du niveau de revenu et l’augmentation du taux d’emploi.
    Keywords: , pauvreté, inégalité, immigration, Canada.
    Date: 2014–01–01
  27. By: Nong Zhu; Cecile Batisse
    Abstract: Using census data from 1991 to 2006, we analyze the dynamic of inequality and poverty among immigrants in Canada. Our results show that these immigrants have seen their economic situation deteriorate and dynamics of low income, “poverty traps” and major inequalities persist in successive cohorts. Despite a level of education increased, the return to human capital has decreased between 1996 and 2006. Like most immigrants derive most of their income from the labor market, employment levels and wage distribution play a role in income distribution and economic welfare of immigrants À l'aide des données de recensement de 1991 à 2006, nous analysons la dynamique de l'inégalité de revenu et de la pauvreté des nouveaux immigrants au Canada. Nos résultats montrent que les nouveaux immigrants ont vu leur situation économique se détériorer et une dynamique de faible revenu, de « trappes à pauvreté » et d’inégalités importantes persiste chez les cohortes successives. Malgré un niveau de scolarité en hausse, le rendement de leur capital humain a diminué entre 1996 et 2006. Comme la plupart des immigrants tirent la plus grande partie de leur revenu du marché du travail, les niveaux d’emploi et la répartition des salaires jouent un rôle primordial dans la répartition du revenu et le bien-être économique des immigrants
    Keywords: immigrants, Canada, inequality, poverty, immigrants, Canada, inégalité, pauvreté
    Date: 2014–01–01
  28. By: Brahim Boudarbat; Marie Connolly
    Abstract: Ce rapport brosse un portrait statistique de la situation des immigrants sur le marché du travail au Québec en comparaison avec l’Ontario et la Colombie-Britannique. Nous avons analysé cette situation sous deux angles, quantitatif (taux d’activité et de chômage) et qualitatif (conditions de travail) et ce, sur une période suffisamment longue qui permet de neutraliser les effets conjoncturels et de tirer des conclusions solides. Les données empiriques proviennent de l’Enquête sur la population active (EPA) pour la période 2006-2012 et se rapportent à la population de 15 à 64 ans. Sur le plan quantitatif, nos résultats appuient ceux des études précédentes à l’effet que l’accès à l’emploi est plus difficile pour les immigrants du Québec comparativement à ceux des autres provinces canadiennes, notamment ceux de la Colombie-Britannique. Ils indiquent par surcroît que cette situation est loin d’être temporaire puisque les immigrants du Québec sont confrontés à un taux de chômage élevé à deux chiffres et que ce désavantage se maintient dans le temps. Toutefois, l’analyse des conditions d’emploi vient mettre un bémol sur la bonne performance de la Colombie-Britannique par rapport au Québec au chapitre de l’emploi des immigrants. En effet, cette performance s’expliquerait essentiellement par la plus grande propension des immigrants de la Colombie-Britannique à opter pour l’auto-emploi et à accepter des emplois de moins bonne qualité. Ils sont également relativement plus nombreux à s’appuyer sur leur réseau de parents et amis lors de la recherche d’emploi. En fait, cette province est loin de constituer un modèle d’intégration économique des immigrants en dépit des faibles taux de chômage parmi ceux-ci. Enfin, nous relevons le rôle important que joue le lieu d’obtention du diplôme dans l’accès à l’emploi – surtout au Québec – et dans la qualité de celui-ci. Dans les trois provinces étudiées, les immigrants ayant obtenu leur diplôme en Afrique, en Asie ou dans les Amériques (sauf États-Unis et Canada) sont largement défavorisés. Or, ces régions sont de loin les principales sources d’immigration au Québec et au Canada. Tout compte fait, le Québec – tout comme l’Ontario et la Colombie-Britannique – est loin de tirer le meilleur parti des ressources qu’offre l’immigration. Par conséquent, les gouvernements – provinciaux et fédéral – devront s’attacher davantage à promouvoir la pleine utilisation de ces ressources à travers une participation efficace des immigrants au marché du travail.
    Keywords: , Immigration, conditions de travail, marché du travail
    Date: 2013–08–01
  29. By: Nong Zhu; Xavier Leloup
    Abstract: Using the data from the longitudinal study “L’Établissement des nouveaux immigrants (ÉNI)”, this paper analyses the residential trajectories of new immigrants in Montreal during the 1990’s. Two methodologies were applied. First, survival models were used to identify the factors that determine the probabilities of moving and of access to homeownership. Second, the immigrants’ mobility within the Montreal metropolitan area was analysed with conditional Logit models. The results show that high-skilled immigrants have a better situation on the housing market, and that there is a strong relation between employment and housing. We also notice a residential dispersion from downtown to the suburbs, especially in spaces where the houses are older and the average income lower. Apart from that, our results illustrate the process of residential concentration, for immigrants from the industrial countries, as well as for people from third-world countries. À l’aide des données de l’enquête sur l’Établissement des nouveaux immigrants (ÉNI), nous examinons les trajectoires résidentielles des nouveaux immigrants à Montréal pendant les années 1990. Nous utilisons d’abord les modèles de durée pour identifier les facteurs qui influencent les probabilités de déménager et de devenir propriétaire. Ensuite, nous analysons les déplacements des immigrants à l’intérieur de la RMR de Montréal en utilisant le modèle Logit conditionnel. Les résultats montrent que les immigrants plus qualifiés se trouvent dans une situation plus favorable sur le marché du logement et que la trajectoire résidentielle des immigrants est étroitement liée à leur emploi. Nous constatons une dispersion résidentielle du centre-ville vers les espaces périphériques dont le cadre bâti est plus ancien et le revenu moyen plus faible. De plus, nos résultats témoignent d’une concentration résidentielle tant chez les immigrants provenant des pays en développement que chez ceux provenant des pays développés.
    Keywords: Residential mobility, immigration, Montreal, econometrics analyses, Mobilité résidentielle, immigrants, Montréal, analyses économétriques
    Date: 2014–01–01
  30. By: Nong Zhu; Saïd Aboubacar
    Abstract: This study examines the per capita household income gap between native-born Canadians and non-European immigrants between 1996 and 2006, using the Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition method to determine the role of the individual and institutional factors on this gap. Results show that the per capita income gap is still wide between the two groups even though it decreased slightly during that period. Moreover, the difference in individual characteristics explains only a small portion of the per capita income gap. Most of it is linked to the difference in the outcome of the characteristics. Finally, the unexplained part of the per capita income gap could be greatly reduced only by eliminating the unexplained effect of human capital variables Cette étude examine la différence de revenu par tête entre Canadiens de naissance et immigrants d’origine non européenne pour la période 1996-2006. Nous utilisons la méthode de décomposition de Blinder-Oaxaca pour déterminer le rôle des facteurs intrinsèques et des facteurs non observés sur l’écart de revenu par tête des ménages. Les résultats montrent d’abord que, même s’il s’est rétréci légèrement, l’écart de revenu par tête demeure considérable entre les deux groupes. Ensuite, la différence au niveau des caractéristiques individuelles n’explique qu’une partie très restreinte de l’écart de revenu par tête entre natifs et immigrants non européens. L’écart est plutôt expliqué en grande partie par la différence du rendement des caractéristiques. Enfin, la partie non expliquée de l’écart de revenu par tête pourrait être largement réduit par le simple fait d’éliminer l’effet non expliqué associé aux variables du capital humain.
    Keywords: Immigrants, employment, social policy, income, Canada, Immigrants, emploi, politiques sociales, revenu, Canada
    Date: 2014–01–01

This nep-mig issue is ©2014 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.