nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2012‒03‒08
twelve papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Immigrant Earnings Growth: Selection Bias or Real Progress? By Picot, Garnett<br/> Piraino, Patrizio
  2. Hukou and Consumption Heterogeneity: Migrants' Expenditure Is Depressed by Institutional Constraints in Urban China By Binkai Chen; Ming Lu; Ninghua Zhong
  3. Microfinance institutions will be an important instrument to earn more remittance, send remittance and utilize remittance in Bangladesh By Sk. Mahmudul Alam, Mahmud
  4. Do Reported Attitudes towards Immigrants Predict Ethnic Discrimination? By Carlsson, Magnus; Eriksson, Stefan
  5. Retirement intentions of older migrant workers: Does health matter? By Nicolas Gérard Vaillant; François-Charles Wolff
  6. The Impact of Migration on Family Left Behind By Antman, Francisca M
  7. Returns to migration : the role of educational attainment in rural Tanzania By Kudo, Yuya
  8. Living and Working in Ethnic Enclaves: Language Proficiency of Immigrants in U.S. Metropolitan Areas By Beckhusen, Julia; Florax, Raymond J.G.M.; de Graaff, Thomas; Poot, Jacques; Waldorf, Brigitte
  9. The Evaluation of Immigration Policies By Rinne, Ulf
  10. Moroccans' Assimilation in Spain: Family-Based versus Labor-Based Migration By Rodriguez-Planas, Nuria; Vegas, Raquel
  11. The Origins of the Common Travel Area between Ireland and the United Kingdom and its Fate in an Era of Governmental Concern about Undocumented Migration and International Terrorism By Meehan, Elizabeth
  12. Migration in the global world: economical and demographical roles and prospects for Russia By Lifshits, Marina

  1. By: Picot, Garnett<br/> Piraino, Patrizio
    Abstract: This paper studies the effect of selective attrition on estimates of immigrant earnings growth based on repeated cross-sectional data in Canada. Longitudinal tax data linked to immigrant landing records are used in order to estimate the change in immigrant earnings and the immigrant-Canadian-born earnings gap. The results are compared with those from repeated cross-sectional data. This approach eliminates differences in results that may stem from variation in collection modes and procedures across datasets.
    Keywords: Labour, Ethnic diversity and immigration, Wages, salaries and other earnings, Ethnic groups and generations in Canada, Immigrants and non-permanent residents, Labour market and income
    Date: 2012–02–28
  2. By: Binkai Chen; Ming Lu; Ninghua Zhong
    Abstract: This paper provides a new explanation for China's extremely low consumption-to-GDP ratio, highlighting the constraints of the "household registration system" (Hukou) on China's household consumption. Our baseline results show that the consumption of migrants without an urban Hukou is 30.7% lower than that of urban residents. Moreover, consumption heterogeneity cannot be explained by migration effects, culture, social norms, habits or some other forms of household heterogeneity. Further studies on the composition of household consumption have shown that the gaps are largest in areas such as education and culture, durable goods and health. As both the number and income level of migrants are rising, the constraining effects of Hukou on household consumption will continue to increase.
    Keywords: Consumption, Heterogeneity, Hukou System, Migrants, Urban Residents
    JEL: R23 E21
    Date: 2012–02
  3. By: Sk. Mahmudul Alam, Mahmud
    Abstract: Remittance is called the life blood of Bangladesh economy. In Bangladesh it contributes much in reducing poverty. In a study of Institute of Microfinance led by Professor S.R. Osmani, we have seen that 4 % poverty of Bangladesh solely reduced by foreign remittance. Microcredit is another important tool in reducing poverty. In the same study, we have seen that microcredit solely reduced 4% poverty in Bangladesh. In Bangladesh microcredit will be an important tool in earning remittance. Microfinance Institutions in Bangladesh can play its role in two stages – a) pre-stage and b) post stage. In pre stage MFIs can work as an important source of money for migration and MFIs can also trained migrant worker according to their importers’ demand which helps workers to improve their efficiency. This helps Bangladesh to earn more remittance which helps in reducing poverty. In post stages MFIs can help migrant worker to send money and also work for proper utilization of this remitted money. This helps to create entrepreneurs which help to create employment, which help to reduce poverty in Bangladesh. This whole process is discussed in this paper elaborately.
    Keywords: Bangladesh; Microfinance Institutions; Microcredit; International Migration; Migrant Workers; Remittances; Development
    JEL: F22 F24
    Date: 2012–02–12
  4. By: Carlsson, Magnus (School of Business and Economics, Linnaeus University); Eriksson, Stefan (Department of Economics)
    Abstract: Reported attitudes towards immigrants are sometimes used as a proxy for ethnic discrimination. However, there is little empirical evidence of a link between attitudes and discrimination. In this paper, we use survey data on people’s attitudes towards immigrants combined with data on ethnic discrimination from a field experiment in the Swedish housing market to re-examine this issue. We find clear evidence of a link between reported attitudes towards immigrants and the extent of ethnic discrimination at the municipality level. Thus, in contrast to most prior studies, our results suggest that reported attitudes may be a useful proxy for ethnic discrimination.
    Keywords: Attitudes; Ethnic discrimination; Field experiments; Housing market
    JEL: C93 J15 R39
    Date: 2012–02–21
  5. By: Nicolas Gérard Vaillant (LEM - Lille - Economie et Management - CNRS : UMR8179 - Université des Sciences et Technologies de Lille - Lille I - Fédération Universitaire et Polytechnique de Lille, Université Catholique de Lille - Université Catholique de Lille, ISTC - Institut des Stratégies et Techniques de Communication - Université Catholique de Lille); François-Charles Wolff (LEMNA - Laboratoire d'économie et de management de Nantes Atlantique - Université de Nantes : EA4272, INED - Institut National d'Etudes Démographiques Paris - INED)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of self-assessed health on retirement plans of older migrants. As immigration is primarily associated with labor considerations, the role of economic incentives in the migration decision suggests that health could play a minor effect in immigrants' decision to retire. Using detailed data on immigrants living in France collected in 2003, we examine the role of health on early retirement intentions using simultaneous, recursive models that account for the fact that subjective health is potentially endogenous. Being in poor health increases the intention of migrant workers to retire early, but the subjective health outcomes have little influence on retirement plans.
    Keywords: Retirement intention ; self-assessed health ; immigrants ; France
    Date: 2012–02–17
  6. By: Antman, Francisca M (University of Colorado, Boulder)
    Abstract: This paper addresses the effects of migration on families left behind and offers new evidence on the impact of migration on elderly parents. After discussing the identification issues involved in estimation, I review the literature on the effects of migration on the education and health of non-migrant children as well as the labor supply of non-migrant spouses. Finally, I address the impact of adult child migration on contributions toward non-migrant parents as well as the effects on parental health. Results show that elderly parents receive lower time contributions from all of their children when one child migrates.
    Keywords: migration, left behind, elderly, children
    JEL: O15 D13 J13 J14 F22 I15 I25
    Date: 2012–02
  7. By: Kudo, Yuya
    Abstract: Given the migration premium previously identified in an impact evaluation approach, this paper asks the question of why migration is not more prominent, given such high premium associated with it. Using long-term household panel data drawn from rural Tanzania, Kagera for the period 1991-2004, this study aims to answer this question by exploring the contribution of education in the migration premium. By separating migrants into those that moved out of original villages but remained within Kagera and those who left the region, this study finds that, in consumption, the return on investment in education is higher at both destinations. However, whilst the higher return on education fully explains the gains associated with migration within Kagera, it only partly explains those of external migration. These findings suggest that welfare opportunities are higher at the destination and that an individual's limited investment in education plays a major role in preventing short-distance migration from becoming a significant source of raising welfare, which is not the case for long-distance migration. While education plays a role, it appears that other mechanisms may prohibit rural agents from exploiting the arbitrage opportunity when they migrate to the destination at a great distance from the source.
    Keywords: Tanzania, Population movement, Migration, Education, Rural societies, Africa, Internal migration, School Investment, Return to education, Welfare growth
    JEL: J61 J62 O15 R23 I25
    Date: 2012–02
  8. By: Beckhusen, Julia (U.S. Census Bureau); Florax, Raymond J.G.M. (Purdue University); de Graaff, Thomas (VU University Amsterdam); Poot, Jacques (University of Waikato); Waldorf, Brigitte (Purdue University)
    Abstract: Learning English is a potentially profitable investment for immigrants in the U.S.: while there are initial costs, the subsequent benefits include the ability to communicate with the majority of the population, potentially leading to better paying jobs and economic success in the new country. These payoffs are lessened if immigrants choose to live and work in ethnic enclaves where the necessity to communicate in English is weak. Ethnic enclaves are widespread and persistent in the U.S. This study uses data from the 2010 American Community Survey to examine the impact of residential and occupational segregation on immigrants' ability to speak English. We allow for heterogeneity in the relationship between segregation and English language proficiency across ethnic groups and focus specifically on Mexican and Chinese immigrants. Our results show that immigrants in the U.S. who live and work among high concentrations of their countrymen are less likely to be proficient in English than those who are less residentially and occupationally segregated. The magnitude of the effect of segregation on language proficiency varies across immigrants' birthplaces and other salient characteristics defining the immigration context.
    Keywords: U.S. immigration, language acquisition, ethnic enclaves, residential segregation, occupational segregation
    JEL: F22 J15 J24 R23
    Date: 2012–02
  9. By: Rinne, Ulf (IZA)
    Abstract: This chapter summarizes the literature on the evaluation of immigration policies. It brings together two strands of the literature dealing with the evaluation of labor market programs and with the economic integration of immigrants. Next to immigrant selection and settlement policies, there are four types of interventions that aim at improving the economic and social outcomes of immigrants: a) introduction programs, b) language training, c) labor market programs, and d) anti-discrimination policies. The chapter discusses problems associated with the evaluation of such programs, presents methodological approaches to circumvent these problems, and surveys empirical results and findings. It concludes with lessons from previous research and identifies avenues for future research.
    Keywords: migration, program evaluation, immigrant selection, settlement policy, introduction programs, discrimination, active labor market policy, language training, integration
    JEL: F22 J15 J61 C21
    Date: 2012–02
  10. By: Rodriguez-Planas, Nuria (IZA); Vegas, Raquel (FEDEA, Madrid)
    Abstract: An important immigration policy question is to identify the best criteria to select among potential migrants. At least two methodological problems arise: the host country's immigration policy regime endogeneity, and immigrants' unobserved heterogeneity. To address the first problem, we focus in a country with an unprecedented immigration boom that lets immigrants freely into a country: Spain. To address the second problem, we focus on a large and homogenous group of immigrants: Moroccans. Using the 2007 Encuesta Nacional de Immigración (ENI), we find that, even when focusing on a very homogenous group of migrants (Moroccans) who tend to be low-skilled, and after controlling for migrants' self-selection with employment history prior to and at arrival, family-based immigrants are less likely to work than their labor-based counterparts both at arrival and ten years later. Our Heckman-corrected estimates highlight that there are no monthly earnings differences by reason of arrival, and that failure to correct for labor force participation strongly biases these results.
    Keywords: Southern and Eastern Mediterranean men and women, legal and employment assimilation
    JEL: J15 J24 J61 J62
    Date: 2012–02
  11. By: Meehan, Elizabeth
    Keywords: ERA/Ireland/migration
    Date: 2011–12
  12. By: Lifshits, Marina
    Abstract: The author of this paper has taken to the econometric analysis of the ROSSTAT and World Bank data to answer the following questions: (1) Provided that age structure of the population is influenced by migration, can migration influence upon living standards too, and to what extend? (2) What factors determine the volumes and direction of the world migration flows? (3) For what reasons net migration to Russia from various post-Soviet countries is that different? (4) What are the prospects of net migration to Russia? (5) What kind of migration policy does Russia need?
    Keywords: Migration of population; net migration; migration policy; post-Soviet space; ageing of population;
    JEL: C33 J18 J11
    Date: 2011

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