nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2013‒06‒04
twenty-one papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Temporary Mobility - A Policy for Academic Career Development By Lawson, Cornelia; Shibayama, Sotaro
  2. Does Cultural Heritage Affect Employment Decisions: Empirical Evidence for Second Generation Immigrants in Germany By Anja Köbrich León
  3. Quality of Life and Stressful Life Events in First and Second Generation Immigrant Adolescents By Lemos, Ida; Nunes, Cristina; Nunes, Lara Ayala
  4. More Hands, More Power? Estimating the Impact of Immigration on Output and Technology Choices Using Early 20th Century US Agriculture By Jeanne Lafortune; José Tessada; Carolina González-Velosa
  5. The labor market impact of mobility restrictions : evidence from the West Bank By Cali, Massimiliano; Miaari, Sami H.
  6. Transfer Behaviour in Migrant Sending Communities By Chakraborty, Tanika; Mirkasimov, Bakhrom; Steiner, Susan
  7. Eliciting illegal migration rates through list randomization By McKenzie, David; Siegel, Melissa
  8. Out-migration, Wealth Constraints, and the Quality of Local Amenities By Christian Dustmann; Anna Okatenko
  9. Wages of childhood immigrants in Sweden – education, returns to education and overeducation By Katz, Katarina; Österberg, Torun
  10. Managing International Labor Migration in ASEAN : Themes from a Six-Country Study By Aniceto Orbeta, Jr.; Kathrina Gonzales
  11. Smooth(er) Landing? The Dynamic Role of Networks in the Location and Occupational Choice of Immigrants By Jeanne Lafortune; José Tessada
  12. Working Conditions and Job Satisfaction of China's New Generation of Migrant Workers: Evidence from an Inland City By Wang, Huashu; Pan, Lei; Heerink, Nico
  13. Immigration, unemployment and GDP in the host country: Bootstrap panel Granger causality analysis on OECD countries By Ekrame Boubtane; Dramane Coulibaly; Christophe Rault
  14. The Balance of Brains: Corruption and High Skilled Migration By Andrea ARIU; Pasquamaria SQUICCIARINI
  15. Climate Variability and Internal Migration: A Test on Indian Inter-State Migration. By Ingrid Dallmann; Katrin Millock
  16. Split Decisions: Family Finance When a Policy Discontinuity Allocates Overseas Work By Michael Clemens and Erwin Tiongson
  17. Employment Verification Mandates and the Labor Market Outcomes of Likely Unauthorized and Native Workers By Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes; Cynthia Bansak
  18. Immigrant Assimilation into U.S. Prisons, 1900-1930 By Carolyn M. Moehling; Anne Morrison Piehl
  19. Determinants of Internal Migration among Senegalese Youth By David SAHN; Catalina HERRERA
  20. Immigrant specificity and the relationship between trade and immigration: Theory and evidence By Bowen, Harry P.; Pédussel Wu, Jennifer
  21. Occupational Information Acquisition, Occupational Mobility and Urbanization of New Generation Migrant Workers in China By Yuan, Yao; Guangsheng, Zhang

  1. By: Lawson, Cornelia; Shibayama, Sotaro (University of Turin)
    Abstract: Researcher mobility has received increasing support from policy makers around the world as an instrument to improve the performance of research systems by promoting the diffusion of knowledge, and facilitating knowledge and technology transfer, network creation, and productivity (OECD, 2008). International mobility grants have been a preferred means for governments across the world to facilitate the mobility of their research base (MEXT, 2009). This paper investigates the effect of temporary mobility spells abroad on a researcher’s probability for promotion. Temporary research visits may help to expand existing networks and promote knowledge transfer while at the same time ensuring career stability, identified as the main barrier to mobility in Europe and Japan (Stephan, 2012). Using a dataset of 370 bioscience professors in Japan we identified their average career path and evaluated the role of mobility in Japanese universities. We find that international research visits have a positive effect on promotion and reduce the waiting time for promotion by one year. This provides evidence that these visits also benefit a researcher’s career in the long-term. This positive research visit effect is weaker for researchers who also change jobs. Research visits may therefore present a way for immobile researchers to speed up promotion without the need for job mobility. We also find that research visits are particularly important for inbred researchers, again indicating that visits discourage late-career mobility and increase promotion speed. We further find that, while research visits of tenured staff enhance the career by providing an early chair, postdocs have no lasting effect on career progression. Instead, they may be an indicator for a researcher’s struggle to find a permanent position after the PhD
    Date: 2013–04
  2. By: Anja Köbrich León
    Date: 2013
  3. By: Lemos, Ida (University of Algarve); Nunes, Cristina (University of Algarve); Nunes, Lara Ayala (University of Seville)
    Abstract: The aim of this study was to examine differences in quality of life and stressful life events, in first and second generation immigrant adolescents living in Algarve. A total of 172 immigrant adolescents participated in the study, completing the kidscreen-52, the stressful and negative life events inventory and a socio-demographic questionnaire. Results suggest that younger immigrant adolescents report more physical well-being and a higher mood level. Concerning gender differences, girls scored higher than boys in physical well-being, mood and self-perception, but no differences were found on the other kidscreen subscales. First generation immigrants scored significantly higher than second generation ones on the general quality of life index, psychological well-being, autonomy, financial resources and school environment. However, the second-generation immigrants did not seem to be more exposed to stressful life events than the first-generation group. When selecting relevant variables for well-being promotion and for intervention, we must consider that immigrants are more exposed to economic vulnerability, may experience difficulties in adapting to a different school context, and are at higher risk of social exclusion.
    Keywords: Quality of Life; Stressful Life Events; Immigrants; Adolescence
    JEL: I00
    Date: 2013–05–23
  4. By: Jeanne Lafortune; José Tessada; Carolina González-Velosa
    Abstract: Can shifts in output mix or technologies attenuate the impact of immigration on wages? We explore this using immigration-induced changes in relative labor supply at the county level in US Censuses of Agriculture in early 20th century. An increase in labor supply induced a shift away from capital-intensive crops and a reduction in farm size. Crop mix adjustments were more likely in counties less specialized in a given crop while adjustments in technological and organization changes were more marked in the rest. Suggestive evidence indicates that crop mix adjustments, but not organizational changes, were sufficient to limit wage impacts.
    Keywords: Immigration, Agriculture, Output mix, Technological change
    JEL: J43 J61 N51
    Date: 2013
  5. By: Cali, Massimiliano; Miaari, Sami H.
    Abstract: Using data on Israeli closures inside the West Bank, this paper provides new evidence on the labor market effects of conflict-induced restrictions to mobility. To identify the effects, the analysis exploits the fact that the placement of physical barriers by Israel was exogenous to local labor market conditions and uses a measure of conflict intensity to control for the likely spurious correlation between local unrest, labor market conditions, and the placement of barriers. The study finds that these barriers to mobility have a significant negative effect on employment, wages, and days worked per month. The barriers had a positive impact on the number of hours per working day. These effects are driven mainly by checkpoints while other barriers, such as roadblocks and earth mounds, have a much more limited impact. Only a tiny portion of the effects is due to direct restrictions on workers'mobility, suggesting that these restrictions affect the labor market mainly by depressing firms'production and labor demand. Despite being an underestimation of the actual effects, the overall costs of the barriers on the West Bank labor market are substantial: in 2007, for example, these costs amounted to 6 percent of gross domestic product. Most of these costs are due to lower wages, thus suggesting that the labor market has adjusted to the restrictions more through prices than quantities.
    Keywords: Labor Markets,Labor Policies,Transport Economics Policy&Planning,Markets and Market Access,Banks&Banking Reform
    Date: 2013–05–01
  6. By: Chakraborty, Tanika (Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur); Mirkasimov, Bakhrom (DIW Berlin); Steiner, Susan (University of Hannover)
    Abstract: We study how international migration changes the private transfers made between households in the migrant sending communities of developing countries. A priori, it is indeterminate whether migration and remittances strengthen or weaken the degree of private transfers in these communities. From a policy perspective, public income redistribution programmes would have an important role to play if migration reduced the extent of private transfers. Using household survey data from Kyrgyzstan, we find that households with migrant members (as well as households receiving remittances) are more likely than households without migrants (without remittances) to provide monetary transfers to others, but less likely to receive monetary transfers from others. This suggests that migration is unlikely to lead to a weakening of private transfers.
    Keywords: private transfers, cash and labour exchange, migration, Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia
    JEL: D63 F22 O12 I30
    Date: 2013–05
  7. By: McKenzie, David (World Bank, CEPR, and IZA); Siegel, Melissa (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: Most migration surveys do not ask about the legal status of migrants due to concerns about the sensitivity of this question. List randomization is a technique that has been used in a number of other social science applications to elicit sensitive information. We trial this technique by adding it to surveys conducted in Ethiopia, Mexico, Morocco and the Philippines. We show how, in principle, this can be used to both give an estimate of the overall rate of illegal migration in the population being surveyed, as well as to determine illegal migration rates for subgroups such as more or less educated households. Our results suggest that there is some indication in this method: we find higher rates of illegal migration in countries where illegal migration is thought to be more prevalent and households who say they have a migrant are more likely to report having an illegal migrant. Nevertheless, some of our other findings also suggest some possible inconsistencies or noise in the conclusions obtained using this method, so we suggest directions for future attempts to implement this approach in migration surveys.
    Keywords: migration, illegal migration, research methods, list randomization, item count method, survey techniques, surveys
    JEL: F22 C83 J61 K42
    Date: 2013
  8. By: Christian Dustmann (Department of Economics, and Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), University College London); Anna Okatenko (Department of Economics, and Centre for Research and Analysis of Migration (CReAM), University College London)
    Abstract: Using a simple theoretical model, we show that the level of migration costs relative to wealth determines the form of the relation between income and migration intentions, which can be monotonically decreasing, increasing, or inverse U-shaped. Using unique individual level data, covering three geographic regions—sub-Saharan Africa, Asia, and Latin America—we show that migration intentions do indeed respond to individual wealth, and that the patterns differ across the country groups studied in a manner compatible with the predictions of our model. Further, contentment with various dimensions of local amenities plays an important role for migration decisions.
    Keywords: Migration and Wealth Constraints, Migration Intentions, Local Amenities
    JEL: O15 R23 J61
    Date: 2013–05
  9. By: Katz, Katarina (Karlstad university); Österberg, Torun (University of Gothenburg)
    Abstract: We analyse full-time monthly wages of employees with parents born in Sweden and of childhood immigrants who arrived before the end of compulsory school-age. We use a detailed disaggregation of background countries, which shows considerable hetero-geneity, in overeducation, in returns to education and in birth-country coefficients, unexplained by wage models. Both the non-European childhood immigrants and of those from Southern Europe suffer a wage disadvantage relative to natives, men to a larger extent than women. Returns to education are generally lower for non-European childhood immigrants than for natives. Comparison with workers, who immigrated as adults, shows that the childhood immigrants of most nationalities run lower risk of being overeducated and have a smaller wage disadvantage. The child/adult immigrant difference is larger, the larger the disadvantage of the adult immigrants from a country of origin. But for male childhood immigrants from some of the labour transmitter countries, the risk of overeducation is larger than it is for adult immigrants and the difference in adjusted wages between childhood immigrants and adult immigrants also tends to be smaller than for other countries of origin.
    Keywords: Wages; immigrants; childhood immigrants; returns to education; overeducation
    JEL: I24 J15 J31 J61
    Date: 2013–04–04
  10. By: Aniceto Orbeta, Jr. (Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS)); Kathrina Gonzales
    Abstract: The study presents a summary of the six-country study on managing international labor migration in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)3. The countries are grouped into sending (Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines) and receiving (Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand). The objective was to share international migration management issues from the perspective of a sending or a receiving country. The country research teams were asked to identify and study a specific migration management issue that is deemed current and reflective of the primary migration management experience of the country. For sending countries, the Cambodia research team studied the high frequency cross-border crossings into Thailand that is dominated by irregular migrants. The Indonesian research team looked at the role of local governments in migration management as the country embarked into substantial decentralization process. The Philippines research team look at the management of massive deployment flows spanning thirty years with special attention to the most vulnerable group – the household service workers. For receiving countries, the Malaysian research team looked at their experience in the continuing running battle with irregular migrants. The Singaporean research team look at the close interaction between the needs of the economy for migrant workers and their desire not to be too dependent on them. The Thai research team described the experience at the crossroad of being both a receiving and still a sending country. The studies have highlighted seven important themes on international labor migration management in ASEAN, namely : (a) the importance of integrating international migration into national and regional development efforts; (b) the importance of both bilateral and multilateral agreements; (c) the importance of recognizing differences in labor market policies in sending and receiving countries in designing protection for migrant workers; (d) the need to consider general administrative capacities in designing migration regulatory efforts; (e) the importance of involving sub-national bodies in migration management; (f) the need to broaden cooperation in handling irregular migration; and (g) the recognition that the protection envisioned by the state need not be the one “desired†by the migrant, hence, the need to check often to find out the effectiveness of protection measures.
    Keywords: International Labor Migration, ASEAN, Cambodia, Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand
    JEL: F22 J61
    Date: 2013–05
  11. By: Jeanne Lafortune; José Tessada
    Abstract: This paper studies the dynamic effect of networks on location and occupation decisions of immigrants to the United States between 1900 and 1930. We compare the distributions of immigrants both by intended and actual state of residence to counterfactual distributions constructed by allocating the national-level flows according to the distribution of previous immigrants and to measures of demand for occupations at the state level. Our results are consistent with migrants using ethnic networks as a transitory mechanism while they learn about their new labor markets and not with other hypotheses that do not account for the dynamic patterns we document.
    JEL: F22 J61 N31
    Date: 2012
  12. By: Wang, Huashu (Guizhou University); Pan, Lei (Wageningen University); Heerink, Nico (Wageningen University)
    Abstract: China is experiencing notable changes in rural-urban migration. Young, more educated migrants with different attitudes towards living and working form an increasing share of the migrant labour force. At the same time, the destinations of migrants are changing as a result of government policies and the global financial crisis. More migrants than before find jobs in medium and small size cities, often located in western and central China. Understanding the characteristics and attitudes of the changing migrant labour force is becoming a major challenge in sustainably managing migration flows and urbanization. Little hard evidence is available on the working conditions and job attitudes of migrant workers, particularly for inland China. The purpose of this paper is to provide insights into the characteristics, working conditions and job attitudes of the new generation of migrants, defined as those born in the 1980s and 1990s, as compared to the traditional generation in a typical medium-size city in western China. Data collected through a household survey conducted among 1,048 migrants in Guiyang City, capital of Guizhou Province, are used for this purpose. We find significant differences in occupational characteristics and working conditions between the two generations. Contrary to popular beliefs, we find that the level of job satisfaction is higher among the new generation of migrants. Using an ordered logit model to examine factors contributing to job satisfaction, we find that age and gender do not have a significant impact for young migrants, while working conditions play a major role. Among these, it is not so much the income level that matters for young migrants, but other working conditions. Using a Blinder-Oaxaca decomposition, we derive that it is mainly the difference in working conditions and other endowments that explains the higher job satisfaction of young migrants, not the differences between generations in the valuations of these endowments.
    Keywords: migrant workers, new generation, working conditions, job satisfaction, China
    JEL: J61 O15
    Date: 2013–05
  13. By: Ekrame Boubtane; Dramane Coulibaly; Christophe Rault
    Abstract: This paper examines the causality relationship between immigration, unemployment and economic growth of the host country. We employ the panel Granger causality testing approach of K´onya (2006) that is based on SUR systems and Wald tests with country specific bootstrap critical values. This approach allows to test for Granger causality on each individual panel member separately by taking into account the contemporaneous correlation across countries. Using annual data over the 1980-2005 period for 22 OECD countries, we find that, only in Portugal, unemployment negatively causes immigration, while in any country, immigration does not cause unemployment. On the other hand, our results show that, in four countries (France, Iceland, Norway and the United Kingdom), growth positively causes immigration, whereas in any country, immigration does not cause growth.
    Keywords: Immigration, growth, unemployment, causality
    JEL: E20 F22 J61
    Date: 2013
  14. By: Andrea ARIU (UNIVERSITE CATHOLIQUE DE LOUVAIN, Institut de Recherches Economiques et Sociales (IRES) and FNRS); Pasquamaria SQUICCIARINI (KULeuven, LICOS Centre for Institutions and Economic Performance and Department of Economics)
    Abstract: In a mobile labor market, a high emigration rate of high skilled workers is not necessarily a problem, if counterbalanced by a high immigration rate. However, some countries experience a net gain of high skilled while others a net loss. Corruption is part of the explanation, acting through two different channels: first, it pushes skilled natives to virtuous countries, where they can find a job based on meritocratic criteria; second, it discourages the entry of foreign talents, which would hardly have access to string-pulling recommendations. This might induce a prolonged loss in human capital and vanish investments in education.
    Keywords: migration, high-skilled, corruption
    Date: 2013–05–15
  15. By: Ingrid Dallmann (Université Paris-Sud (ADIS)); Katrin Millock (Centre d'Economie de la Sorbonne - Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: We match migration data from the Indian census with climate data to test the hypothesis of climate variability as a push factor for internal migration. The main contribution of the analysis is to introduce relevant meteorological indicators of climate variability, based on the standardized precipitation index. Gravity-type estimations derived from a utility maximization approach cannot reject the null hypothesis that the frequency of drought acts as a push factor on inter-state migration in India. The effect is significant for both male and female migration rates. Drought duration and magnitude as well as flood events are never statistically significant.
    Keywords: Climate change, India, Internal migration, PPML, SPI.
    JEL: O15 Q54
    Date: 2013–05
  16. By: Michael Clemens and Erwin Tiongson
    Abstract: Labor markets are increasingly global. Overseas work can enrich households but also split them geographically, with ambiguous net effects on decisions about work, investment, and education. These net effects, and their mechanisms, are poorly understood. We study a policy discontinuity in the Philippines that resulted in quasi-random assignment of temporary, partial-household migration to high-wage jobs in Korea. This allows unusually reliable measurement of the reduced-form effect of these overseas jobs on migrant households. A purpose-built survey allows nonexperimental tests of different theoretical mechanisms for the reduced-form effect. We also explore how reliably the reduced-form effect could be measured with standard observational estimators. We find large effects on spending, borrowing, and human capital investment, but no effects on saving or entrepreneurship. Remittances appear to overwhelm household splitting as a causal mechanism.
    JEL: J61 O15 R23
    Date: 2013–05
  17. By: Catalina Amuedo-Dorantes (San Diego State University); Cynthia Bansak (St. Lawrence University)
    Abstract: As recent efforts to reform immigration policy at the federal level have failed, states have started to take immigration matters into their own hands and researchers have been paying closer attention to state dynamics surrounding immigration policy. Yet, to this date, there is not a clear understanding of the consequences of enforcing E-verify on likely unauthorized immigrants and on native-born workers across the United States. This study aims to fill in that gap by analyzing the impact that the enactment of various types of E-verify mandates may have on the employment and wages of these two populations. We find that the enactment of both universal and public-sector only mandates reduce employment of likely unauthorized workers. Meanwhile, employment verification does not affect naturalized Hispanic workers but increases the employment likelihood of native workers. Impacts on wages are positive for likely unauthorized women suggesting a large labor supply reduction. For native-born workers, hourly wages also increase and provide some evidence of substitutability of unauthorized immigrants and non-Hispanic natives.
    Keywords: E-Verify, Undocumented Workers, Employment, Wages.
    JEL: J2 J3 J6
    Date: 2013–05
  18. By: Carolyn M. Moehling; Anne Morrison Piehl
    Abstract: The analysis of a new dataset on state prisoners in the 1900 to 1930 censuses reveals that immigrants rapidly assimilated to native incarceration patterns. One feature of these data is that the second generation can be identified, allowing direct analysis of this group and allowing their exclusion from calculations of comparison rates for the “native” population. Although adult new arrivals were less likely than natives to be incarcerated, this likelihood was increasing with their years in the U.S. The foreign born who arrived as children and second generation immigrants had slightly higher rates of incarceration than natives of native parentage, but these differences disappear after controlling for nativity differences in urbanicity and occupational status. Finally, while the incarceration rates of new arrivals differ significantly by source country, patterns of assimilation are very similar.
    JEL: J15 K42 N32
    Date: 2013–05
  19. By: David SAHN; Catalina HERRERA
    Abstract: We analyze the socio-economic determinants of youth decision to internally migrate in Senegal. Young people undertake mostly rural-to-rural and urban-to-urban migrations and over half of them are temporary migrants. Using multinomial logit models, we estimate the role of household and community characteristics during childhood in later youth migration decisions. We find that these determinants are heterogeneous by gender and destination. The higher the fathers' education the more (less) likely are their daughters to move to urban (rural) areas. Young individuals, who spend their childhood in better off households, are more likely to move to urban areas. Also, the presence of younger siblings increases the propensity of moving to rural areas. Access to primary schools during childhood decreases the likelihood of migrating to urban areas for both men and women.
    Keywords: Internal migration, senegal, youth, multinomial logit
    Date: 2013
  20. By: Bowen, Harry P.; Pédussel Wu, Jennifer
    Abstract: Studies routinely document that the nature of immigrant employment is largely specific: it often concentrates in non-traded goods sectors and many immigrants often have low inter-sectoral mobility. We consider these observed characteristics of immigrant employment for the question of how immigration affects a nation's pattern of production and trade. We model an economy producing three goods; one is non-traded. Domestic labor and capital are domestically mobile but internationally immobile. Any new wave of immigration is assumed to comprise some workers who will become specific to the nontraded goods sector. The model indicates that the output and trade effects of immigration depend importantly on the sectoral pattern of employment of existing and new immigrants. Empirical investigation in a panel dataset of OECD countries supports the models prediction that immigration raises the output of non-traded goods. Consistent with the model, we also find that immigration and trade are complements. The implications of the model and empirical findings for immigration policy are then discussed. -- Diverse Studien belegen, dass die Beschäftigung von Immigranten sehr spezifisch ist: Sie beschränkt sich häufig auf Anstellungen in der Produktion nicht gehandelter Waren. Der Großteil der Immigranten zeigt dabei nur eine geringe Mobilität zwischen den Sektoren. Unter Berücksichtigung dieser beobachteten Besonderheiten bei der Beschäftigung von Immigranten untersuchen wir die Auswirkungen von Immigration auf die Handels- und Produktionsstrukturen eines Staates. Unser Modell umfasst eine Volkswirtschaft, die drei Güter produziert; eines davon wird nicht gehandelt. Heimische Arbeitskräfte sind innerstaatlich mobil, aber immobil auf internationaler Ebene. Es wird angenommen, dass jede neue Immigrationswelle Arbeiter mit sich bringt, welche in Wirtschaftszweigen nicht gehandelter Güter beschäftigt werden. Das Modell zeigt, dass die durch Immigration verursachten Auswirkungen auf Produktion und Handel stark von branchenspezifischen Beschäftigungsmustern vorhandener und neuer Immigranten abhängig sind. Die empirische Untersuchung des prognostizierten Zusammenhangs von Immigration und Handelsströmen basiert auf einem Datensatz von OECD Ländern und bekräftigt die Vorhersage, dass Handel und Immigration Komplemente sind. Abschließend wird die Bedeutung des Modells und der empirischen Ergebnisse für die Gestaltung von Immigrationspolitik diskutiert.
    Date: 2012
  21. By: Yuan, Yao; Guangsheng, Zhang
    Abstract: FUNDING SUPPORT: •National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant. No. 70973082 and No.71273179) •Trans Century Training Programme Foundation for the Talents of Humanities and Social Science by the State Education Commission(NECT-12-1014)
    Keywords: New generation migrant workers, Information acquisition, Occupational mobility, Urbanization, Influence mechanism, Community/Rural/Urban Development, Institutional and Behavioral Economics, Labor and Human Capital,
    Date: 2013

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