nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2012‒03‒14
six papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Highly skilled temporary return, technological change and Innovation: The Case of the TRQN Project in Afghanistan By Kuschminder, Katie; Siegel, Melissa
  2. Implementation of cross-country migration surveys in conflict-affected settings: Lessons from the IS Academy survey in Burundi and Ethiopia By Fransen, Sonja; Kuschminder, Katie; Siegel, Melissa
  3. The Effect of Development Aid Unpredictability and Migrants' Remittances on Fiscal Consolidation in Developing Countries By Sèna Kimm GNANGNON
  4. New Technologies in remittances sending: Opportunities for mobile remittances in Africa By Siegel, Melissa; Fransen, Sonja
  5. The changing impact of macroeconomic environment on remittance inflows in sub-Saharan Africa By Adenutsi, Deodat E.; Aziakpono, Meshach J.; Ocran, Matthew K.
  6. Do remittances alleviate poverty and income inequality in poor countries? Empirical evidence from sub-Saharan Africa By Adenutsi, Deodat E.

  1. By: Kuschminder, Katie (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, Maastricht University); Siegel, Melissa (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, Maastricht University)
    Abstract: Using the specific case of the International Organization for Migration's (IOM) Temporary Return of Qualified Nationals (TRQN) project, this paper illustrates the effect the short-term return of highly qualified migrants abroad can have on capacity building in the origin country through knowledge transfer, innovation and technological change. The paper specifically examines the needs, expectations and delivery of knowledge through the TRQN project in Afghanistan.
    Keywords: migration, return migration, innovation, technological change, migration and development, Afghanistan
    JEL: O33 O15 J24
    Date: 2012
  2. By: Fransen, Sonja (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, University of Maastricht); Kuschminder, Katie (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, University of Maastricht); Siegel, Melissa (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, University of Maastricht)
    Abstract: The past decades have seen a rise of survey research in migration studies, which is often cross-national due to the very nature of migration. Conducting cross-country surveys presents challenges for researchers in terms of survey design, implementation, and data collection. A thematic focus on migration brings additional challenges due to the complexity of migration, issues of definitions, sampling and the geographical areas of interest. This paper gives insight into the practicalities of implementing a migration household survey in a developing country, conflict-affected setting. By focusing on these settings this paper is one of the few to target survey methodology in a non-developed country context. We highlight specific areas for attention within survey implementation stages: (1) scoping, (2) survey design, (3) training, (4) pilot, and (5) data collection. We specifically use the examples of the IS Academy project in Ethiopia and Burundi, hereby highlighting the differences between the two countries. The aim of this paper is to give practical guidelines for researchers and practitioners working in the area of migration research.
    Keywords: cross-country survey research, migration research, conflict-affected settings, Burundi, Ethiopia
    JEL: O15 C83
    Date: 2012
  3. By: Sèna Kimm GNANGNON
    Abstract: We use panel data on seventy-four developing countries for the period 1980–2007 to examine the effects of aid unpredictability and migrants' remittances on fiscal consolidation in these countries. Two definitions of fiscal adjustment are considered and a conditional logit model is used to perform the analysis. Evidence is shown that except for the case of low-income countries, remittances increase the likelihood of fiscal consolidation, be the latter gradual or rapid. Surprisingly, we observe that aid unpredictability, except in SSA countries where the effect is strongly positive and significant, does not affect the adoption of fiscal consolidation measures in all the groups considered.
    Keywords: Remittances; Aid Unpredictability; Fiscal consolidation
    JEL: F20 C5 O23 F35
    Date: 2012
  4. By: Siegel, Melissa (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, University of Maastricht); Fransen, Sonja (UNU-MERIT/MGSoG, University of Maastricht)
    Abstract: Mobile remittances have a high development potential as they hold the promise of providing quick, easy and cheap money transfers. In Africa mobile phone usage has increased sharply and mobile banking providers are extending their services, enabling greater opportunities for mobile remittances. The rise of mobile banking in Africa, however, differs substantially across countries, mainly due to a lack of financial infrastructure. Consequently, the opportunities that mobile banking offers for mobile remittances vary geographically. The services provided do not always meet the needs of remittance senders and the African remittances market is generally under-acknowledged as an important market by providers. Restrictive financial regulations play a key role as well. Mobile remittances have the potential to become an important and revolutionary tool for remittances sending in Africa. Effective policies should therefore address the limitations in the regulatory and financial infrastructure for mobile banking to become the foundation for mobile remittances.
    Keywords: Remittances, mobile remittances, Africa, innovation, technology, development
    JEL: F24 L63 O15 O17 O33
    Date: 2012
  5. By: Adenutsi, Deodat E.; Aziakpono, Meshach J.; Ocran, Matthew K.
    Abstract: This paper identifies the core macroeconomic factors responsible for explaining the changing levels in international remittances received by SSA countries. A set of annual panel data on 36 SSA countries, covering 1980-2009, was used in a ‘system’ Generalised Method of Moments following Blundell and Bond (1998) dynamic panel-data estimation technique. In order to provide a more detailed insight into the possible dynamics of varying impact of macroeconomic variables that explain remittances received in SSA, decade-based (1980-89, 1990-99, and 2000-09), as well as an overall study period, 1980-2009, estimations were carried out. It was found that both migrant home-country and host-country macroeconomic environment impact on remittance inflows in SSA with a varying impact overtime. In absolute terms, generally, whilst the impact of real exchange rate, migrant income, and institutional quality has been increasing on remittances overtime, the effects of family income and the rate of inflation has be decreasing overtime
    Keywords: Migrant; Remittances; Macroeconomic Policy; system Dynamic GMM Panel Estimation
    JEL: F22 C23 J3 F24
    Date: 2011–01
  6. By: Adenutsi, Deodat E.
    Abstract: An attempt has been made in this paper to examine the impact of international remittances on poverty and income inequality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). In carrying out the study, 34 SSA countries for which relevant data are available, between 1980 and 2009, were sampled for the poverty analysis whilst a sample size of 36 was used in the remittances-income inequality exploration. A set of dynamic panel-data models was estimated using system Generalized Method of Moments. It was found that remittances have significant poverty-alleviating effect, with the poorest of the poor being the least beneficiaries. Additionally, International remittances have income equalisation effects in countries with relatively narrower income gap, but with an intensifying income-inequality aggravating effects in countries with relatively wider income gap. It is, thus, concluded that although remittances have huge potentials to alleviate poverty and equilibrate incomes in SSA, these remittances have size-effects to the detriment of relatively poorer countries and countries with relatively higher income gap. Therefore, the paper recommends that, although the poverty-alleviating effects and income equalisation effects of remittances cannot be downplayed, it is imprudent for SSA policymakers to overly exclusively on remittances as a poverty-reduction strategy towards sustainable socioeconomic development of the sub-region.
    Keywords: Remittances; Poverty; Inequality; Developing Countries; system GMM; Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: F22 D63 O15 N37 I3 C33 F24
    Date: 2011–09–14

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