nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2014‒02‒08
nine papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. From Aliens to Citizens: The Political Incorporation of Immigrants By Bevelander, Pieter; Spång, Mikael
  2. The Effect of (Mostly Unskilled) Immigration on the Innovation of Italian Regions By Bratti, Massimiliano; Conti, Chiara
  3. Immigration: What about the Children and Grandchildren? By Sweetman, Arthur; van Ours, Jan C.
  4. Fertility of Turkish migrants in Germany: duration of stay matters By Katharina Wolf
  5. Development through Seasonal Worker Programs: The Case of New Zealand's RSE Program By John Gibson; David McKenzie
  6. Migration as an Adjustment Mechanism in the Crisis? A Comparison of Europe and the United States By Jauer, Julia; Liebig, Thomas; Martin, John P.; Puhani, Patrick A.
  7. Remittances, savings and return migration under uncertainty By DELPIERRE Matthieu; VERHEYDEN Bertrand
  8. Motivation behind remittance from migrants: Evidence from Albania By Daichi Shimamoto
  9. Redistribution au sein de la famille étendue au Sénégal: Le rôle des migrants internes et internationaux By Boltz-Laemmel, Marie; Villar, Paola

  1. By: Bevelander, Pieter (Malmö University); Spång, Mikael (Malmö University)
    Abstract: This is a draft chapter for the Handbook on Economics of International Migration (Eds. B. R. Chiswick and P. W. Miller) and deals with the political incorporation of immigrants in host societies. Political incorporation is discussed with regard to the regulation of legal status, rights, opportunities, and acquisition of citizenship. We give examples of the legal regulation and policies from several countries in the world, showing thereby the diversity of approaches to political incorporation but also similarities to the regulation of access to residence, rights, and citizenship. We highlight changes in this regard since the Second World War and discuss more recent trends. Moreover, we discuss different factors explaining the variation in incorporation policies. Also, this chapter traces different dimensions of political participation of immigrants, and, finally, we address the expected effects on wider integration of citizenship acquisition.
    Keywords: political participation, minorities, immigration, political incorporation, naturalization, citizenship, non-citizens, rights
    JEL: D72 J15 J61
    Date: 2014–01
  2. By: Bratti, Massimiliano (University of Milan); Conti, Chiara (Sapienza University of Rome)
    Abstract: We use small Italian regions (i.e. provinces) to investigate the causal effect of foreign immigration on innovation during 2003-2008. Using instrumental variables estimation (based on immigrants' enclaves), we find that the overall stock of immigrants did not have any effect on innovation. However, decomposing the overall effect into the contributions of low- and high-skilled migrants shows that an increase of 1 percentage point in the share of low-skilled migrants on the population reduces patent applications by about 0.2%. By contrast, the impact of high-skilled immigrants on innovation is positive, in line with the previous literature, but cannot be precisely estimated.
    Keywords: immigration, innovation, patent applications, regions, Italy
    JEL: O3 J2
    Date: 2014–01
  3. By: Sweetman, Arthur (McMaster University); van Ours, Jan C. (Tilburg University)
    Abstract: Intergenerational immigrant integration is central to the economic growth and social development of many countries whose populations comprise a substantial share of the children and grandchildren of immigrants. In addition to basic demographics, relevant economic theories and institutional features are surveyed to assist in understanding these phenomena. Building on this foundation, educational and labor market success across the immigrant generations are reviewed, and then studies on the evolution of social outcomes across those same generations are discussed. Overall, substantial cross-national heterogeneity in outcomes is observed as various sources of immigration interact with distinct national labor markets and educational/social contexts that have diverse approaches to integrating immigrants.
    Keywords: labor market position, educational attainment, 1.5-generation immigration, second-generation immigration, intergenerational assimilation, economic integration
    JEL: J15
    Date: 2014–01
  4. By: Katharina Wolf
    Abstract: This study examines the fertility behavior of male and female Turkish migrants in Germany. Our main objective in this paper is to investigate the role of duration since migration in first and higher order birth risks. We use data from the 2nd wave of the German Generations and Gender Survey (GGS) that was conducted in 2005/06. In a first step, the age-specific fertility rates and the total fertility rates are estimated and compared for the German and the Turkish respondents following a method suggested by Toulemon (2004). Second, discrete-time hazard rate models are calculated. We find strongly elevated birth risks among the Turkish respondents in the years immediately following migration. This effect is found to be stronger for the females than for the males. The role of age at migration is also investigated. We find here that migrants who were older than age 30 at migration had significantly lower birth rates than other migrants, particularly those who migrated in young adulthood. We conclude that the fertility of Turkish migrants in Germany is strongly associated with their migration history. It is therefore important to take into account both the age at migration and the duration of stay when studying migrant fertility.
    Keywords: migrants
    JEL: J1 Z0
    Date: 2014–01
  5. By: John Gibson (Waikato Management School); David McKenzie (World Bank)
    Abstract: Seasonal worker programs are increasingly seen as offering the potential to be part of international development policy, in addition to the traditional goal of meeting domestic agricultural needs. New Zealand’s Recognised Seasonal Employer (RSE) program is one of the first and most prominent of programs designed with this perspective. This chapter provides a detailed examination of this policy through the first six seasons. It begins by outlining the background to the launch of the program, and key features of how the program operates in practice. This includes the important role of policy facilitation measures taken by national governments and aid agencies. The evolution of the program in terms of worker numbers is then discussed, along with new data on the (high) degree of circularity in worker movements, and new data on (very low) worker overstay rates. This is followed by a summary of the impacts of the program on New Zealand workers and employers: there appears to have been little displacement of New Zealand workers, and new data shows RSE workers to be more productive than local labor, and that workers appear to gain productivity as they return for subsequent seasons. The program has also benefitted the migrants participating in the program, with increases in per capita incomes, expenditure, savings, and subjective well-being, with some evidence of small positive spillover benefits to their communities in the form of public goods. Taken together, this evidence suggests that the RSE program is largely living up to its promise of a “triple win†for migrants, their sending countries in the Pacific, and for New Zealand, and that it is one of the most successful development interventions for which rigorous evidence exists. As such, both development and immigration policy can benefit from learning the lessons of this program.
    Date: 2014–01
  6. By: Jauer, Julia (OECD); Liebig, Thomas (OECD); Martin, John P. (OECD); Puhani, Patrick A. (University of Hannover)
    Abstract: The question of whether migration can be an equilibrating force in the labour market is an important criterion for an optimal currency area. It is of particular interest currently in the context of high and rising levels of labour market disparities, in particular within the Eurozone where there is no exchange-rate mechanism available to play this role. We shed some new light on this question by comparing pre- and post-crisis migration movements at the regional level in both Europe and the United States, and their association with asymmetric labour market shocks. We find that recent migration flows have reacted quite significantly to the EU enlargements in 2004 and 2007 and to changes in labour market conditions, particularly in Europe. Indeed, in contrast to the pre-crisis situation and the findings of previous empirical studies, there is tentative evidence that the migration response to the crisis has been considerable in Europe, in contrast to the United States where the crisis and subsequent sluggish recovery were not accompanied by greater interregional labour mobility in reaction to labour market shocks. Our estimates suggest that, if all measured population changes in Europe were due to migration for employment purposes – i.e. an upper-bound estimate – up to about a quarter of the asymmetric labour market shock would be absorbed by migration within a year. However, in the Eurozone the reaction mainly stems from migration of third-country nationals. Even within the group of Eurozone nationals, a significant part of the free mobility stems from immigrants from third countries who have taken on the nationality of their Eurozone host country.
    Keywords: free mobility, migration, economic crisis, labour market adjustment, Eurozone, Europe, United States
    JEL: F15 F16 F22 J61
    Date: 2014–01
  7. By: DELPIERRE Matthieu; VERHEYDEN Bertrand
    Abstract: Recent empirical evidence links migrant remittances and return migration, and stresses the impact of uncertainty on migrant decisions. Theoretical analyses of the motives for remittances generally neglect these features, and do not include alternative strategies such as savings, which potentially have very different implications for both migrants and origin countries. This paper presents a model of endogenous remittances, savings and return decisions under uncertainty. This setting, which applies to long-term international migration, addresses the following questions. Which migrant characteristics affect their remittance-saving portfolio decisions? How do these decisions interact with migration success and return plans? In our framework, migrants make remittance and saving decisions at an early stage of migration, when migration success and return options are uncertain. Over time, information about professional prospects is acquired, and conditionally on past decisions, migrants adjust their return plans. We show that migrants anticipating a large wage in the host country, or a relatively low risk of migration failure are less likely to remit and to return, and more likely to save. These results are in line with recent empirical evidence, such as the large share of non-remitting migrants, the fact that migrants facing higher risks are more likely to remit, and the potentially poor economic performance of returnees. Finally, we provide a rationale for the support by relatives in the sending country of low-skill, illegal migration.
    Keywords: Remittances; savings; risk; return migration
    JEL: D13 D80
    Date: 2014–02
  8. By: Daichi Shimamoto (Graduate School of Economics, Osaka University, Japan. Research Fellow, Japan Society for the Promotion of Science, Japan.)
    Abstract: In Albania, remittance has been an important factor for the countryfs economic growth since the collapse of the countryfs communist regime in the early 1990s. In this paper, I investigated why migrants send remittance to their parents household. In the analysis, I considered four remittance motivations: altruistic, exchange, insurance, and inheritance motivations. To control sample selection of migration, I apply the Heckman sample selection model. The results suggest that migrants in Albania are driven to remit owing to a combination of altruistic, exchange, and inheritance motivations. Further, migration destination influences remittance amount, which implies that not only the local labor market and exchange rate at the final destination but also migration motivation factors affect remittance amount.
    Keywords: Migration, Remittance, Albania
    JEL: F22 F24 O52
    Date: 2014–02
  9. By: Boltz-Laemmel, Marie; Villar, Paola
    Abstract: Souvent étudiés sous l’angle des remises issues de la migration internationale, les transferts intrafamiliaux au Sénégal sont aussi à l’œuvre dans les mobilités internes. Une analyse fine de la relation entre les migrants, principaux contributeurs aux dépenses du ménage d’origine, et les destinataires de leurs transferts est cruciale pour comprendre la dynamique du partage de ressources et les normes sociales qui y sont jointes. À l’aide d’une enquête qualitative réalisée au Sénégal en décembre 2012, nous avons pu croiser les témoignages à la fois de migrants (internes ou internationaux) et de membres restés dans le ménage d’origine. Ceci nous permet de comparer les différentes trajectoires migratoires et socio-économiques d’individus ayant des conditions familiales initiales comparables ainsi que les différentes attitudes face aux normes de redistribution selon la structure du réseau de transferts et la position dans ce réseau.
    Keywords: transferts; mobilité géographique; ménage d’origine; normes sociales
    Date: 2014–01

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