nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2013‒08‒10
fifteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
La Trobe University

  1. Networks of innovators within and across borders. Evidence from patent data By Andrea Morescalchi; Fabio Pammolli; Orion Penner; Petersen Alexander M.
  2. Careers of Doctorate Holders: Analysis of Labour Market and Mobility Indicators By Laudeline Auriol; Max Misu; Rebecca Ann Freeman
  3. Neighbourhood Effects on Migrant Youth's Educational Commitments: An Enquiry into Personality Differences By Nieuwenhuis, Jaap; Hooimeijer, Pieter; van Ham, Maarten; Meeus, Wim
  4. Ethnic Unemployment Rates and Frictional Markets By Laurent Gobillon; Peter Rupert; Etienne Wasmer
  5. "The Impact of a Path to Citizenship on the US Economy and Social Insurance System" By Selcuk Eren
  6. Braving the Waves: The Role of Time and Risk Preferences in Illegal Migration from Senegal By Arcand, Jean-Louis; Mbaye, Linguère Mously
  7. Young FSU Migrants in Germany: Educational Attainment and Early Labor Market Outcomes By Regina Flake
  8. Immigrants in France: a female majority By Cris Beauchemin; Catherine Borrel; Corinne Régnard
  9. Labour Market Information for Employers and Economic Immigrants in Canada: A Country Study By Vikram Rai
  10. Learning More About the Causes and Consequences of Migration through the Experiences of Ireland's Older People By Barrett, Alan; Mosca, Irene
  11. Public Deficit Bias and Immigration By Michael Ben-Gad
  12. Internal Labour Market Mobility in 2005-2011: The Case of Latvia By Ieva Brauksa; Ludmila Fadejeva
  13. Migration And The Welfare State: Political-Economy Perspective On Tax Competition By Assaf Razin
  14. Estimating International Migration on the Base of Small Area Techniques By Voineagu, Vergil; Caragea, Nicoleta; Pisica, Silvia
  15. Statistical Analysis of International Migration Using R Software By Dobre, Ana Maria

  1. By: Andrea Morescalchi (IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies); Fabio Pammolli (IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies); Orion Penner (IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies); Petersen Alexander M. (IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies; IMT Lucca Institute for Advanced Studies and Department of Managerial Economics, Strategy and Innovation, K.U. Leuven)
    Abstract: Recent studies on the geography of knowledge networks have documented a negative impact of physical distance and institutional borders upon research and development (R&D) collaborations. Though it is widely recognized that geographic constraints hamper the diffusion of knowledge, less attention has been devoted to the temporal evolution of these constraints. In this study we use data on patents filed with the European Patent Office (EPO) for 50 countries to analyze the impact of physical distance and country borders on inter-regional links in four different networks over the period 1988-2009: (1) co-inventorship, (2) patent citations, (3) inventor mobility and (4) the location of R&D laboratories. We find the constraint imposed by country borders and distance decreased until mid-1990s then started to grow, particularly for distance. The intensity of European cross-country inventor collaborations increased at a higher pace than their non-European counterparts until 2004, with no significant relative progress afterwards. Moreover, when analyzing networks of geographical mobility, multinational R&D activities and patent citations we do not depict any substantial progress in European research integration aside from the influence of common global trends.
    Keywords: Geography of knowledge; Networks of Innovators; European integration; Spatial proximity; Crossborder collaboration; Gravity model
    JEL: O30 R10 R23
    Date: 2013–08
  2. By: Laudeline Auriol; Max Misu; Rebecca Ann Freeman
    Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of the labour market and mobility indicators generated by the second large-scale data collection on Careers of Doctorate Holders, a joint project by the OECD, UNESCO Institute for Statistics and Eurostat.<P> There has been a steady increase in the number of doctoral degrees being awarded across the OECD and the evidence points to a sustained labour market premium of doctorate holders relative to other highly qualified individuals in 2009, prior to the potential impact of the economic crisis. Women and younger doctoral graduates, however, fare relatively worse in terms of employment rates, but these results are less marked than for lower degree holders. While temporary positions are increasingly common in academics, coinciding with the rise of postdoctoral positions, they are less so in business. Natural scientists and engineers are those who are more likely to be engaged in research, while social scientists find more opportunities in non-research occupations. Doctorate holders in the medical and health sciences are generally better paid. Earnings are also typically higher in the business sector than in other sectors, but there are exceptions. Job mobility patterns differ markedly across countries, with mobility being more frequent among doctorates not working in research. Oftentimes mobility from the business sector to the higher education sector is higher than the other way around. International mobility, as well as migration of doctoral graduates, have kept increasing over the decade.
    Date: 2013–06–28
  3. By: Nieuwenhuis, Jaap (Utrecht University); Hooimeijer, Pieter (Utrecht University); van Ham, Maarten (Delft University of Technology); Meeus, Wim (Utrecht University)
    Abstract: In the neighbourhood effects literature, the socialisation mechanism is usually investigated by looking at the association between neighbourhood characteristics and educational attainment. The step in between, that adolescents actually internalise educational norms held by residents, is often assumed. We attempt to fill this gap by looking at how educational commitments are influenced by neighbourhood characteristics. We investigate this process for migrant youth, a group that lags behind in educational attainment compared to native youth, and might therefore be particularly vulnerable to neighbourhood effects. To test our hypothesis we used longitudinal panel data with five waves (N=4179), combined with fixed-effects models which control for a large portion of potential selection bias. These models have an advantage over naïve OLS models in that they predict the effect of change in neighbourhood characteristics on change in educational commitment, and therefore offer a more dynamic approach to modelling neighbourhood effects. Our results show that living in neighbourhoods with higher proportions of immigrants increases the educational commitments of migrant youth compared to living in neighbourhoods with lower proportions. Besides, we find that adolescents with a resilient personality experience less influence of the neighbourhood context on educational commitments than do adolescents with other personalities.
    Keywords: neighbourhood effects, educational commitment, adolescents, personality, migrant youth, fixed effects
    JEL: I24 J15 R23
    Date: 2013–07
  4. By: Laurent Gobillon (PSE - Paris-Jourdan Sciences Economiques - CNRS : UMR8545 - École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales [EHESS] - Ecole des Ponts ParisTech - Ecole normale supérieure de Paris - ENS Paris - Institut national de la recherche agronomique (INRA), EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris, INED - Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques Paris - INED); Peter Rupert (University of California, Santa Barbara - University of California, Santa Barbara); Etienne Wasmer (IEP Paris - Sciences Po Paris - Institut d'études politiques de Paris - Institut d'Études Politiques [IEP] - Paris - PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité - Fondation Nationale des Sciences Politiques [FNSP], LIEPP - Laboratoire interdisciplinaire d'évaluation des politiques publiques - Sciences Po : PARIS)
    Abstract: The unemployment rate in France is roughly 6 percentage points higher for African immigrants than for natives. In the US the unemployment rate is approximately 9 percentage points higher for blacks than for whites. Commute time data indicates that minorities face longer commute times to work, potentially reecting more di cult access to jobs. In this paper we investigate the impact of spatial mismatch on the unemployment rate of ethnic groups using the matching model proposed by Rupert and Wasmer (2012). We nd that spatial factors explain from 1 to 1.5 percentage points of the unemployment rate gap in both France and the US, amounting to 17% to 25% of the relative gap in France and about 10% to 17.5% in the US. Among these factors, di erences in commuting distance play the most important role. In France, though, longer commuting distances may be mitigated by higher mobility in the housing market for African workers. Overall, we still conclude that labor market factors remain the main explanation for the higher unemployment rate of Africans.
    Keywords: Discrimination ; Ethnic groups ; Local markets ; Matching models
    Date: 2013–07–30
  5. By: Selcuk Eren
    Abstract: Comprehensive immigration reform has long eluded Congress. Although the Senate recently passed a bill—S. 744, or the Border Security, Economic Opportunity, and Immigration Modernization Act—that would take significant steps toward comprehensive reform, it is currently being held up in the Republican-controlled House. The sticking point? The "path to citizenship" provision for undocumented immigrants included in the Senate bill. Yet legalizing a significant proportion of the undocumented immigrant population would not impose serious costs on either the economy in general or the social insurance system in particular. On the contrary: maintaining the status quo would be economically wasteful.
    Date: 2013–07
  6. By: Arcand, Jean-Louis (Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies, Geneva); Mbaye, Linguère Mously (IZA)
    Abstract: This paper aims to provide the first evidence concerning the relationship between time and risk preferences and illegal migration in an African context. Based upon our theoretical model and using a unique data set on potential migrants collected in urban Senegal, we evaluate a measure of time and risk preferences through the individual's intertemporal discount rate and coefficient of absolute risk aversion. Remarkably, our results show that these individual preferences matter in the willingness to migrate illegally and to pay a smuggler.
    Keywords: illegal migration, discount rate, risk aversion, Africa, Senegal
    JEL: F22 O15 O16 R23
    Date: 2013–07
  7. By: Regina Flake
    Abstract: This study analyzes the educational attainment and early labor market outcomes of young migrants from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) who arrived in Germany between 1989 and 1994. The results reveal that migrants have lower educational attainments than natives, and that within the group of migrants, Jewish migrants perform better than ethnic German migrants. A decomposition analysis reveals that this competitive edge can, for the most part, be explained by a higher socioeconomic background. In the labor market, migrants cannot compensate for their educational disadvantage and have poorer labor market outcomes than natives. The results of this study stress the importance of an early educational integration of migrants for a successful labor market integration in the long run.
    Keywords: International migration; education; wages; unemployment; intergenerational mobility; integration
    JEL: F22 I20 J30 J60
    Date: 2013–07
  8. By: Cris Beauchemin (INED); Catherine Borrel (INSEE); Corinne Régnard (INED)
    Abstract: In 2008, women represented 51% of the immigrant population in mainland France. As shown by theTrajectories and Origins survey (TeO), the feminization of the immigrant population is not simply the consequenceof family reunification. In fact, the most predominantly female migrant flows are those in which single or "pioneer" women (migrating ahead of their partner) are most numerous. It is no longer only women who migrate to France to join their partner : since 1998, one-third of secondary migrants for family reunification have been men, and their numbers are also increasing among migrants coming to France to marry a French national. In short, despite remaining gender specificities, men and women now behave in very similar ways
    Date: 2013
  9. By: Vikram Rai
    Abstract: This report draws lessons from the Canadian immigration experience that can contribute to improving the labour market outcomes of immigrants and alleviate barriers related to labour market information issues. Foreign-born workers often lack the necessary information to learn about opportunities in the Canadian labour market, which can prevent highly-skilled workers from finding employment in their field, to the detriment of the Canadian economy. We examine the services provided to immigrants in Canada by federal and provincial governments, and the large role played by the non-profit sector in facilitating the delivery of information and services to immigrants in order to lessen the informational barriers to immigrant employment. We further identify best practices from Canada, which include establishing national standards for the recognition of foreign qualification; simplifying the delivery of services by using one-stop shops or single-points-of-contact; involving local stakeholders in the development of policy and delivery of service; and maintaining a flexible immigration policy. Identifying and addressing the specific needs of newcomers to Canada has had a strong positive impact on their labour market outcomes.
    Date: 2013–05
  10. By: Barrett, Alan; Mosca, Irene
    Keywords: Ireland/migration/older/qec
    Date: 2013–06
  11. By: Michael Ben-Gad (City University London)
    Abstract: How much can governments shift the cost of government expenditure from today's voters to tomorrow's generations of immigrants, without resorting to taxation that is explicitly discriminatory? I demonstrate that if their societies are absorbing continuous flows of new immigrants, we should expect governments that represent the interests of today's population, even if that population is altruistically linked to future generations, to choose policies that shift some portion of the tax burden to the future. This bias in favor of deficit finance is not infinite. Today's population or their descendents, together with future immigrants, ultimately pay the higher taxes necessary to finance the accumulated debt, and live with the additional excess burdens these higher taxes generate. For a given rate of immigration and policy horizon, governments balance the deadweight losses associated with fluctuating tax rates against the benefits that accrue to the initial resident population from shifting part of the burden of financing government expenditure to future immigrant families. To measure the deficit bias, I analyse the dynamic behavior of an optimal growth model with overlapping dynasties and factor taxation, calibrated for the US economy. Models with overlapping infinite-lived dynasties allow for a very clear distinction between natural population growth (an increase in the size of existing dynasties) and immigration (the addition of new dynasties). They also provide an alternative to the strict dichotomy between models with overlapping generations, where agents disregard the impact of their choices on future generations, and the quasi-Ricardian world of infinite-lived dynasties with representative agents that fully participate in both the economy and the political system in every period. The trajectory of the debt burden predicted by the model is a good match for the rise in US Federal government debt since the early 1980's, as well as the increases in debt projected by the Congressional Budget Office over the next few decades.
    Date: 2013
  12. By: Ieva Brauksa; Ludmila Fadejeva
    Abstract: This research gives an overview of labour market internal and occupational mobility in Latvia comparing periods before, during and after the crisis. It uses both the labour flow analysis and the survival analysis to evaluate labour mobility and to determine factors influencing it. The analysis is based on labour force survey (LFS) longitudinal data for 2005–2011. The paper investigates possible asymmetric responses of the labour market during the extreme period of economic boom and bust, provides detailed information on the aspects of labour market mobility (e.g. changes in the types of labour contract, sector and region of work) and factors determining changes in the status of economic activity (employed or unemployed). We also propose a new way for calculating labour market flows to provide information on quarterly changes.
    Keywords: labour flows, labour force survey, labour mobility, occupational mobility, unemployment
    JEL: J23 J61 J62 J64
    Date: 2013–08–03
  13. By: Assaf Razin (Department of Economics)
    Abstract: The paper revisit the issue of whether tax competition is a race to the bottom. I analyze tax competion among a continuum of competing host countries facing an upward†sloping supply of would be igrants. Capital move freely across the host country economies. I show how the fiscal burden of migration brings out a tax competition equilibrium whereby taxes on labor and capital income are higher than under a coordination equilibrium.I then introduce foreign direct investment and show how it counteract the forces for high taxation.
    Date: 2013
  14. By: Voineagu, Vergil; Caragea, Nicoleta; Pisica, Silvia
    Abstract: Population migration flow is a component of population facing difficulties in measuring in the inter-census period of time. The rationale of this study is that Romanian statistics on international migration flows are of very poor quality, the availability of data on past trends being strongly limited, provided only from administrative sources. For this reason, in the inter-census period, the variable of interest is provided by the labour force survey available at national and regional level every quarter of the year since 2004. The smaller disaggregation like localities level using direct estimators conducts to results of unreliable estimates and will surely lead to higher standard error and consequently, high coefficients of variation. The main reason for this is the insufficient number of respondents or no respondent at all in a small domain. Small area estimation techniques are able to carry out the estimation at the localities level (NUTS 5). The main purpose is to provide methods able to estimate the population in Romania, based on the Labour Force Survey and also the results of 2002, respectively 2011 population census.
    Keywords: international migration, population, demography, statistics, small area estimation
    JEL: C13 C15 C53
    Date: 2013
  15. By: Dobre, Ana Maria
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to expose the results of my research concerning the migrant’s profile built up by means of logit regression model based on social and demographic characteristics. Within these characteristics could be mentioned: the age group, the gender, the education level, the marital status, the activity, the residence area. The statistical software used is R which represents the most popular and powerful open source programming technology among statisticians during the last years. An application on logistic model and its performance is presented based on 2011 Labour Force Survey (LFS) referring to the international migration in Romania
    Keywords: R statistical software; logistic regression; statistical analysis; odds ratio; migration
    JEL: C8 C82 C87 F22
    Date: 2013

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