nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2013‒11‒16
fifteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Attrition and Follow-Up Rules in Panel Surveys: Insights from a Tracking Experience in Madagascar By Vaillant, Julia
  2. Migrants' Home Town Associations and Local Development in Mali By Mesplé-Somps, Sandrine; Mercier, Marion; Gubert, Flore; Chauvet, Lisa
  3. Enforcement and Immigrant Location Choice By Tara Watson
  4. A Crook is a Crook … But is He Still a Crook Abroad? - On the Effect of Immigration on Destination-Country Corruption By Eugen Dimant; Tim Krieger; Margarete Redlin
  5. Immigrant Job Search Assimilation in Canada By Audra J. Bowlus; Masashi Miyairi; Chris Robinson
  6. Post-immigration Cultural Diversity and Integration By Tariq Modood
  7. Spillover Effects of Studying with Immigrant Students: A Quantile Regression Approach By Ohinata, A.; Ours, J.C. van
  8. Unilateral facilitation does not raise international labor migration from the Philippines By Beam, Emily; McKenzie, David; Yang, Dean
  9. The European Crisis and Migration to Germany: Expectations and the Diversion of Migration Flows By Simone BERTOLI; Jes�s FERN�NDEZ-HUERTAS MORAGA; Herbert BR�CKER
  10. The Impact of Immigrant Gender on International Trade: An Empirical Assessment By Harry P. Bowen; Jennifer Wu
  11. The Fiscal Effects of Immigration to the UK By Christian Dustmann; Tommaso Frattini
  12. The Impact of Immigration on Native Wages and Employment. By Anthony Edo
  13. Costs and Benefits of Labour Mobility between the EU and the Eastern Partnership Countries: Country Study on Germany By Biavaschi, Costanza; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
  14. Immigration Policy and Self-Selecting Migrants By Bianchi, Milo
  15. Three musketeers: A dynamic model of capital inflow (FDI), the real wage rate and the net migration flow with empirical application By Peter Simmons; Yuanyuan Xie

  1. By: Vaillant, Julia
    Abstract: Most longitudinal surveys recontact households only if they are still living in the same dwelling, producing very high attrition rates, especially in developing countries where rural–urban migration is prevalent. In this paper, we discuss the implications of the various follow-up rules used in longitudinal surveys in the light of an original tracking survey from Madagascar. This survey attempted in 2005 to search and interview all individuals who were living in the village of Bepako in 1995, the baseline year of a yearly survey, the Rural Observatories. The tracking survey yielded an individual recontact rate of 78.8 percent, more than halving attrition compared to a standard dwelling-based follow-up rule. The tracking reveals a very high rate of out-migration (38.8 percent) and household break-ups, as three-quarters of recontacted households had divided between 1995 and 2005. The average income growth of the sample over the period increases by 28 percentage points when follow-up is extended to those who moved out of their household or village, suggesting that dwelling-based panels give a partial view of the welfare dynamics of the baseline sample. A higher baseline income per capita is associated with a higher probability of staying in Bepako and of being found in the tracking if one moved out. The hardest people to find are the poorest and most isolated. Special attention should be paid to collecting data that enable the identification and follow-up of individuals, without which attrition is likely to remain a source of bias even after a tracking procedure is carried out.
    Keywords: Mobilité; Enquêtes tracking; Données de panel; Mobility; Attrition; Tracking surveys; Panel data;
    JEL: O15 O12 I32 C81
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Mesplé-Somps, Sandrine; Mercier, Marion; Gubert, Flore; Chauvet, Lisa
    Abstract: This paper assesses the impact of migrants' Home Town Associations (HTAs) located in France on the provision of local public goods in Mali. To this end, we computed a dataset on all the HTAs that have been created by Malian migrants in France since 1981 and geo-localised their interventions on the Malian territory. Thanks to Malian census data, we also built a panel dataset informing the provision of a range of public goods in all the Malian localities over the 1976-2009 period. These two sources of data allow us to implement a double di erence strategy, and to compare localities with and without an HTA, before and after its creation. We not only assess whether "having an HTA" makes a di erence in terms of local development, but also whether the intensity of the treatment as measured by the number of HTAs intervening in each locality or the number of year under treatment leads to di erentiated impacts. We nd that Malian HTAs have signi cantly contributed to improve the provision of water amenities (mainly fountains), health centers and electricity connection over the 1987-2009 period. The impact is found to be stronger when the focus is on the earlier period (before 1998).
    Keywords: HTA; Home Town Associations; International Migration; Public Goods;
    JEL: F22 H41 H75 O55
    Date: 2013–06
  3. By: Tara Watson
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of local immigration enforcement regimes on the migration decisions of the foreign born. Specifically, the analysis uses individual level American Community Survey data to examine the effect of recent 287(g) agreements which allow state and local law enforcement agencies to enforce Federal immigration law. The results suggest that one type of 287(g) agreement – the controversial local “task force” model emphasizing street enforcement – nearly doubles the propensity for the foreign-born to relocate within the United States. The largest effects are observed among non-citizens with college education, suggesting that aggressive enforcement policies may be missing their intended targets. No similar effect is found for the native born. After the extreme case of Maricopa County is excluded, there is no evidence that local enforcement causes the foreign-born to exit the United States or deters their entry from abroad. Rather, 287(g) task force agreements encourage the foreign born to move to a new Census division or region within the United States.
    JEL: J15 J18 R23 R28
    Date: 2013–11
  4. By: Eugen Dimant (University of Paderborn); Tim Krieger (University of Freiburg); Margarete Redlin (University of Paderborn)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the impact of migration on destination-country corruption levels. Capitalizing on a comprehensive dataset consisting of annual immigration stocks of OECD countries from 207 countries of origin for the period 1984-2008, we explore different channels through which corruption might migrate. Independent of the econometric methodology applied, we consistently find that while general migration has an insignificant effect on the destination country’s corruption level, immigration from corruption-ridden origin countries boosts corruption in the destination country. Our findings provide a more profound understanding of the economic implications associated with migration flows.
    Keywords: Corruption, Migration, Impact of migration
    JEL: D73 F22 O15
    Date: 2013–10
  5. By: Audra J. Bowlus (University of Western Ontario); Masashi Miyairi (University of Western Ontario); Chris Robinson (University of Western Ontario)
    Abstract: Immigrant assimilation is a major issue in many countries. While most of the literature studies assimilation through a human capital framework, we examine the role of job search assimilation. To do so, we estimate an equilibrium search model of immigrants operating in the same labor market as natives, where newly arrived immigrants have lower job offer arrival rates than natives but can acquire the same arrival rates according to a stochastic process. Using Canadian panel data, we find substantial differences in job offer arrival and destruction rates between natives and immigrants that are able to account for three fifths of the observed earnings gap. The estimates imply that immigrants take, on average, 13 years to acquire the native search parameters. The job search assimilation process generates 18% earnings growth for immigrants in a 40 year period following migration.
    Keywords: None available
    Date: 2013
  6. By: Tariq Modood
    Abstract: Ethno-religious diversity is a fact of Western European cities and will grow and spread. Living in these locations today requires a respect for ‘difference’ as well as a sense of commonalities; these are required at the level of the local and the city but also at the level of the national. A framework of anti-discrimination and processes of uncoercive cultural encounters are also necessary but are not sufficient. We also need to have the possibility of sharing a macro-symbolic sense of belonging. With this in mind I consider a number of modes of integration. I argue that multiculturalism is a mode of integration, which can be contrasted with other modes such as assimilation, individualist-integration and cosmopolitanism, and like the others it is based on the core democratic values of liberty, equality and fraternity/unity. My contention is that even though multiculturalism is unpopular with some European publics today, integration is not possible without including it within an integration strategy. I go on to consider what kinds of ‘difference’ mark the real divisions today and into the future. I conclude that one of the most profound questions Europeans are being forced to consider is about the place of religion in the public space.
    Date: 2013–07–23
  7. By: Ohinata, A.; Ours, J.C. van (Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research)
    Abstract: Abstract: We analyze how the share of immigrant children in the classroom aects the educational attainment of native Dutch children in terms of their language and math performance at the end of primary school. Our paper studies the spill-over effects at different parts of the test score distribution of native Dutch students using a quantile regression approach. We fi nd no evidence of negative spillover effects of the classroom presence of immigrant children at the median of the test score distribution. In addition, there is no indication that these spill-over effects are present at other parts of the distribution.
    Keywords: Immigrant children;Peer effects;Educational attainment
    JEL: I21 J15
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Beam, Emily; McKenzie, David; Yang, Dean
    Abstract: Significant income gains from migrating from poorer to richer countries have motivated unilateral (source-country) policies facilitating labor emigration. However, their effectiveness is unknown. The authors conducted a large-scale randomized experiment in the Philippines testing the impact of unilaterally facilitating international labor migration. The most intensive treatment doubled the rate of job offers but had no identifiable effect on international labor migration. Even the highest overseas job-search rate that was induced (22 percent) falls far short of the share initially expressing interest in migrating (34 percent). The paper concludes that unilateral migration facilitation will at most induce a trickle, not a flood, of additional emigration.
    Keywords: Population Policies,Labor Markets,Labor Policies,Access to Finance,Voluntary and Involuntary Resettlement
    Date: 2013–11–01
    Abstract: The European crisis has diverted migration flows away from countries affected by the recession towards Germany. The diversion process creates a challenge for traditional discrete-choice models that assume that only bilateral factors account for dyadic migration rates. This paper shows how taking into account the sequential nature of migration decisions leads to write the bilateral migration rate as a function of expectations about the evolution of economic conditions in alternative destinations. Empirically, we incorporate 10-year bond yields as an explanatory variable capturing forward-looking expectations and apply our model to an empirical analysis of migration from the countries of the European Economic Association to Germany in the period 2006-2012. We show that disregarding alternative destinations leads to substantial biases in the estimation of the determinants of migration rates.
    JEL: J61 O15 F22
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Harry P. Bowen (McColl School of Business, Queens University of Charlotte); Jennifer Wu (Berlin School of Economics)
    Abstract: Studies routinely document that the nature of immigrant employment is largely specific: it often concentrates in non-traded goods sectors and many immigrants, particularly females, often have low inter-sectoral mobility. We consider these employment and gender related characteristics of immigrants for the question of how immigration affects a nation’s pattern of production and trade. Based on a model in which immigrant gender influences the nature and likely sector of employment, we postulate that the higher is the proportion of immigrants who are female the more likely that immigration and trade will be complements. Empirical investigation of the relationship between migrant gender and the production of traded and non-traded goods in a panel dataset of OECD countries supports the conjecture that female immigration and trade are complements whereas male immigration and trade are substitutes. This difference arises because employment of female immigrants is more likely to be concentrated in non-traded goods sectors and females are likely to have lower inter-sectoral mobility relative to male immigrants. We discuss the implications of these empirical findings for immigration policy.
    Date: 2013
  11. By: Christian Dustmann (UCL); Tommaso Frattini (University of Milan)
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate the fiscal impact of immigration on the UK economy, with a focus on the period since 1995. We provide estimates for the overall immigrant population for the period between 1995 and 2012, and for more recent immigrants who arrived since 2000, distinguishing between immigrants from European versus non-European countries. Overall, our findings indicate that EEA immigrants have made a positive fiscal contribution, even during periods when the UK was running budget deficits. This positive contribution is particularly noticeable for more recent immigrants that arrived since 2000 in particular from EEA countries.
    Keywords: Immigration, Fiscal Impact, Welfare State
    JEL: J61 J68 H20
    Date: 2013–11
  12. By: Anthony Edo (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the immigration impact on native outcomes using micro-level data for France. I find that immigration does not affect the wages of competing natives, but induces adverse employment effects. This finding is consistent with a wage structure that is much less flexible in France. The quality of the data allows to dig more deeply into the interpretation of the immigration impact. First, I show that immigrants displace native workers because they are more willing to have bad employment conditions. Second, I find that natives on short-term contracts, who are less subject to wage rigidities, do experience wage losses due to immigration.
    Keywords: Immigration, wage rigidities, employment, naturalization.
    JEL: F22 J31 J61
    Date: 2013–09
  13. By: Biavaschi, Costanza (IZA); Zimmermann, Klaus F. (IZA and University of Bonn)
    Abstract: Despite the ongoing dialogue on facilitating mobility between the European Union and the Eastern Partnership (EaP) countries, very little is known about the magnitude and characteristics of migrants from these countries. This study aims to fill this gap by studying the size and assimilation patterns of EaP migrants in Germany. Most EaP migrants in Germany come from Ukraine but EaP migrants are a relatively small share of total migrants. EaP migrants experience worse labor market outcomes than other migrant groups, but current and potential migrants hold qualifications in those areas were skill shortages are expected.
    Keywords: migration, labour market, assimilation
    JEL: J15 J26 J61 J62
    Date: 2013–10
  14. By: Bianchi, Milo
    Abstract: We build a simple model of self-selection into migration and immigration policy determination. We first show that the effect of any immigration policy can be decomposed into a size and a composition effect. We then explore how the optimal policy may change once the latter effect is considered.
    Keywords: Immigrant self-selection; immigration policy;
    JEL: O24 J61 F22
    Date: 2013–02
  15. By: Peter Simmons; Yuanyuan Xie
    Abstract: This paper develops a time continuous dynamic model of a system of piecewise differential equations to study the simultaneous interactions between capital flows (FDI), the real wage rate and the net migration flow allowing for immigration, return migration and immobility. Theoretically, we claim three contributions: this paper is the first one to recognize the inherent regime shifts in migration due to fixed migration costs, the chance of getting a job and two way migration; for non-zero moving cost, there is usually an infinite number of stationary states; the elasticity of labor demand is an important factor in determining local stability and the global dynamics. Empirically, we apply our model with calibrated Cobb-Douglas production functions to estimate the dynamic adjustment speeds for 16 regions of Guangdong (a fast growing Chinese province with the highest internal migration flow in the emerging world) over 1990-2010. The results of our empirical application indicate that regions in Guangdong are heterogeneous but show positive simultaneous interactions between the three endogenous variables. Some policy implications and further research directions are also suggested.
    Keywords: Dynamic migration; Regime shifts; Local stability; Dynamic adjustment speeds
    JEL: F22 J61 O10
    Date: 2013–11

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