nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2013‒07‒15
twenty-one papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. On the Determinants of Global Bilateral Migration Flows By Jesus Crespo Cuaresma; Mathias Moser; Anna Raggl
  2. Wage assimilation: migrants versus natives and foreign migrants versus internal migrants By Steinar Strøm; Alessandra Venturini; Claudia Villosio
  3. Does migration threaten the sustainability of European welfare states? By Peter Huber; Doris A. Oberdabernig
  4. From Highly Skilled to Low Skilled: Revisiting the Deskilling of Migrant Labor By Siar, Sheila V.
  5. Migration and Young Child Nutrition: Evidence from Rural China By Mu, Ren; de Brauw, Alan
  6. Migration, Location and Provision of Support to Old-Age Parents: The Case of Romania By Zachary Zimmer; Codrina Rada; Catalin Stoica
  7. The Effect of Migration Experience on Occupational Mobility in Estonia By Pille Motsmees; Jaan Masso; Raul Eamets
  8. Low Occupational Prestige and Internal Migration in Germany By Nina Neubecker
  9. Managing International Labor Migration in ASEAN: Themes from a Six-Country Study By Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.; Gonzales, Kathrina G.
  11. African brain drain and its impact on source countries: What do we know and what do we need to know? By Capuano, Stella; Marfouk, Abdeslam
  12. Determinants of Immigrant Homeownership: Examining their Changing Role during the Great Recession and Beyond By Mundra, Kusum; Uwaifo Oyelere, Ruth
  13. Ethnic composition of schools and school performances in secondary education of Turkish migrant students in 7 countries and 19 European educational systems By Gert-Jan Veerman; Jaap Dronkers
  14. A Socio-demographic Profile of Maori living in Australia. By Tahu Kukutai; Shefali Pawar
  15. Migration and Economic Development in China: Evidence from the latest population census (Japanese) By MENG Jianjun
  16. Public Attitudes toward Immigration By Jens Hainmueller; Daniel J. Hopkins
  17. Enhancing Labor Mobility in ASEAN: Focus on Lower-skilled Workers By Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.
  18. The Caloric Costs of Culture: Evidence from Indian Migrants By David Atkin
  19. The impact of networks, segregation and diversity on migrants' labour market integration By Thomas Horvath; Peter Huber
  20. Engaging the Highly Skilled Diaspora in Home Country Development through Knowledge Exchange: Concept and Prospects By Siar, Sheila V.
  21. Respiratory Health of Pacific Island Immigrants and Preferences for Indoor Air Quality Determinants in New Zealand By John Gibson; Riccardo Scarpa; Halahingano Rohorua

  1. By: Jesus Crespo Cuaresma; Mathias Moser; Anna Raggl
    Abstract: We present a method aimed at estimating global bilateral migration flows and assessing their determinants. We employ that fact that available net migration figures for a country are (nonlinear) aggregates of migration flows from and to all other countries of the world in order to construct a statistical model that links the determinants of (unobserved) migration flows to total net migration. Using simple specifications based on the gravity model for international migration, we find that migration flows can be explained by standard gravity model variables such as GDP differences, distance or bilateral population. The usefulness of such models is exemplified by combining estimated specications with population and GDP projections in order to assess quantitatively the expected changes in migration flows to Europe in the coming decades.
    Keywords: bilateral migration flows, gravity model, nonlinearly aggregated models
    JEL: F22 O15 J11
    Date: 2013–06
  2. By: Steinar Strøm; Alessandra Venturini; Claudia Villosio
    Abstract: The paper wants to understand the assimilation pattern of foreign migrants in Italy. Three novelties characterize this study. First, the research compares the wage assimilation of international migrants with both internal migrants and local natives in Italy, a country with substantial internal and international migration. This comparison, never exploited before, provides indirect evidence for the role played by language and knowledge of social capital in the assimilation of foreign migrants relative to both natives and internal migrants. Second, we inquired into the possible causes of under-assimilation by controlling for the date of entry and migrant sector concentration. Third, we model new corrections of the selection bias due to return migration. The correction for the selection bias is introduced in the wage equation through a duration extension of the traditional Heckman correction term and alternatively through a hazard rate correction. The empirical test uses the Italian administrative dataset on dependent employment (WHIP), to estimate a fixed effect model for the weekly wages of males aged 18-45 with controls for selection in return migration and unobserved heterogeneity. The three groups of workers start their careers at the same wage level. But, as experience increases, the wage profiles of foreign nationals and natives, both internal migrants and locals, diverges which seems to hint at the importance of language and social capital. However, sector-by-sector analysis shows that in “migrant intense sectors†internal migrants and locals have the same wage profile as foreign workers. Positive selection in returns reinforces the view that the best leave because they have few career options. Thus under assimilation is caused more by community and job segregation than by a lack of language and social capital: alternatively it is the result of their interrelations.
    Keywords: Migration, Assimilation, Wage differential, Return Migration
    Date: 2013–05
  3. By: Peter Huber; Doris A. Oberdabernig
    Abstract: We investigate the relative contributions of migrant and native households to welfare states. Using two step Oaxaca-Blinder decompositions that control for selection into benet take-up, we are able to identify the individual variables contributing to dierences in welfare receipt by native and migrant households. We nd that most of the dierences are explained by observable characteristics such as size of the household as well as age and education of its head and income in some countries. In contrast, signicantly lower net contributions of migrant households to the state budget persist in many countries even after controlling for observable factors. The reasons for this are primarily lower tax payments of migrant households. Selective migration and sound integration policies and as well as policies avoiding marginalization of migrants in informal labor markets are therefore the most eective means to avoid scal burdens of migration.
    Keywords: Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition, EU-countries, migration, net contributions, welfare state
    JEL: J61 J15 H53 I38
    Date: 2013–07
  4. By: Siar, Sheila V.
    Abstract: Traditional immigration countries such as United States, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand give preference to migrants with higher education, skills, and professional training that they can transfer to their countries. However, it is not unusual for migrant professionals, especially those from less developed countries, to experience 'deskilling' or occupational downward mobility. Though admitted as professionals based on the immigration policies of the destination countries, many of them are relegated to lower status and lower paying jobs, owing to the nonrecognition of their foreign credentials and the bias for education acquired in the host country or in academic institutions in developed countries, local experience, cultural know-how, and English proficiency. Their foreign credentials and skills often fail to provide the expected occupational rewards and professional development gains which have been a significant part of their motivation to migrate overseas, especially to more developed countries. Deskilling may be viewed in several ways: as a host country`s way of filling up labor scarcities in the secondary market by exploiting cheap enclave labor, as a transitional phase for migrants to adjust to the 'standards' of the host country, or as a form of institutionalized discrimination. This paper reviews the deskilling phenomenon to highlight its deleterious effects on migrants` welfare. Some theoretical explanations of deskilling are also examined. Examples of deskilling experiences of different migrant groups show that it is a complex phenomenon that demonstrates the interplay of race, ethnicity, and gender.
    Keywords: skilled migration, migrant labor, deskilling, job devaluation, brain waste
    Date: 2013
  5. By: Mu, Ren (Texas A&M University); de Brauw, Alan (International Food Policy Research Institute)
    Abstract: The unprecedented large scale rural-to-urban migration in China has left many rural children living apart from their parents. In this study, we examine the impact of parental migration on the nutritional status of young children in rural areas. We use the interaction terms between wage growth in provincial capital cities and initial village migrant networks as instrumental variables to account for migration selection. Our results show that parental migration has no significant impact on the height of children, but it improves their weight. We provide suggestive evidence that the improvement in weight may be achieved through increased access to tap water in migrant households. Concerns about the sustainability of the impact on weight are raised in the conclusions.
    Keywords: migration, children, nutrition, rural China, child nutrition
    JEL: I1 J6 O1
    Date: 2013–06
  6. By: Zachary Zimmer; Codrina Rada; Catalin Stoica
    Abstract: The combined demographic developments of population aging and high rates of migration of young adults are consequential for older parents who face a potential decline in support from adult children. These developments also impact the lives of migrant adults who face the challenge of providing support to aging parents from a distance. Systematic data that allow examination of associations between the location of migrants and the provision of support to aging parents are difficult to find for Eastern Europe, a region undergoing enormous demographic and socio-economic transition. Using recently collected data from Romania, a country facing both rapid aging and out-migration, and building upon a family altruism framework, this study models provision of monetary and instrumental support as a function of migrant’s location of residence, location of their siblings in relation to parents, and other characteristics that fall under domains of parental need, ability of migrant to provide, and predisposing characteristics of migrant and parent. Models are run using a mixed methods approach accounting for the random effects at the family level. Results indicate international migrants are more likely to give money while those migrating within Romania are more likely to provide instrumental support. Regardless of type of support or location of migrant, the probability of support increases when other sources are less available and when a parent has greater need. Results provide support for the altruistic framework and help to build upon the understanding of intergenerational exchanges within rapidly changing demographic environments.
    Keywords: population aging; migration; intergenerational support; Romania JEL Classification: F22; F24; N30; R23
    Date: 2013
  7. By: Pille Motsmees; Jaan Masso; Raul Eamets
    Abstract: The existing literature on return migration has resulted in several studies analysing the impact of foreign work experience on the returnees' earnings or their decision to become self-employed; however, in this paper we analyse the less studied effect on occupational mobility - how the job in the home country after returning compares to the job held before migration. The effect of temporary migration on occupational mobility is analysed using unique data from an Estonian online job search portal covering approximately 10-15% of the total workforce, including thousands of employees with temporary migration experience. The focus on data from a Central and Eastern European country is motivated given that the opening of labour markets in old EU countries to the workforce of the new member states has led to massive East-West migration. We did not find any positive effect of temporary migration on upward occupational mobility and in some groups, such as females, the effect was negative. These results could be related to the typically short-term nature of migration and occupational downshifting abroad as well as the functioning of the home country labour market.
    Keywords: occupational mobility, temporary migration, Central- and Eastern Europe
    JEL: F22 J62
    Date: 2013–07–05
  8. By: Nina Neubecker
    Abstract: This paper assesses a recent prediction of the theoretical migration literature, according to which migration may be driven by a desire to avoid social humiliation rising from occupational stigma. To this end, we study the residential mobility of workers in occupations with relatively low prestige using data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). In order to capture low occupational prestige, we relate the prestige of a worker's current occupation to the average prestige of the occupations associated with the worker's vocational training. Our estimation results suggest a negative relationship between the incidence of low occupational prestige and the probability of internal migration in Germany and thus reject our working hypothesis. We discuss the role of specific migration costs and occupational cultures as possible explanations of this result. The absolute prestige level of a worker's occupation does not turn out to be a significant predictor of his propensity to migrate, whereas his absolute income level - but not his relative income level - is significantly positively related to this propensity.
    Keywords: Internal migration, Germany, occupational status, occupational prestige, income, vocational training
    JEL: J61 R23 Z13
    Date: 2013
  9. By: Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.; Gonzales, Kathrina G.
    Abstract: The study presents a summary of the six-country study on managing international labor migration in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). The countries are grouped into sending (Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines) and receiving (Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand). The objective was to share international migration management issues from the perspective of a sending or a receiving country. The country research teams were asked to identify and study a specific migration management issue that is deemed current and reflective of the primary migration management experience of the country. For sending countries, the Cambodia research team studied the high frequency cross-border crossings into Thailand that is dominated by irregular migrants. The Indonesian research team looked at the role of local governments in migration management as the country embarked into substantial decentralization process. The Philippine research team looked at the management of massive deployment flows spanning thirty years with special attention to the most vulnerable group – the household service workers. For receiving countries, the Malaysian research team looked at their experience in the continuing running battle with irregular migrants. The Singaporean research team looked at the close interaction between the needs of the economy for migrant workers and their desire not to be too dependent on them. The Thai research team described the experience at the crossroad of being both a receiving and still a sending country. The studies have highlighted seven important themes on international labor migration management in ASEAN, namely: (a) the importance of integrating international migration into national and regional development efforts; (b) the importance of both bilateral and multilateral agreements; (c) the importance of recognizing differences in labor market policies in sending and receiving countries in designing protection for migrant workers; (d) the need to consider general administrative capacities in designing migration regulatory efforts; (e) the importance of involving subnational bodies in migration management; (f) the need to broaden cooperation in handling irregular migration; and (g) the recognition that the protection envisioned by the state need not be the one "desired" by the migrant, hence, the need to check often to find out the effectiveness of protection measures.
    Keywords: ASEAN, Philippines, international labor migration
    Date: 2013
  10. By: Mary M. Kritz; Douglas T. Gurak; Min-Ah Lee
    Abstract: Immigrants have a markedly higher likelihood of migrating internally if they live in new estinations. This paper looks at why that pattern occurs and at how immigrants’ out-migration to new versus traditional destinations responds to their labor market economic and industrial structure, nativity origins and concentration, geographic region, and 1995 labor market type. Confidential data from the 2000 and 1990 decennial censuses are used for the analysis. Metropolitan and non-metropolitan areas are categorized into 741 local labor markets and classified as new or traditional based on their nativity concentrations of immigrants from the largest Asian, Caribbean and Latin American origins. The analysis showed that immigrants were less likely to migrate to new destinations if they lived in areas of higher nativity concentration, foreign-born population growth, and wages but more likely to make that move if they were professionals, agricultural or blue collar workers, highly educated, fluent in English, and lived in other new destinations. While most immigrants are more likely to migrate to new rather than traditional destinations that outcome differs sharply for immigrants from different origins and for some immigrants, particularly those from the Caribbean, the dispersal process to new destinations has barely started.
    Date: 2013–06
  11. By: Capuano, Stella; Marfouk, Abdeslam
    Abstract: While there appears to be deep and growing concern for the brain drain from Africa, lack of adequate data has so far prevented a comprehensive analysis of its magnitude and its impact on source countries. Using original datasets on international migration, this paper addresses both issues. We show that many African economies lost a consistent part of their highly skilled labor force due to migration to developed countries. We also highlight that significant effort is still needed, in terms of data collection and empirical analysis, before drawing clear conclusions on the effects of the brain drain on Africa.
    Keywords: Education, International Migration, Human Capital, Labor Mobility, African brain drain
    JEL: F22 J11 O15
    Date: 2013–05
  12. By: Mundra, Kusum (Rutgers University); Uwaifo Oyelere, Ruth (Georgia Tech)
    Abstract: The Great Recession had significant economic effects both in the U.S. and around the world. There is evidence that homeownership rates declined during this period, though some immigrants were less severely affected compared to natives. In this paper we investigate the role of several factors in reducing the vulnerability of immigrants in the face of the economic crisis and increasing the probability of their homeownership. Specifically we examine to what extent birthplace networks, savings, length of stay in the U.S., and citizenship status affect the probability of homeownership before the recession and to what extent these impacts have changed since the recession. Using data from Current Population Survey for the years 2000 – 2012 our results suggest that birthplace networks have a significant effect on homeownership and this effect further increases after the onset of recession. Moreover the impact of birthplace network on homeownership is stronger for citizens and those who are not recent immigrants. We also find a decline in the impact of saving and length of stay on the probability of homeownership during 2007-2012 compared to earlier years. In contrast we find an increase in the impact of being a citizen on immigrant homeownership during this period.
    Keywords: Great Recession, home ownership, birthplace networks, savings, years in the U.S., citizenship status
    JEL: R20 R23 J11 J15
    Date: 2013–06
  13. By: Gert-Jan Veerman (University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands); Jaap Dronkers (Maastricht University, The Netherlands)
    Abstract: This article examines the effect of the ethnic school composition on school performances in secondary education for Turkish students, using both cross-national PISA 2009 and Swiss national PISA 2009 data. We argue how social capital theory beside other theories can explain a part of the ethnic composition effect. We employ three indicators of the ethnic composition of a school: the native share, the share of co-ethnics and the ethnic diversity (we employ a residualized score of diversity on the proportion of migrants). Our results show no effect of the proportion of natives on math performances. Furthermore, we show a negative association between ethnic diversity and math performances. Nevertheless, we find a positive association between ethnic diversity and reading performances in The Netherlands. Children of Turkish decent have higher math performances if they are in an educational system with a larger community of co-ethnics and if they are in an educational system with native students with average higher school performances. Finally we find no association between an early comprehensive labor agreement and math performances.
    Keywords: ethnic composition, Turkish migrant students, ethnic diversity, social capital
    Date: 2013–07
  14. By: Tahu Kukutai (University of Waikato); Shefali Pawar (University of Waikato)
    Abstract: This report provides a comprehensive demographic and socio-economic profile of the Maori population in Australia using data from the 2011 Australia Census of Population and Housing. The purpose is to provide an evidence base with which to inform future policy approaches with respect to Maori in Australia. It focuses on five key areas: Population size and composition; Identity and culture; Year of arrival and citizenship; Education and work; Lone parenting and unpaid childcare. Comparisons are undertaken with Maori in the 2006 Australia Census, as well as with two reference groups: the total Australia population and migrant non-Maori New Zealanders. Where appropriate, we also distinguish Maori migrants born in New Zealand and Maori born in Australia. This captures important differences within the Maori population in Australia that have been under-examined in previous studies. There are significant differences between New Zealand and Australian-born Maori across a range of indicators. Policy approaches and research need to be attuned to this internal variation and the differing circumstances and needs. The initial analysis in this report suggest that Australian-born Maori have higher education levels than their New Zealand-born counterparts living in Australia and are more engaged in higher education in Australia. However, the youthful age structure of the second generation precludes a comprehensive comparison with respect to labour market characteristics and outcomes. While many Maori migrants appear to be living a relatively ‘good life’, earning comparatively high incomes in lower-skilled jobs, theirs is an inherently vulnerable situation given their low levels of education and limited access to social security.
    Keywords: Australia, New Zealand, migrants, Maori, diaspora
    JEL: J15 J61 F22
    Date: 2013–06–25
  15. By: MENG Jianjun
    Abstract: The greatest feature of the Chinese economy since the launch of its reform and open-door policies is that its economic resources, including human resources, goods, and capital, have become truly liquid nationwide under a market economy for the first time in the history of Chinese economic development. This process of becoming liquid has transformed China from a traditional or planned economy into a market economy, and has provided the driving force for the reallocation of new economic resources.<br />This paper examines the economic development and interregional migration in China using the migration statistics in the latest (sixth) national population census, conducted in 2010. More specifically, it analyzes regional distribution and migration trends in recent years, and highlights their characteristics by examining the population migration in three levels: cities, towns, and villages. The paper then attempts to examine the relationships between the various factors of the interregional migration and economic development in each region, and the process and mechanism for reallocating economic resources in China under a market economy.
    Date: 2013–06
  16. By: Jens Hainmueller (Massachusetts Institute of Technology); Daniel J. Hopkins (Department of Government, ICC 681)
    Abstract: Immigrant populations in many developed democracies have grown rapidly, and so too has an extensive literature on natives’ attitudes toward immigration. This research has developed from two theoretical foundations, one grounded in political economy, the other in political psychology. These two literatures have developed largely in isolation from one another, yet the conclusions that emerge from each are strikingly similar. Consistently, immigration attitudes show little evidence of being strongly correlated with personal economic circumstances. Instead, immigration attitudes are shaped by sociotropic concerns about national-level impacts, whether those impacts are cultural or economic. This pattern of results has held up as scholars have increasingly turned to experimental tests, and it fits the evidence from the United States, Canada, and Western Europe. Still, more work is needed to strengthen the causal identification of sociotropic concerns and to isolate precisely how, when, and why they matter for attitude formation.
    Keywords: immigration attitudes, political economy, political psychology, prejudice, cultural threat, public opinion
    Date: 2013–07
  17. By: Orbeta, Aniceto Jr. C.
    Abstract: It is clear from data that worker movements in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), like elsewhere, are dominated by unskilled and semiskilled workers. It is also well-known that movements of these types of workers are dominated by irregular migration mainly because of lack of avenues for legal migration for them (Abella 2006). Yet discussions either globally (within and outside GATS) and regionally such as under AFAS/AEC are all focused on professionals and highly skilled workers. This attitude continues even if both back-of-the-envelope and systematic calculations using general equilibrium models show that movements of workers, in general, and lower-skilled workers, in particular, are beneficial not only for sending but for host country citizens as well (Walmsley et al. 2007). The paper provides recommendations based on known initiatives/measures to facilitate freer labor movements in ASEAN. The focus is lower-skilled workers because existing discussion such as the ASEAN Economic Community (AEC) Blueprint does not yet cover them. To achieve this, the paper provides a description of (a) the policy and institutional arrangements, both at the national and regional level, that currently govern the cross-country labor movement within ASEAN for both skilled and unskilled workers; and (b) the analytical framework that supports the discussions in deriving the recommendations. The paper also pointed out that not only can existing arrangements be extended to cover lower-skilled workers but also that there are already experiences on these types of worker movements.
    Keywords: labor migration, ASEAN, Philippines, unskilled workers
    Date: 2013
  18. By: David Atkin
    Abstract: Anthropologists have long documented substantial and persistent differences across social groups in the preferences and taboos for particular foods. One natural question to ask is whether such food cultures matter in an economic sense. In particular, can culture constrain caloric intake and contribute to malnutrition? To answer this question, I first document that inter-state migrants within India consume fewer calories per Rupee of food expenditure compared to their non-migrant neighbors, even for households with very low caloric intake. I then form a chain of evidence in support of an explanation based on culture: that migrants make nutritionally-suboptimal food choices due to cultural preferences for the traditional foods of their origin states. First, I focus on the preferences themselves and document that migrants bring their origin-state food preferences with them when they migrate. Second, I link together the findings on caloric intake and preferences by showing that the gap in caloric intake between locals and migrants is related to the suitability and intensity of the migrants' origin-state food preferences: the most adversely affected migrants (households in which both husband and wife migrated to a village where their origin-state preferences are unsuited to the local price vector) would consume 7 percent more calories if they possessed the same preferences as their neighbors.
    JEL: D12 I10 O10 Z10
    Date: 2013–07
  19. By: Thomas Horvath; Peter Huber
    Abstract: We analyse the role of ethnic networks, segregation and diversity of a region on migrants’ success in integration into the host countries’ labour markets. We find a robust negative impact of ethnic networks on unemployment probabilities of the foreign born and a positive one on employment probabilities. In addition a similarly robust positive impact of ethnic diversity on the unemployment probabilities and a negative one on employment probabilities is found. With respect to over-education our results are less robust, but in their majority point to a negative impact of ethnic networks on the probability of over-educated employment and an insignificant or positive impact of diversity. Segregation at the country level, by contrast, remains an insignificant determinant of both the probability of unemployment and of overeducated employment in most specifications and all three variables seem to be only very weakly correlated to the probability of being detached from the labour market and to the probability of being in education.
    Keywords: Integration, networks, diversity
    JEL: D83 J71 R23
    Date: 2013–07
  20. By: Siar, Sheila V.
    Abstract: Strong negative reactions have been raised against the continuing and steadily increasing migration of highly skilled people from developing countries. There is, however, growing evidence that this outflow of skills and knowledge may not necessarily mean a loss for sending countries based on the concept of knowledge exchange and circulation. This concept argues that any apparent loss of skills and knowledge can be restored through the exchange or circulation of knowledge and skills between the highly skilled diaspora and their home country. Studies of transnationalism and diaspora have further emphasized the ways in which migrants can remain not only connected but also deeply committed to development processes in their home countries. Knowledge exchange poses a lot of potential for a number of reasons: the advances in communication and transportation technologies which reduce cross-border distance; the growing appreciation by governments of the network approach as a conceptual guide and strategy to thrive in a globalized world; and the increasing desire of migrants to connect with their home countries. The three cases (China, India, Philippines) presented in this paper show the wealth of knowledge assets that the highly skilled diaspora can contribute: as source of expertise in terms of skills, technologies, and markets; as source of venture capital; and as intermediary or middle person in providing language skills, cultural know-how, and contacts for building business relationships or collaborative projects. However, as these cases also show, the success of tapping the intellectual, economic, and social capital of the diaspora depends on consistent, well-defined, and well-supported policies and programs.
    Keywords: Philippines, knowledge exchange, knowledge circulation, diaspora model, transnationalism
    Date: 2013
  21. By: John Gibson (University of Waikato); Riccardo Scarpa (University of Waikato); Halahingano Rohorua (University of Waikato)
    Abstract: Indoor air quality affects respiratory diseases, such as asthma, and can be altered by devices that lower dwelling humidity and raise temperature. Several countries have initiated schemes that subsidize devices such as heat pumps based on putative health benefits but the valuations of these devices by the affected populations remains unknown. We investigate preferences for devices that affect indoor air quality, dampness, and warmth, using a choice experiment with a sample of Pacific Islander immigrants in New Zealand. This is a high risk group for respiratory disease, who typically rent crowded and inadequately heated dwellings. Using both conditional logit and panel mixed logit models we find reasonably precise estimates of the willingness to pay for four improved heating and humidity control devices, which would cover the capital costs of two of the devices, and add up to about three-quarters of the cost of the other two devices.
    Keywords: respiratory health; indoor air-quality devices; choice experiments
    Date: 2013–06–30

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