nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2013‒02‒16
ten papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. The European Crisis and Migration to Germany: Expectations and the Diversion of Migration Flows By Bertoli, Simone; Brücker, Herbert; Fernández-Huertas Moraga, Jesús
  2. Measuring the Income-Distance Tradeoff for Rural-Urban Migrants in China By Zhang, Junfu; Zhao, Zhong
  3. Report No. 50: Labour Market Information for Migrants and Employers: The Case of Germany By Constant, Amelie F.; Rinne, Ulf
  4. The Effects of 9/11 on Attitudes toward Immigration and the Moderating Role of Education By Simone Schüller
  5. Return Migration of Foreign Students By Bijwaard, Govert; Wang, Qi
  6. Self-Employment in China: Are Rural Migrant Workers and Urban Residents Alike? By Cui, Yuling; Nahm, Daehoon; Tani, Massimiliano
  7. Quasi-Experimental Impact Estimates of Immigrant Labor Supply Shocks: The Role of Treatment and Comparison Group Matching and Relative Skill Composition By Aydemir, Abdurrahman; Kirdar, Murat G.
  8. Migration to Rural Counties: An Example from the North-Eastern Poland By Klepacka, Anna M.; Yen, Steven T.; Florkowski, Wojciech J.
  9. Attracting Talent: Location Choices of Foreign-Born PhDs in the US By Jeffrey Grogger; Gordon H. Hanson
  10. Seafood Processor Preferences for Hiring Non-Immigrant Labor: A Conjoint Analysis By Joo, Hyunjeong; Mishra, Ashok K.; Gillespie, Jeffrey M.

  1. By: Bertoli, Simone (CERDI, University of Auvergne); Brücker, Herbert (Institute for Employment Research (IAB), Nuremberg); Fernández-Huertas Moraga, Jesús (FEDEA, Madrid)
    Abstract: The analysis of how the economic crisis in Europe has reshaped migration flows faces two challenges: (i) the confounding influence of correlated changes in the attractiveness of alternative destinations, and (ii) the role of rapidly changing expectations about the evolution of the economic conditions in various countries. This paper addresses the first challenge by controlling for multilateral resistance to migration, and the second one by incorporating 10-year bond yields as an explanatory variable in a study of European bilateral migration flows to Germany between 2006 and 2012. We show that, while expectations and current economic conditions at origin are significant determinants of migration, diversion effects account for 78 percent of the observed increase in German gross migration inflows.
    Keywords: international migration, multiple destinations, diversion, expectations
    JEL: F22 O15 J61
    Date: 2013–01
  2. By: Zhang, Junfu (Clark University); Zhao, Zhong (Renmin University of China)
    Abstract: Rural-urban migrants in China appear to prefer nearby destination cities. To gain a better understanding of this phenomenon, we build a simple model in which migrants from rural areas choose among potential destination cities to maximize utility. The distance between a migrant's home village and destination city is explicitly included in the utility function. Using recent survey data, we first estimate an individual's expected income in each potential destination city using a semi-parametric method, controlling for potential self-selection biases. We then estimate the indirect utility function for rural- urban migrants in China based on their migration destination choices. Our baseline estimates suggest that to induce a migrant to move 10 percent further away from home, the income of this migrant has to increase by 15 percent. This elasticity varies very little with migration distance; it is slightly higher for female than male migrants; it is not affected by the migrant's age, education, or marital status. We explore possible explanations of these results and discuss their policy implications.
    Keywords: income-distance tradeoff, rural-urban migration, hukou system, China
    JEL: O15 R12 R23
    Date: 2013–01
  3. By: Constant, Amelie F. (George Washington University, Temple University); Rinne, Ulf (IZA)
    Abstract: Report prepared for the International Organization for Migration (IOM), Bonn 2013 (30 pages)
    Date: 2013–02–06
  4. By: Simone Schüller
    Abstract: The major event of the 9/11 terror attacks is likely to have induced an increase in anti-immigrant and anti-foreigner sentiments, not only among US residents but also beyond US borders. Using longitudinal data from the German Socio-Economic Panel and exploiting exogenous variation in interview timing throughout 2001, I find that the terror attacks in the US caused an immediate shift of around 40 percent of one within standard deviation to more negative attitudes toward immigration and resulted in a considerable decrease in concerns over xenophobic hostility among the German population. Furthermore, in exploiting within-individual variation this quasi-experiment provides evidence on the role of education inmoderating the negative terrorism shock.
    Keywords: immigration, attitudes, education, September 11, terrorism
    JEL: F22 I21 J61
    Date: 2013
  5. By: Bijwaard, Govert (NIDI - Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute); Wang, Qi (NIDI - Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute)
    Abstract: Using unique administrative micro panel data, this paper presents a comprehensive empirical analysis of the return of recent foreign students in The Netherlands. The life course experiences of these students in the host, both on the labour market and in marriage formation, impact their decision to leave. Using a "timing-of-events" model we estimate the impact of these processes on the return intensity. The model allows for correlated unobserved heterogeneity across the migration, the labour market and the marriage formation processes. The large size of the data permits us to stratify the analysis by five groups based on the country of birth. The empirical analyses reveal that employment induces students to stay and unemployment induces them to leave. Forming a family in The Netherlands makes the students more prone to stay. The size of the impact of these life course experiences on return differs by age at entry and gender.
    Keywords: student migration, timing of events method, labour dynamics, marriage
    JEL: F22 J64 J12 C41
    Date: 2013–01
  6. By: Cui, Yuling (Macquarie University, Sydney); Nahm, Daehoon (Macquarie University, Sydney); Tani, Massimiliano (Macquarie University, Sydney)
    Abstract: This paper studies differences in the motivation to be self-employed between rural migrants and urban residents in modern China. Estimates of the wage differential between self-employment and paid-employment obtained through a three-stage methodology using the 2002 China Household Income Project (CHIP), reveal that rural migrants become self-employed to avoid low-pay city jobs, enhancing their odds of economic assimilation. Conversely, urban residents become entrepreneurs to move out of unemployment. The empirical analysis confirms that self-employment also attracts married individuals and those in good health, while it negatively relates to high educational attainment. The decomposition of hourly wage differences between pairs (by type of employment and residence status) shows that higher hourly wages of paid and self-employed urbanites over migrants predominantly arise through differences in coefficients (i.e. "discrimination") while those between self- and paid employment among urbanites are mostly due to differences in individual characteristics. Discrimination overwhelmingly accounts for hourly wage differences between self- and paid employment among rural immigrants. We interpret the relevant effect of discrimination in 2002 in urban labour markets as a sign of the institutional barriers associated with the Hukou system.
    Keywords: rural migrant workers, wage differentials, self-employment, urban residents
    JEL: C36 J61 J31 J21 J24
    Date: 2013–01
  7. By: Aydemir, Abdurrahman (Sabanci University); Kirdar, Murat G. (Middle East Technical University)
    Abstract: This paper examines the employment effects of a large burst of immigration – the politically-driven exodus of ethnic Turks from Bulgaria into Turkey in 1989. In some locations, the rise in the labor force due to this inflow of repatriates was 5 to 10 percent. A key feature of our context is the strong involvement of the Turkish state in the settlement of earlier waves of repatriates, which provides us a strong source of exogenous variation in the 1989 immigrant shock across locations and brings our study closer to an ideal natural experiment. Using a reservoir of 342 cities and towns in Turkey with variable treatment intensity, this analysis places much attention on constructing a matched sample that is well balanced in terms of covariate distributions of the treatment and comparison groups – using propensity score matching. We find a positive effect of repatriates on the unemployment of non-repatriates. In fact, a 1 percent increase in the labor force due to repatriates increases the unemployment rate of natives by 0.4 percentage points. When the analysis is done according to skill groups, we find that the impact is the strongest on the young and on non-repatriates with similar educational attainment.
    Keywords: labor force and employment, immigrant workers, quasi experiments
    JEL: J21 J61
    Date: 2013–01
  8. By: Klepacka, Anna M.; Yen, Steven T.; Florkowski, Wojciech J.
    Abstract: The paper examines factors influencing migration to rural counties in Poland's underdeveloped regions using county data level and linear regression equation with exponential heteroscedastic errors. Quality of life factors, including the availability of various utility services positively influence the number of migrants, while real estate taxes have a negative effect.
    Keywords: Depopulation, rural development, quality of life, living conditions, income, Community/Rural/Urban Development,
    Date: 2013–01–19
  9. By: Jeffrey Grogger; Gordon H. Hanson
    Abstract: We use data from the NSF Survey of Earned Doctorates to examine the post-degree location choices of foreign-born students receiving PhDs from US universities in science and engineering. Over the period 1960 to 2008, 77% of foreign-born S&E PhDs state that they plan to stay in the United States. The foreign students more likely to stay in the US are those with stronger academic ability, measured in terms of parental educational attainment and the student’s success in obtaining graduate fellowships. Foreign students staying in the United States thus appear to be positively selected in terms of academic ability. We also find that foreign students are more likely to stay in the United States if in recent years the US economy has had strong GDP growth or the birth country of the foreign student has had weak GDP growth. Foreign students are less likely to remain in the US if they are from countries with higher average income levels or that have recently democratized. Education and innovation may therefore be part of a virtuous cycle in which education enhances prospects for innovation in low-income countries and innovation makes residing in these countries more attractive for scientists and engineers.
    JEL: J24 J61
    Date: 2013–02
  10. By: Joo, Hyunjeong; Mishra, Ashok K.; Gillespie, Jeffrey M.
    Abstract: Seafood processor preferences for hiring employees are explored in light of references, wages, and immigrant situations. The objectives of this study are to determine the relative importance of labor attributes, and to identify distinct clusters of processors in terms of preference for immigrant labor using conjoint analysis. Results from this study indicate that for seafood processors wage is the most important factor in hiring labor, and visa status is the least important factor when hiring seafood workers.
    Keywords: Seafood Processor, non-immigrant labor, H-2B visa, conjoint analysis, cluster analysis, Agribusiness, Labor and Human Capital,
    Date: 2013–01–18

This nep-mig issue is ©2013 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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