nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2013‒09‒06
fifteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Birthplace Diversity and Economic Prosperity By Alesina, Alberto; Harnoss, Johann; Rapoport, Hillel
  2. Was the African American great migration delayed by outlawing emigrant agents? By Kha Yen Prentice; László Kónya; David Prentice
  3. Immigration and property prices: Evidence from England and Wales By Braakmann, Nils
  4. The impact of Migration on Infant Mortality Reduction in Albania By Narazani, Edlira
  5. Immigrants from Eastern Partnership (EaP) Countries in Spain By Farré, Lídia; Rodríguez-Planas, Núria
  6. Male Worker Migration and Women Empowerment: The case of Bihar, India By Singh, K.M.; Singh, R.K.P.; Kumar, Anjani
  7. Job Contact Networks and Wages of Rural-Urban Migrants in China By Long, Wenjin; Appleton, Simon; Song, Lina
  8. International labor migration in Vietnam and the impact of receiving countries' policies By Ishizuka, Futaba
  9. Factors Influencing the State-Level Settlement Pattern of the Undocumented Immigrant Population in the United States By Cebula, Richard; Duquette, Christopher; Mixon, Franklin
  10. The Preference for Larger Cities in China: Evidence from Rural-Urban Migrants By Xing, Chunbing; Zhang, Junfu
  11. Rural-rural Migration and Land Conflicts: Implications on Agricultural Productivity in Uganda By Francis Mwesigye; Tomoya Matsumoto
  12. China's 2008 Labor Contract Law: Implementation and Implications for China's Workers By Gallagher, Mary; Giles, John T.; Park, Albert; Wang, Meiyan
  13. Report No. 55: Labour Migration from EaP Countries to the EU – Assessment of Costs and Benefits and Proposals for Better Labour Market Matching By Kahanec, Martin; Zimmermann, Klaus F.; Kureková, Lucia; Biavaschi, Costanza
  14. Report No. 56: Migration from the Eastern Partnership Countries to the European Union — Options for a Better Future By Barbone, Luca; Kahanec, Martin; Kureková, Lucia; Zimmermann, Klaus F.
  15. Is there a Double-Negative Effect? Gender and Ethnic Wage Differentials. By Piazzalunga, Daniela

  1. By: Alesina, Alberto (Harvard University); Harnoss, Johann (Harvard University); Rapoport, Hillel (Bar-Ilan University)
    Abstract: We use recent immigration data from 195 countries and propose an index of population diversity based on people's birthplaces. This new index is then decomposed into a size (share of foreign born) and a variety (diversity of immigrants) component and is available for 1990 and 2000 disaggregated by skill level. We show that birthplace diversity is largely uncorrelated with ethnic, linguistic or genetic diversity. Our main result is that the diversity of skilled immigration relates positively to economic development (as measured by income and TFP per capita and patent intensity) even after controlling for ethno-linguistic and genetic fractionalization, geography, trade, education, institutions, and origin-effects capturing income/productivity levels in the immigrants home countries. We make progress towards addressing endogeneity by specifying a gravity model to predict the share and diversity of immigration based on exogenous bilateral variables. The results are robust across various OLS and 2SLS specifications and suggestive of skill complementarities between native workers and immigrants, especially when the latter come from richer countries at intermediate levels of cultural proximity.
    Keywords: economic development, cultural diversity, genetic diversity, ethnic diversity, birthplace diversity, productivity, immigration
    JEL: O1 O4 F22 F43
    Date: 2013–08
  2. By: Kha Yen Prentice (School of Economics, La Trobe University); László Kónya (School of Economics, La Trobe University); David Prentice (School of Economics, La Trobe University)
    Abstract: The question of why more African Americans did not migrate earlier out of the stagnant and repressive South after emancipation remains open. Previous work has highlighted the role of demand and supply conditions. At the time, though there was much concern about the role of emigrant agents who actively recruited African Americans to migrate away from their homes such that several states introduced emigrant agent laws to effectively drive them out of business. In this paper we provide the first estimates of the quantitative significance of these agents to African American migration. Specifically, we take advantage of a natural experiment provided by different outcomes in court cases in Georgia and Alabama, which resulted in Alabama being prevented from re-introducing these laws between 1882 and 1903 while Georgia's laws remained. Analyzing gross migration out of the two states, we find that the emigrant agent laws had no direct effect on migration. Though there is some limited evidence that the sensitivity of migration flows to economic differences within the South was lower if an emigrant agent law was in place. This suggests that small changes to the emigrant agentlaws are unlikely to have led to an earlier Great Migration. Interestingly we also find that the increase in migration began before 1920 which provides some support for the supply-based explanations.
    Keywords: Great Migration, Emigrant Agents, Gravity Models, African Americans, Southern Labor Markets, Labor Market Regulation.
    JEL: N31 N41 N91 K31 J61 R23
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Braakmann, Nils
    Abstract: This paper investigates the link between immigration and property prices in England and Wales. Evidence from fixed effects and shift-share-based instrumental variable regressions suggests that an increase in the regional share of migrants (a) decreases prices at the lower end of the distribution up to the median and (b) has (almost) no effect on mean property prices or prices above the median. I also provide evidence on two mechanisms that explain these effects: (c) natives move out of regions as immigration increases and (d) the number of persons per room increases with the share of immigrants.
    Keywords: immigration; property prices; housing market; England; Wales
    JEL: J15 R21 R31
    Date: 2013–08–29
  4. By: Narazani, Edlira (University of Turin)
    Abstract: In the last two decades, Albania went through a substantial reduction in infant mortality rates together with a widespread migration experience. In this paper we investigate whether migration has played any role in this decreasing trend of infant mortality in Albania by using the Albanian Demographic and Health Survey 2008-09 (ADHS). First we assess whether migration has affected fertility decisions, namely, number of children and child sex composition among women aged 15 to 49 who have ever been married, but find no statistically significant evidence for any impact even when migration is instrumented. Afterwards, migration impact on child health status is investigated and the estimations results show that migrant households have had lower rates of infant mortality than non-migrant househol ds but only once the endogeneity of migration is tackled with country-specific instrumental variables.
    Date: 2013–07
  5. By: Farré, Lídia (IAE Barcelona (CSIC)); Rodríguez-Planas, Núria (IZA and IAE-CSIC)
    Abstract: Most EaP migrants in Spain come from Ukraine, followed by, to a much lesser extent, Moldavia, Armenia, and Georgia. Relative to other migrants, they are those who most recently arrived to Spain. Despite being considerably more educated than natives and other migrants, they are less likely to work than natives and other migrants upon arrival to Spain. Using data from Spanish Labor Force Survey (LFS) from the years 2000 to 2011, this paper analyzes how their employment situation evolves with time in Spain, the type of sectors they work in, and their welfare use, including unemployment insurance receipt.
    Keywords: immigrants' employment and welfare assimilation
    JEL: J15 J24 J61 J62
    Date: 2013–08
  6. By: Singh, K.M.; Singh, R.K.P.; Kumar, Anjani
    Abstract: Migration of population has been a recurrent phenomenon since the dawn of human history. Though its form has changed but it remains a dominant event in the global social system. In modern days also people migrate from underdeveloped areas to the developed ones in search of better opportunities. Several theories have been propounded to explain the occurrence of migration. A number of social, cultural, economic, spatial, climatic, demographic factors induce migration. Among them, the economic factors are considered as the primary reasons for inducing migration. Migration of male labour force from Bihar has increased during last two decades which prompted us to analyze its consequences on efficiency of input in agricultural production, livelihood through remittances and also the empowerment of women left behind at place of origin. It was observed that the efficiencies of human labour and irrigation in rice production were higher than non-migrant households and statistically significant, indicating rational use of these two critical inputs on migrant households in Bihar. The migration seems to have helped in judicious use of human labour at native place due to migration of surplus labour force for gainful employment to destination of migration. Remittances have been utilized for meeting consumption needs, improved livelihood, better education to children and better health care facilities which help in overall improvement in livelihood on migrant households in Bihar. Migrant households also preferred to save money to meet their requirements in unforeseen situations. It can thus be infered that migration may be one of risk-coping strategies for the weaker sections of the society and has helped developing the saving habits among migrant households. The allocation of remittances on agricultural inputs could have increased if proper infrastructure facilities were present in rural areas for faster dissemination of modern agricultural technology for increasing agricultural production. Level of women employment has increased on migrant households, particularly on poor households; however, work load of women has also increased. It has been observed that role of women of migrant households changed from unpaid female labour to managers of the household, however, they face problem in management of fund, technology and input-output marketing. There is a need to launch a programme for their training to improve their knowledge in financial, technological and marketing management.
    Keywords: Migration, Women empowerment, Labor migration, Remittances, Bihar
    JEL: J01 J16 J22 J43 J61 O15 Q12 Q16
    Date: 2013–08–15
  7. By: Long, Wenjin (University of Nottingham); Appleton, Simon (University of Nottingham); Song, Lina (University of Nottingham)
    Abstract: In nationally representative household data from the 2008 wave of the Rural to Urban Migration in China survey, nearly two thirds of rural-urban migrants found their employment through family members, relatives, friends or acquaintances. This paper investigates why the use of social network to find jobs is so prevalent among rural-urban migrants in China, and whether migrants face a wage penalty as a result of adopting this job search method. We find evidence of positive selection effects of the use of networks on wages. Users of networks tend to be older, to have migrated longer ago and to be less educated. In addition, married workers and those from villages with more out-migrant are more likely to use networks, while those without local residential registration status are less likely. Controlling for selectivity, we find a large negative impact of network use on wages. Using job contacts brings open access to urban employment, but at the cost of markedly lower wages.
    Keywords: social network, job contact, wage, rural-urban migrants, switching regression, China
    JEL: J24 J31 O15
    Date: 2013–08
  8. By: Ishizuka, Futaba
    Abstract: Labor export has been part of Vietnam’s socio-economic development strategy since the beginning of the doi moi era. Recent years, Vietnam has sent about 80,000 workers abroad per year. Vietnam has become a major source country of unskilled foreign workers for high-income East Asian countries. However, in these receiving countries, the desertion rate among Vietnamese workers is quite high, compared with that for workers from other countries. This paper examines the impact of Korean and Japanese policies for receiving foreign workers applied to and implemented in Vietnam, as well as the impact of Vietnamese labor sending system, on the problem of runaway workers.
    Keywords: Vietnam, Japan, South Korea, Taiwan, Malaysia, Migrant labor, Alien labor, Migration, International Labor Migration
    JEL: J61
    Date: 2013–03
  9. By: Cebula, Richard; Duquette, Christopher; Mixon, Franklin
    Abstract: This study empirically attempts to identify key factors determining the settlement patterns of undocumented immigrants within the United States. The estimations imply that undocumented immigrants appear to settle in states that border the Atlantic Ocean, Pacific Ocean, or the Gulf of Mexico, and states where median family income is higher, average January temperatures are higher, the percent of the state population that is Hispanic is higher, and where economic freedom is higher. On the other hand, undocumented immigrants are less likely to settle in states with a higher cost of living.
    Keywords: undocumented immigrants; state-level settlement patterns; economic factors; non-economic factors
    JEL: J61 J62 J69
    Date: 2013–02–02
  10. By: Xing, Chunbing (Beijing Normal University); Zhang, Junfu (Clark University)
    Abstract: China has long aimed to restrict population growth in large cities but encourages growth in small and medium-sized cities. At the same time, various government policies favor large cities. We conjecture that larger cities in China have more urban amenities and a better quality of life. We thus predict that a typical rural-urban migrant is willing to give up some income in order to live in a larger city. We present a simple model in which rural-urban migrants choose destination cities to maximize utilities from consumption and urban amenities. Drawing data from a large-scale population survey conducted in 2005, we first estimate each migrant's expected earnings in each possible destination city using a semi-parametric method to correct for potential selection bias. We then estimate the typical migrant's preference for city population size, instrumenting population size with its lagged values to control for potential omitted-variables bias. From these estimation results, we calculate the typical migrant's willingness to pay to live in larger cities. Our results show that indeed rural-urban migrants strongly prefer cities with larger populations. We explore possible explanations for this preference and discuss the implications of these findings.
    Keywords: city size, urban amenities, rural-urban migration, hukou system, China
    JEL: O15 R12 R23
    Date: 2013–08
  11. By: Francis Mwesigye (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies); Tomoya Matsumoto (National Graduate Institute for Policy Studies)
    Abstract: We use community and household data with plot-level information to explore the determinants of different forms of land conflicts and the conflicts’ impact on agricultural productivity in Uganda. Tracing rural-rural migration patterns, we find that communities that receive/host more immigrants (and thus have many coexisting tribes) tend to have more land conflicts than those sending migrants out. Unbundling conflicts by type reveals that the number of tribes and being in a ‘receiving’ community are associated with a higher probability of eviction conflicts than ‘sending’ communities and those with fewer tribes. Turning to conflict impact, we find that plots with conflicts have 17% lower yield than those without conflicts. Moreover, breaking down conflicts by type reveals that plots with eviction conflicts have 36% lower yield than those with inheritance conflicts. Our results suggest that rural-rural migration weakens community-specific informal land arrangements and conflict resolution mechanisms, which, in the absence of formal institutions, result in eviction conflicts that, in turn, hurt productivity.
    Date: 2013–08
  12. By: Gallagher, Mary (University of Michigan); Giles, John T. (World Bank); Park, Albert (Hong Kong University of Science & Technology); Wang, Meiyan (Chinese Academy of Social Sciences)
    Abstract: This paper presents empirical evidence from household and firm survey data collected during 2009-2010 on the implementation of the 2008 Labor Contract Law and its effects on China's workers. The government and local labor bureaus have made substantial efforts to enforce the provisions of the new law, which has likely contributed to reversing a trend toward increasing informalization of the urban labor market. Enforcement of the law, however, varies substantially across cities. The paper analyzes the determinants of worker satisfaction with the enforcement of the law, the propensity of workers to have a labor contract, workers' awareness of the content of the law, and their likelihood of initiating disputes. The paper finds that all of these factors are highly correlated with the level of education, especially for migrants. Although higher labor costs may have had a negative impact on manufacturing employment growth, this has not led to an overall increase in aggregate unemployment or prevented the rapid growth of real wages. Less progress has been made in increasing social insurance coverage, although signing a labor contract is more likely to be associated with participation in social insurance programs than in the past, particularly for migrant workers.
    Keywords: social insurance, informal sector, labor regulations, migration, gender, China
    JEL: J08 J16 J28 J41 J52 J53 O15 O17
    Date: 2013–08
  13. By: Kahanec, Martin (Central European University); Zimmermann, Klaus F. (IZA and University of Bonn); Kureková, Lucia (Central European University); Biavaschi, Costanza (IZA)
    Abstract: Report based on a study conducted for the European Commission, Bonn 2013 (164 pages)
    Date: 2013–08–30
  14. By: Barbone, Luca (CASE - Center for Social and Economic Research); Kahanec, Martin (Central European University); Kureková, Lucia (Central European University); Zimmermann, Klaus F. (IZA and University of Bonn)
    Abstract: Report based on a study conducted for the European Commission, Bonn 2013 (50 pages)
    Date: 2013–08–30
  15. By: Piazzalunga, Daniela (University of Turin)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the gender and ethnic wage differentials for female Immigrants, applying the Oaxaca ecomposition to estimate the level of discrimination. The gender pay gap is quite small (7.42%), but it's not explained by observable differences, whilst the ethnic wage gap is larger (27.11%), but the explained components account for about 30%. Ultimately, we will evaluate how the multiple levels of discrimination (due to being a woman and a foreigner at the same time) intersect, following the decomposition suggested by Shamsuddin (1998). The double - negative effect is estimated to be 56 - 62%.
    Date: 2013–07

This nep-mig issue is ©2013 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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