nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2013‒07‒05
four papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. An Agent-Based Model of Climate-Induced Agricultural Labor Migration By Cai, Ruohong; Oppenheimer, Michael
  2. Language integration of labour migrants in Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden from a historical perspective By Höhne, Jutta
  4. Préjugés et fausses idées sur l’immigration et les immigrés, vecteurs de discrimination en matière d’accès à l’emploi By Marfouk, Abdeslam

  1. By: Cai, Ruohong; Oppenheimer, Michael
    Abstract: Using an agent-based model, we simulate the climate-induced agricultural labor migration for alternative future climate scenarios. For each agent, the probability of migration is calculated as a function of a set of relevant factors using a logistic regression model. Historical U.S. agricultural employment data was used to calibrate the model. The simulation result showed that larger crop yield reduction induced by climate change tends to generate larger migration flows. Furthermore, we observed that the network effects tend to forecast a larger migration difference between alternative climate scenarios.
    Keywords: Agent-based model, Climate change, Agricultural labor migration, Agricultural and Food Policy, Environmental Economics and Policy, Labor and Human Capital,
    Date: 2013
  2. By: Höhne, Jutta
    Abstract: The paper investigates the language integration of adult labour migrants in six major West-European immigration countries (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, the Netherlands and Sweden) for the period between 1965 and the mid-1990s. Results reveal quite different national approaches to the problem. Whereas in Sweden, France and Germany, migrants' linguistic integration was addressed by state authorities well ahead of establishing integration policy as a governmental task, the other countries under study ignored immigrants' possible language problems until the early or even late 1980s. Compared to the intense and sophisticated contemporary integration courses, the didactic quality of language courses taught between the 1960s-1990s was overall rather poor, and course durations were quite short. Best-practice standards had been set since the early years of labor migration by Sweden where the government financed language courses already from 1965 on. The countries (the Netherlands, Belgium and Austria) that were already reluctant in the early years to set up language courses for immigrants still provide comparably less state-funded language tuition to immigrants today. -- Das vorliegende Paper untersucht die sprachliche Integration von Arbeitsmigranten in sechs westeuropäischen Einwanderungsländern (Österreich, Belgien, Frankreich, Deutschland, Niederlande und Schweden) zwischen 1965 und Mitte der 1990er Jahre. Die Ergebnisse belegen, dass die Länder sehr unterschiedlich an dieses Problem herangingen: Die Behörden in Schweden, Frankreich und Deutschland befassten sich mit der sprachlichen Integration von Migration bereits lange bevor von einer staatlichen Integrationspolitik die Rede sein konnte. Die Niederlande, Belgien und Österreich hingegen ignorierten mögliche Verständigungsprobleme von Migranten bis in die frühen oder sogar späten 1980er Jahre hinein. Gemessen an den heutigen intensiven und didaktisch ausgefeilten Integrationskursen ließ die Unterrichtsqualität in den sechziger bis neunziger Jahren deutlich zu wünschen übrig. Auch die Dauer der Sprachkurse war bescheiden. Schweden finanzierte Sprachunterricht für Einwanderer schon seit 1965 und setzt seit Beginn der Arbeitsmigration nach Westeuropa bis heute die höchsten Standards in Bezug auf Kursangebote und Unterrichtsqualität, während die Länder, die schon bei der Einführung von Sprachkursen sehr zögerlich waren (Niederlande, Belgien und Österreich), sich auch jetzt nur vergleichsweise wenig engagieren, wenn es darum geht, Sprachunterricht für Migranten zu finanzieren.
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Jaan Masso; Raul Eamets; Pille Mõtsmees
    Abstract: The existing literature on return migration has resulted in several studies analysing the impact of foreign work experience on the returnees’ earnings or their decision to become self-employed; however, in this paper we analyse the less studied effect on occupational mobility – how the job in the home country after returning compares to the job held before migration. The effect of temporary migration on occupational mobility is analysed using unique data from an Estonian online job search portal covering approximately 10–15% of the total workforce, including thousands of employees with temporary migration experience. The focus on data from a Central and Eastern European country is motivated given that the opening of labour markets in old EU countries to the workforce of the new member states has led to massive East-West migration. We did not find any positive effect of temporary migration on upward occupational mobility and in some groups, such as females, the effect was negative. These results could be related to the typically short-term nature of migration and occupational downshifting abroad as well as the functioning of the home country labour market.
    Keywords: occupational mobility, temporary migration, Central- and Eastern Europe
    JEL: F22 J62
    Date: 2013
  4. By: Marfouk, Abdeslam
    Abstract: Using the European Values Survey (EVS) data, this article focuses on attitudes towards immigrants and particularly the relationship between that misperceptions about immigrants an immigration and discrimination against immigrants in labor market. Our analysis shows that a significant proportion of Belgian shares some xenophobic ideas. The study also shows that more than one out of two Belgian claims to be in favor of discriminatory practices by employers against foreign workers. The estimation of an econometric model confirms that misperceptions about the size of immigration and its effects on the country, including crime, labor market and public finances play a key role in the individuals’ preference for discrimination.
    Keywords: Immigration, attitudes à l’égard des immigrés, discriminations, xénophobie
    JEL: J61 J7
    Date: 2013–06

This nep-mig issue is ©2013 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.