nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2013‒07‒20
ten papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. How is international student mobility shaping up? By OECD
  2. Temporary Mobility - A Policy for Academic Career Development By Lawson, Cornelia; Shibayama, Sotaro
  3. Superstition in the Housing Market By Fortin, Nicole M.; Hill, Andrew J.; Huang, Jeff
  4. Do Immigrant Students' Reading Skills Depend on How Long they Have Been in their New Country? By OECD
  5. "Welfare magnetism" in the EU-15? Why the EU enlargement did not start a race to the bottom of welfare states By Skupnik, Christoph
  6. Are Remittances Conflict-Abating in Recipient Countries? By Gazi Mainul Hassan; Joao Ricardo Faria
  7. Out of the Frying Pan into the Fire? Migration from Fragile States to Fragile States By Anke Hoeffler
  8. Migrant Networks and Job Search Outcomes: Evidence from Displaced Workers By Tommaso Colussi
  9. The Effect of Migration Experience on Occupational Mobility in Estonia By Masso, Jaan; Eamets, Raul; Mõtsmees, Pille
  10. Migrant health in Italy: the right and access to healthcare as an opportunity for integration and inclusion By Sabina Nuti; Sara Barsanti

  1. By: OECD
    Abstract: Between 2000 and 2011, the number of international students has more than doubled. Today, almost 4.5 million tertiary students are enrolled outside their country of citizenship. The largest numbers of international students are from China, India and Korea. Asian students account for 53% of all students studying abroad worldwide. New players have emerged on the international education market in the past decades, such as Australia, New Zealand, Spain, the Russian Federation and, more recently, Korea. By contrast, the share of international students in some of the most attractive countries – Germany and the United States, for instance – has declined. As countries increasingly benefit from student mobility, the competition to attract and retain students has diversified the map of destinations over the past decade.
    Date: 2013–07
  2. By: Lawson, Cornelia; Shibayama, Sotaro (University of Turin)
    Abstract: Researcher mobility has received increasing support from policy makers around the world as an instrument to improve the performance of research systems by promoting the diffusion of knowledge, and facilitating knowledge and technology transfer, network creation, and productivity (OECD, 2008). International mobility grants have been a preferred means for governments across the world to facilitate the mobility of their research base (MEXT, 2009). This paper investigates the effect of temporary mobility spells abroad on a researcher’s probability for promotion. Temporary research visits may help to expand existing networks and promote knowledge transfer while at the same time ensuring career stability, identified as the main barrier to mobility in Europe and Japan (Stephan, 2012). Using a dataset of 370 bioscience professors in Japan we identified their average career path and evaluated the role of mobility in Japanese universities. We find that international research visits have a positive effect on promotion and reduce the waiting time for promotion by one year. This provides evidence that these visits also benefit a researcher’s career in the long-term. This positive research visit effect is weaker for researchers who also change jobs. Research visits may therefore present a way for immobile researchers to speed up promotion without the need for job mobility. We also find that research visits are particularly important for inbred researchers, again indicating that visits discourage late-career mobility and increase promotion speed. We further find that, while research visits of tenured staff enhance the career by providing an early chair, postdocs have no lasting effect on career progression. Instead, they may be an indicator for a researcher’s struggle to find a permanent position after the PhD
    Date: 2013–05
  3. By: Fortin, Nicole M. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver); Hill, Andrew J. (University of British Columbia, Vancouver); Huang, Jeff (University of British Columbia, Vancouver)
    Abstract: We provide the first solid evidence that Chinese superstitious beliefs can have significant effects on house prices in a North American market with a large immigrant population. Using real estate data on close to 117,000 house sales, we find that houses with address number ending in four are sold at a 2.2% discount and those ending in eight are sold at a 2.5% premium in comparison to houses with other addresses. These price effects are found either in neighborhoods with a higher than average percentage of Chinese residents, consistent with cultural preferences, or in repeated transactions, consistent with speculative behavior.
    Keywords: superstition, lucky Chinese numbers, housing markets efficiency, immigration
    JEL: D03 J15 R2 Z1
    Date: 2013–07
  4. By: OECD
    Abstract: <UL> <LI>In most OECD countries, newly arrived 15-year-old immigrant students show poorer reading performance than immigrant students who arrived in their new country when they were younger than five. </LI> <LI>Students who emigrated from less-developed countries where the home language differs from their new language of instruction are particularly vulnerable to the “late-arrival” penalty in reading performance. </LI> <LI>Immigrant students from countries with similar levels of development and the same language as the host country do not suffer any late-arrival penalty at all. </LI></UL>
    Date: 2013–05
  5. By: Skupnik, Christoph
    Abstract: According to the welfare magnet hypothesis, migrants with a high likelihood of claiming benefits cluster in the most generous welfare systems. After the introduction of the freedom of movement for Eastern European workers, EU-15 countries can thus be expected to reduce public benefits in order to avoid becoming welfare magnets. However, OECD data on benefits do not support the prediction of a race to the bottom in protection levels. Using data from the EU-LFS 2004 to 2011, I analyze the determinants of migration flows and find that, in contrast to theory, welfare state variables do not significantly affect migration flows when controlling for temporary political restrictions of the freedom of movement (2+3+2 rule). This explains why the pressure to modify national welfare spending is small. Furthermore, evidence is found that the restrictions completely offset the incentive effects of work-related pull factors and thereby hamper an efficient allocation of labor across national borders. --
    Keywords: Determinants of migration flows,EU enlargement,welfare magnet
    JEL: F2 H2 J2 J5 J6
    Date: 2013
  6. By: Gazi Mainul Hassan (University of Waikato); Joao Ricardo Faria (University of Texas at El Paso)
    Abstract: This paper represents the first attempt to formalise the relationship between remittances inflow and social violence by developing a model which predicts that migrants’ remittances would lead to the reduction of social conflict in the recipient economy under the condition that remittances increase the average product of labour. Using homicides data as an indicator of social violence, we test our model’s prediction. Duly controlling for the endogeneity problem using appropriate instruments, we find that remittances tend to reduce social violence. We perform sensitivity analysis on remittances in the empirical model and find it robust with an unchanged negative sign.
    Keywords: remittances; international migration; social conflict; homicide; social violence; economic development
    JEL: O17 F22 F24 D74
    Date: 2013–07–16
  7. By: Anke Hoeffler
    Abstract: Fragile states contributed 18 million migrants and 8 million refugees in 2000. More than 20% of these migrants and more than half of the refugees settle in other fragile states. Thus, migration is likely to be both a consequence and a possible cause of conflict and fragility. This paper asks why people from fragile states would want to move to another fragile state. Is it simply a question of jumping out of the frying pan into the fire – that migrants from fragile states have no other options than to settle in another fragile state? To investigate this question I analyse a new set of global data on the sources and destinations of migrants. This analysis generates genuinely new research for INCAF, and reveals that economic factors, such as the pull of higher incomes in destination countries, are important. The paper concludes by discussing how migration from fragile states in search of higher incomes and greater wellbeing is an important development strategy that should be supported. The research suggests that a new concept of development may be needed which looks beyond national borders to the countries where the migrants end up. This will require policies to ensure public acceptability in the host countries, however, such as bilateral agreements, temporary status for immigrants and restricting immigration to specific jobs or perhaps regions.
    Date: 2013–01
  8. By: Tommaso Colussi (Queen Mary, University of London and fRDB)
    Abstract: This paper investigates how the job search outcomes of displaced migrants are affected by the labor market outcomes of past co-workers of the same nationality. For this exercise I use matched employer-employee micro data on the universe of private-sector employees in Italy between 1975 and 2001. The analysis shows that a 10 percentage point increase in the network employment rate raises the re-employment probability within 36 months after job loss by 5.7 percentage points. The paper also sheds light on the different mechanisms generating the social effect and it highlights the role of migrant networks in explaining immigrant segregation.
    Keywords: Migration, Job displacements, Networks
    JEL: J61 J63
    Date: 2013–07
  9. By: Masso, Jaan (University of Tartu); Eamets, Raul (University of Tartu); Mõtsmees, Pille (University of Tartu)
    Abstract: The existing literature on return migration has resulted in several studies analysing the impact of foreign work experience on the returnees' earnings or their decision to become self-employed; however, in this paper we analyse the less studied effect on occupational mobility – how the job in the home country after returning compares to the job held before migration. The effect of temporary migration on occupational mobility is analysed using unique data from an Estonian online job search portal covering approximately 10-15% of the total workforce, including thousands of employees with temporary migration experience. The focus on data from a Central and Eastern European country is motivated given that the opening of labour markets in old EU countries to the workforce of the new member states has led to massive East-West migration. We did not find any positive effect of temporary migration on upward occupational mobility and in some groups, such as females, the effect was negative. These results could be related to the typically short-term nature of migration and occupational downshifting abroad as well as the functioning of the home country labour market.
    Keywords: occupational mobility, temporary migration, Central- and Eastern Europe
    JEL: F22 J62
    Date: 2013–06
  10. By: Sabina Nuti (Istituto di Management - Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa); Sara Barsanti (Istituto di Management - Scuola Superiore Sant’Anna, Pisa)
    Abstract: This paper analyses migrant access to health care through the Italian legal framework and the use of health care services. In both analyses, an underlying gap and critical issues are demonstrated for migrants regarding their knowledge of the health care system as well as the accessibility and use of health services. In particular, immigrants have a lower hospitalisation rate than the native population. However, hospitalisation for some events (i.e., injuries, infectious disease) is higher for migrants than for natives. The results suggest that the health care system is unable to ensure an equitable use of the same services between populations with identical needs (horizontal equity) or accessibility for specific conditions prevalent in the migrant population (vertical equity).Moreover, the main entry point for migrants to the health care system(the maternal pathway and women’s health services)could be the first step for a more comprehensive process of integration and communication. In Italy, the immigrant population is growing and the differences in access to care are demonstrated. Consequently, it is necessary to rethink a possible model of integration and welfare for the migrant population, where access to the healthcare system is not only a desired result but also an opportunity for integration and inclusion.
    Keywords: healthcare performance; performance evaluation system; migrant; equity; integration
    JEL: I18
    Date: 2013–04–01

This nep-mig issue is ©2013 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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