nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2013‒06‒09
fourteen papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Gender Inequality and Emigration: Push factor or Selection process? By Thierry Baudassé; Rémi Bazillier
  2. Employment Verification Mandates and the Labor Market Outcomes of Likely Unauthorized and Native Workers By Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina; Bansak, Cynthia
  3. Climate Variability and Internal Migration: A Test on Indian Inter-State Migration By Ingrid Dallmann; Katrin Millock
  4. Labor Market Laws and Intra-European Migration: The Role of the State in Shaping Destination Choices By John Palmer; Mariola Pytlikova
  5. Determinants of Internal Migration among Senegalese Youth By Catalina HERRERA; David Sahn
  6. 1 Open borders, transport links and local labor markets By Åslund, Olof; Engdahl, Mattias
  7. Over-education among A8 migrants in the UK By Stuart Campbell
  8. Immigration, unemployment and GDP in the host country: Bootstrap panel Granger causality analysis on OECD countries By Ekrame BOUBTANE; Dramane COULIBALY; C. Rault
  9. An empirical analysis of cross-border labour mobility in the case of Estonia By Marta Kaska; Tiiu Paas
  10. Out-migration, Wealth Constraints, and the Quality of Local Amenities By Christian Dustmann; Anna Okatenko
  11. Revisions to Population, Migration and the Labour Force, 2007-2011 By Timoney, Kevin
  12. The Impact of Recession on Migration: A Preliminary Analysis of Census 2011 By Lunn, Pete
  13. Immigration, growth and unemployment: Panel VAR evidence from OECD countries By Ekrame BOUBTANE; Dramane COULIBALY; C. Rault
  14. Immigration et croissance économique en France entre 1994 et 2008 By Hippolyte D'Albis; Ekrame BOUBTANE; Dramane COULIBALY

  1. By: Thierry Baudassé (LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orleans - CNRS : UMR6221 - Université d'Orléans); Rémi Bazillier (LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orleans - CNRS : UMR6221 - Université d'Orléans)
    Abstract: Our objective in this research is to provide empirical evidence relating to the linkages between gender equality and international emigration. Two theoretical hypotheses can be made for the purpose of analyzing such linkages. The fi rst is that gender inequality in origin countries could be a push factor for women. The second one is that gender inequality may create a \gender bias" in the selection of migrants within a household or a community. An improvement of gender equality would then increase female migration. We build several original indices of gender equality using principal component analysis. Our empirical results show that the push factor hypothesis is clearly rejected. All else held constant, improving gender equality in the workplace is positively correlated with the migration of women, especially of the high-skilled. We observe the opposite e ffect for low-skilled men. This result is robust to several speci cations and to various measurements of gender equality.
    Keywords: Migration ; Gender Inequality ; core labor standards
    Date: 2012–12–01
  2. By: Amuedo-Dorantes, Catalina (San Diego State University, California); Bansak, Cynthia (St. Lawrence University)
    Abstract: As recent efforts to reform immigration policy at the federal level have failed, states have started to take immigration matters into their own hands and researchers have been paying closer attention to state dynamics surrounding immigration policy. Yet, to this date, there is not a clear understanding of the consequences of enforcing E-verify on likely unauthorized immigrants and on native-born workers across the United States. This study aims to fill in that gap by analyzing the impact that the enactment of various types of E-verify mandates may have on the employment and wages of these two populations. We find that the enactment of both universal and public-sector only mandates reduce employment of likely unauthorized workers. Meanwhile, employment verification does not affect naturalized Hispanic workers but increases the employment likelihood of native workers. Impacts on wages are positive for likely unauthorized women suggesting a large labor supply reduction. For native-born workers, hourly wages also increase and provide some evidence of substitutability of unauthorized immigrants and non-Hispanic natives.
    Keywords: E-verify, undocumented workers, employment, wages
    JEL: J2 J3 J6
    Date: 2013–05
  3. By: Ingrid Dallmann (Analyse des Dynamiques Industrielles et Sociales (ADIS) - Université Paris-Sud); Katrin Millock (CES - Centre d'économie de la Sorbonne - CNRS : UMR8174 - Université Paris I - Panthéon-Sorbonne, EEP-PSE - Ecole d'Économie de Paris - Paris School of Economics - Ecole d'Économie de Paris)
    Abstract: We match migration data from the Indian census with climate data to test the hypothesis of climate variability as a push factor for internal migration. The main contribution of the analysis is to introduce relevant meteorological indicators of climate variability, based on the standardized precipitation index. Gravity-type estimations derived from a utility maximization approach cannot reject the null hypothesis that the frequency of drought acts as a push factor on inter-state migration in India. The effect is significant for both male and female migration rates. Drought duration and magnitude as well as flood events are never statistically significant.
    Keywords: Climate change; India; internal migration; PPML, SPI
    Date: 2013–05
  4. By: John Palmer (Princeton University); Mariola Pytlikova (Danish Institute of Governmental Research (KORA) and CReAM London)
    Abstract: This article investigates the relationship between migrants' destination choices and the formal labor market access afforded by multiple potential host countries in the context of the EU's eastward enlargement. We use an index of labor market access laws combined with data on migration from new EU member states into the existing states of the EU and EFTA from 2004 through 2010 to test whether (1) migrants are attracted to destinations that give them greater formal labor market access, and (2) migration flows to any given destination are influenced by the labor market policies of competing destinations. Our data support both propositions: Migration between origin/destination pairs was positively associated with the loosening of destination labor market restrictions while negatively associated with the loosening of competing destinations' labor market restrictions. These relationships hold even when economic indicators, social welfare spending, and existing immigrant stocks are modeled. By combining rich EU data with a unique approach to evaluating competing legal regimes, the analysis helps us better understand how law shapes migration in a multidestination world.
    Date: 2013–05
  5. By: Catalina HERRERA (Cornell University - Cornell University - Cornell University); David Sahn (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I)
    Abstract: We analyze the socio-economic determinants of youth decision to internally migrate in Senegal. Young people undertake mostly rural-to-rural and urban-to-urban migrations and over half of them are temporary migrants. Using multinomial logit models, we estimate the role of household and community characteristics during childhood in later youth migration decisions. We find that these determinants are heterogeneous by gender and destination. The higher the fathers' education the more (less) likely are their daughters to move to urban (rural) areas. Young individuals, who spend their childhood in better off households, are more likely to move to urban areas. Also, the presence of younger siblings increases the propensity of moving to rural areas. Access to primary schools during childhood decreases the likelihood of migrating to urban areas for both men and women.
    Keywords: Internal migration;senegal;youth;multinomial logit
    Date: 2013–05–28
  6. By: Åslund, Olof (Uppsala Center for Labor Studies); Engdahl, Mattias (Uppsala Center for Labor Studies)
    Abstract: We study the labor market impact of opening borders to low-wage countries. The analysis exploits time and regional variation provided by the 2004 EU enlargement in combination with transport links to Sweden from the new member states. The results suggest an adverse impact on earnings of present workers in the order of 1 percent in areas close to pre-existing ferry lines. The effects are present in most segments of the labor market but tend to be greater in groups with weaker positions. The impact is also clearer in industries which have received more workers from the new member states, and for which across-the-border work is likely to be more common. There is no robust evidence on an impact on employment or wages. At least part of the effects is likely due to channels other than the ones typically considered in the literature.
    Keywords: migration policy; immigration; labor market outcomes
    JEL: J16 J31 J61
    Date: 2013–04–24
  7. By: Stuart Campbell (Department of Quantitative Social Science, Institute of Education, University of London)
    Abstract: I present new evidence on the incidence and wage associations of over-education among migrants to the UK from the ‘A8’ EU accession countries of Central and Eastern Europe from 2004-2011. Using the Labour Force Survey, I employ a novel strategy to maximise the number of migrants drawn from the dataset over the period of interest, creating a survey sample of A8 migrants of unprecedented size. I also use a new method of classifying education attained outside the UK, which takes account of different European education systems. I find that A8 migrants face a substantially higher risk of over-education in the UK than other recent EU migrants, and that this additional risk remains after taking account of observed characteristics. I argue that this result is driven by unobserved differences between the groups, arising from distinct self-selection processes associated with the institutional context of the EU accession. I also find that in non-graduate occupations, the wage penalties faced by A8 migrants in the UK are of such strength that even the over-educated are paid less than matched UK nationals. Moreover, A8 migrants are concentrated in a particular sub-group of occupations, where higher wages are not available for the over-educated.
    Keywords: Immigration, educational mismatch, labour market, skill recognition
    JEL: J24 J61 J62 F22
    Date: 2013–05–30
  8. By: Ekrame BOUBTANE (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Dramane COULIBALY (EconomiX-CNRS - Economix CNRS - Université Paris Ouest); C. Rault (LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orleans - CNRS : UMR7322 - Université d'Orléans)
    Abstract: This paper examines the causality relationship between immigration, unemployment and economic growth of the host country. We employ the panel Granger causality testing approach of Konya (2006) that is based on SUR systems and Wald tests with country specific bootstrap critical values. This approach allows to test for Granger-causality on each individual panel member separately by taking into account the contemporaneous correlation across countries. Using annual data over the 1980-2005 period for 22 OECD countries, we find that, only in Portugal, unemployment negatively causes immigration, while in any country, immigration does not cause unemployment. On the other hand, our results show that, in four countries (France, Iceland, Norway and the United Kingdom), growth positively causes immigration, whereas in any country, immigration does not cause growth.
    Keywords: immigration;growth;Unemployment;Granger causality
    Date: 2013–05–28
  9. By: Marta Kaska; Tiiu Paas
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to outline differences in the socio-demographic and employment characteristics of Estonian people who have worked in a neighbouring country – Finland, Sweden, Latvia or Russia. The empirical part of this paper relies on data from CV Keskus – an online employment portal bringing together jobseekers and vacant job posts. The results of our analysis show that different destination regions – the wealthier countries of Finland and Sweden (referred to as East-West mobility) and Latvia and Russia (referred to as East-East mobility) have attracted workers with different personal and job-related characteristics. Ethnicity and higher education are important determinants in explaining differences between East-West and East-East labour flows. Non-Estonians and people with a higher education have been less likely to work in Finland or Sweden.
    Keywords: geographic labour mobility, neighbouring countries, cross-country labour flows, Estonia
    JEL: J61 O57 R P52
    Date: 2013–05
  10. By: Christian Dustmann (Department of Economics, and Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), University College London.); Anna Okatenko (CReAM, University College London.)
    Abstract: Using a simple theoretical model, we show that the level of migration costs relative to wealth determines the form of the relation between income and migration intentions, which can be monotonically decreasing, increasing, or inverse U-shaped. Using unique individual level data, covering three geographic regions—sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America—we show that migration intentions do indeed respond to individual wealth, and that the patterns differ across the country groups studied in a manner compatible with the predictions of our model. Further, contentment with various dimensions of local amenities plays an important role for migration decisions.
    Keywords: Migration and Wealth Constraints, Migration Intentions, Local Amenities
    JEL: O15 R23 J61
    Date: 2013–05
  11. By: Timoney, Kevin
    Keywords: population/migration/qec
    Date: 2013–01
  12. By: Lunn, Pete
    Keywords: migration/recession/qec
    Date: 2012–06
  13. By: Ekrame BOUBTANE (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Dramane COULIBALY (Economix CNRS - Université Paris Ouest); C. Rault (LEO - Laboratoire d'économie d'Orleans - CNRS : UMR7322 - Université d'Orléans)
    Abstract: This paper examines empirically the interaction between immigration and host country economic conditions. We employ a panel VAR techniques to use a large annual dataset on 22 OECD countries over the period 1987-2009. The VAR approach allows to addresses the endogeneity problem by allowing the endogenous interaction between the variables in the system. Our results provide evidence of migration contribution to host economic prosperity (positive impact on GDP per capita and negative impact on aggregate unemployment, native- and foreign-born unemployment rates). We also find that migration is influenced by host economic conditions (migration responds positively to host GDP per capita and negatively to host total unemployment rate).
    Keywords: immigration;growth;Unemployment;panel VAR
    Date: 2013–05–28
  14. By: Hippolyte D'Albis (INED - Paris School of Economics - Université Paris 1); Ekrame BOUBTANE (CERDI - Centre d'études et de recherches sur le developpement international - CNRS : UMR6587 - Université d'Auvergne - Clermont-Ferrand I); Dramane COULIBALY (EconomiX-CNRS - EconomiX-CNRS - University of Paris Ouest)
    Abstract: Cet article propose une évaluation quantitative des interactions entre d'une part, le Produit Intérieur Brut (PIB) par habitant et le taux de chômage, et d'autre part, l'immigration permanente en France métropolitaine sur la période 1994-2008. L'immigration est mesurée par les titres de séjour de plus d'un an accordés aux étrangers en provenance des pays tiers et est décomposée par motifs d'admission. L'estimation de modèles vectoriels autorégressifs (VAR) donne les résultats suivants. Le taux d'immigration, et en particulier d'immigration familiale, a un effet positif et significatif sur le PIB par habitant, tandis que les effets de l'immigration sur le chômage ne sont pas significatifs. Par ailleurs, le PIB par habitant a un effet positif et significatif sur le taux d'immigration et le taux de chômage à un effet négatif et significatif sur le taux d'immigration de travail.
    Keywords: immigration;croissance;Modèles VAR
    Date: 2013–05–22

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