nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2014‒03‒30
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Is a Policy of Free Movement of Workers Sustainable? By Picard, Pierre M.; Worrall, Tim
  2. The Impact of Adult Child Emigration on the Mental Health of Older Parents By Mosca, Irene; Barrett, Alan
  3. Impact of Internal Migration on Political Participation in Turkey By Akarca, Ali T.; Tansel, Aysit
  4. Immigrants and Retirement Resources. By Purvi Sevak; Lucie Schmidt
  5. The structure of ethnic networks and exports: Evidence from Germany By Behncke, Nadine
  6. Housing Adequacy Gap for Minorities and Immigrants in the U.S.: Evidence from the 2009 American Housing Survey By Mundra, Kusum; Sharma, Amarendra
  7. A Global View of Cross-Border Migration By Julian di Giovanni; Andrei A. Levchenko; Francesc Ortega
  8. Immigration and Location Choices of Native-Born Workers in Canada By Aydede, Yigit
  9. Computational Economic Modeling of Migration By Anna Klabunde

  1. By: Picard, Pierre M. (University of Luxembourg); Worrall, Tim (University of Edinburgh)
    Abstract: This paper studies the costs and benefits of the adoption of the policy of free movement for workers. For the countries to agree on uncontrolled movement of workers, the short run costs must be outweighed by the long term benefits that result from better labor market flexibility and income smoothing. We show that such policies are less likely to be adopted when workers are impatient and less risk averse workers, when production technologies display decreasing returns and when countries trade a share of their products.
    Keywords: labor market flexibility, migration, sustainable plan
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2014–03
  2. By: Mosca, Irene (Trinity College Dublin); Barrett, Alan (ESRI, Dublin)
    Abstract: A growing literature within economics has sought to examine the impacts of emigration on sending countries. Some of the studies have looked within families and have investigated how emigration affects those family members who are left behind. In this paper, we explore whether older parents of adult children who emigrate experience declines in mental health compared to parents whose children do not migrate. We use data from the first two waves of The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing. This is a nationally representative sample of 8,500 people aged 50 and above living in Ireland collected in 2009-11 (Wave 1) and 2012-13 (Wave 2). To deal with the endogeneity of migration, we apply fixed effects estimation models and control for a broad range of life-events occurring between the two waves. These include the emigration of a child but also events such as bereavement, onset of disease, retirement and unemployment. We find that depressive symptoms and feelings of loneliness increase among the parents of migrant children but that the effect is only present for mothers. Given the relationship between mental health and other health outcomes, the potential impacts for the older populations of migrant-sending regions and countries are significant.
    Keywords: emigration, depression, mental health
    JEL: I15 J61
    Date: 2014–03
  3. By: Akarca, Ali T. (University of Illinois at Chicago); Tansel, Aysit (Middle East Technical University)
    Abstract: During last sixty years, Turkish population moved from one province to another at the rate of about 7-8 percent per five-year interval. As a consequence of this massive internal migration, population residing in a province other than the one they were born in increased from 12 percent in 1950 to 39 percent in 2011. Impact of this population instability on provincial turnout rates in 2011 parliamentary election is studied, controlling for the effects of other socio-economic, demographic, political and institutional factors. Consequences of migration both at destinations and origins are considered. According to robust regressions estimated, the relationship between turnout and education is inverse U-shaped, and between turnout and age, U-shaped. The latter reflects generational differences as well. Large population, large number parliament members to be elected from a constituency, participation by large number of parties, and existence of a dominant party depress the turnout rate. A percentage increase in the proportion of emigrants among the people born in a province reduces turnout rate in that province by 0.13 percentage points, while a percentage increase in the ratio of immigrants in the population of a province reduces it by 0.06 percentage points. However, at destinations where large numbers of immigrants from different regions are concentrated, the opportunity afforded to immigrants to elect one of their own, reduces the latter adverse impact significantly and in some cases turns it to positive.
    Keywords: election turnout, internal migration, political participation, Turkey, voter behavior
    JEL: D72 J61
    Date: 2014–03
  4. By: Purvi Sevak; Lucie Schmidt
    Keywords: Health, Retirement, Immigrants, Disability
    JEL: I J
    Date: 2014–01–01
  5. By: Behncke, Nadine
    Abstract: This paper provides evidence of the effect of immigration-based networks on German trade. Germany presents a particular interesting case study to examine the effect of ethnic networks on exports due to its high export dependence and its reserved migration policy. According to our results, we find no trade creating effect from migrant networks on exports but on imports, highlighting the importance of the demand effect for Germany. Allowing for heterogeneous network effects shows that at least some migrant networks positively affect exports. However, the most efficient migrant networks do not originate from EU countries but from African or middle-eastern countries that do not have a large migrant network in Germany. --
    Keywords: migrants,networks,gravity
    JEL: F12 F1
    Date: 2014
  6. By: Mundra, Kusum (Rutgers University); Sharma, Amarendra (Elmira College)
    Abstract: Home adequacy for different groups in the U.S. has not been adequately studied. Using the data from the national level American Housing Survey for the year 2009and logit model, this paper finds that there is a significant adequacy difference for Blacks and Hispanics when compared to whites in the U.S. However, that is not the case for immigrants relative to the natives. We also find that then naturalization improves housing adequacy among immigrant homeowners, whereas, the female headed households have a significantly higher home adequacy than that of the male headed households. Similar to the homeownership findings, this paper highlights that the public policies should aim to narrow the home adequacy gap between whites and minorities and encourage naturalization to improve adequacy among immigrant homeowners.
    Keywords: housing adequacy gap structural adequacy, U.S. residential real estate, immigrants, minorities, American Housing Survey, naturalized
    JEL: R2 J15
    Date: 2014–03
  7. By: Julian di Giovanni; Andrei A. Levchenko; Francesc Ortega
    Abstract: This paper evaluates the global welfare impact of observed levels of migration using a quantitative multi-sector model of the world economy calibrated to aggregate and firm-level data. Our framework features cross-country labor productivity differences, international trade, remittances, and a heterogeneous workforce. We compare welfare under the observed levels of migration to a no-migration counterfactual. In the long run, natives in countries that received a lot of migration – such as Canada or Australia – are better off due to greater product variety available in consumption and as intermediate inputs. In the short run the impact of migration on average welfare in these countries is close to zero, while the skilled and unskilled natives tend to experience welfare changes of opposite signs. The remaining natives in countries with large emigration flows – such as Jamaica or El Salvador – are also better off due to migration, but for a different reason: remittances. The welfare impact of observed levels of migration is substantial, at about 5 to 10% for the main receiving countries and about 10% in countries with large incoming remittances. Our results are robust to accounting for imperfect transferability of skills, selection into migration, and imperfect substitution between natives and immigrants.
    JEL: F12 F15 F22 F24
    Date: 2014–03
  8. By: Aydede, Yigit
    Abstract: There are two competing views on how immigration would affect local labor markets. When immigrants offer skills similar to those of native-born workers, they may compete directly with them, and this competition may lead to lower economic returns for native-born workers. This view can be called the “substitution†hypothesis. The alternative view is that immigrants may provide “complementary†skills, which can raise the productivity of other workers. If the substitution argument is effective, immigration might lead to out-migration of the nonimmigrant population from a community in the short run. Models in location-choice studies usually examine the migration decision in two separate processes: whether-to and where-to decisions about moving. The present study investigates how location choices of native-born workers can be influenced by the conditions in both the potential destinations and the departure regions. To validate either the substitution or complementary view, we apply choice-specific, clustered fixed-effect response models, which use industry- and occupation-specific regional attributes that allow us to control for unobserved regional heterogeneity as well as to identify regional factors that affect location choices. This study uses the 20 percent sample of the 2006 Census that covers the entire country with 282 census divisions. The results show that location-choice models are sensitive to how regional attributes are defined. When industry-specific immigration density differentials across regions are measured only at destinations, they have strong and negative effects on the location choices of the native born. However, when the models control choice-specific attributes relative to the origin, immigration variables become insignificant on the desirability of destinations.
    Keywords: Immigration, Migration, Crowding Out, Displacement, Mobility
    JEL: J61 J15 R23
    Date: 2014–03–26
  9. By: Anna Klabunde
    Abstract: In this paper an agent-based model of endogenously evolving migrant networks is developed to identify the determinants of migration and return decisions. Individuals are connected by links, the strength of which declines over time and distance. Methodologically, this paper combines parameterization using data from the Mexican Migration Project with calibration. It is shown that expected earnings, an idiosyncratic home bias, network ties to other migrants, strength of links to the home country and age have a significant impact on circular migration patterns. The model can reproduce spatial patterns of migration as well as the distribution of number of trips of migrants. It is shown how it can also be used for computational experiments and policy analysis.
    Keywords: Circular migration; social networks; agent-based computational economics
    JEL: C63 F22 J61
    Date: 2014–02

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