nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2011‒12‒13
29 papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Why Don't Migrants with Secondary Education Return? By Renata Ivanova; Byeongju Jeong
  2. Welfare Participation by Immigrants in the UK By Drinkwater, Stephen; Robinson, Catherine
  3. Unemployment Benefits and Immigration: Evidence from the EU By Giulietti, Corrado; Guzi, Martin; Kahanec, Martin; Zimmermann, Klaus F
  4. Does Migration Make You Happy? A Longitudinal Study of Internal Migration and Subjective Well-Being By Nowok, Beata; van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M; Gayle, Vernon
  5. Parental Ethnic Identity and Educational Attainment of Second-Generation Immigrants By Schüller, Simone
  6. Migration, trade and unemployment By Heid, Benedikt; Larch, Mario
  7. Educating Children of Immigrants: Closing the Gap in Norwegian Schools By Bratsberg, Bernt; Raaum, Oddbjørn; Røed, Knut
  8. Welfare spending and ethnic heterogeneity: Evidence from a massive immigration wave By Jordi Jofre-Monseny (Universitat de Barcelona & Institut dEconomia de Barcelona (IEB)); Pilar Sorribas-Navarro (Universitat de Barcelona & Institut dEconomia de Barcelona (IEB)); Javier Vazquez-Grenno (Universitat de Barcelona & Institut dEconomia de Barcelona (IEB))
  9. Immigrant Participation in Welfare Benefits in the Netherlands By Zorlu, Aslan
  10. The Impact of Immigration on International Trade: A Meta-Analysis By Genc, Murat; Gheasi, Masood; Nijkamp, Peter; Poot, Jacques
  11. Selection in initial and return migration: Evidence from moves across Spanish cities By Jorge De la Roca
  12. Emigration and Wages: The EU Enlargement Experiment By Elsner, Benjamin
  13. Disparities in Social Assistance Receipt between Immigrants and Natives in Sweden By Gustafsson, Björn
  14. The Effect of a Culturally Diverse Population on Regional Income in EU Regions By Stephan Brunow; Hanna Brenzel
  15. Determinants of internal migration in Kazakhstan By Aldashev, Alisher; Dietz, Barbara
  16. Sizing It Up: Labor Migration Lessons of the EU Enlargement to 27 By Constant, Amelie F.
  17. Are Commuters in the EU Better Educated than Non-Commuters but Worse than Migrants? By Peter Huber
  18. Is there Descriminatory Mortgage Pricing against Immigrants in the Spanish Lending Market? By Díaz Serrano, Lluís; Raya, Josep Maria
  19. Occupational Adjustment of Immigrants By Zorlu, Aslan
  20. The French Unhappiness Puzzle: The Cultural Dimension of Happiness By Senik, Claudia
  21. Growth effects of 19th century mass migrations: "Fome Zero" for Brazil By Stolz, Yvonne; Baten, Jörg; Botelho, Tarcísio
  22. Ethnic Disparities in the Graduate Labour Market By Zorlu, Aslan
  23. Rainfall, Financial Development, and Remittances: Evidence from Sub-Saharan Africa By Rabah Arezki; Markus Bruckner
  24. Remittances and the Dutch disease in Sub-Saharan Africa. A Dynamic Panel Approach By Francis M. Kemegue; Reneé van Eyden; Emmanuel Owusu-Sekyere
  25. Compliance with the Institutional Wage in Dualistic Models By Ana Paula Martins
  26. Game-theoretic analysis of IPv4-IPv6 migration process By Trinh, Tuan Anh; Sallai, Gyula
  27. Foctors that prevent children from gaining access to schooling : a study of Delhi Slum households By Tsujita, Yuko
  28. Contextualised Mobility Histories of Moving Desires and Actual Moving Behaviour By Coulter, Rory; van Ham, Maarten
  29. Migration, Openness and the Global Preconditions of 'Smart Development' By Tausch, Arno; Heshmati, Almas

  1. By: Renata Ivanova; Byeongju Jeong
    Abstract: The paper attempts to explain a U-shaped pattern of return migration rates with respect to educational attainment. We develop a two period OLG model with emigration and return migration decisions undertaken by agents heterogeneous in terms of educational attainment. The immigration policy is considered as an additional determinant for the migration decision. The model predicts that the combination of two forces - relative returns to schooling and uncertain opportunities for status adjustment - results in favorable conditions for migrants with secondary education to remain abroad permanently.
    Keywords: return migration; skilled migration; returns to education;
    JEL: F2 F22
    Date: 2011–11
  2. By: Drinkwater, Stephen (Swansea University); Robinson, Catherine (Swansea University)
    Abstract: Welfare participation is an important indicator of how successfully immigrants perform in the host country. This paper examines this issue for the UK, which has experienced a large growth in its immigrant flows and population levels in recent years, especially following EU enlargement in 2004. The analysis focuses in particular on the types of benefits that immigrants tend to claim as well as examining differences by area of origin. It also examines the factors that determine social benefit claims, including an investigation of the impact of education, ethnicity and years since migration. Social welfare claims vary considerably by immigrant group as well as by the type of benefit claimed in the UK. There is also some variation by gender within the migrant groups.
    Keywords: immigration, United Kingdom, benefit claims, EU enlargement
    JEL: J61 F22 I38
    Date: 2011–11
  3. By: Giulietti, Corrado; Guzi, Martin; Kahanec, Martin; Zimmermann, Klaus F
    Abstract: The paper studies the impact of unemployment benefits on immigration. A sample of 19 European countries observed over the period 1993 to 2008 is used to test the hypothesis that unemployment benefit spending (UBS) is correlated with immigration flows from EU and non-EU origins. While OLS estimates reveal the existence of a moderate correlation for non-EU immigrants only, IV and GMM techniques used to address endogeneity issues yield, respectively, a much smaller and an essentially zero causal impact of UBS on immigration. All estimates for immigrants from EU origins indicate that flows within the EU are not related to unemployment benefit generosity. This suggests that the so-called 'welfare migration' debate is misguided and not based on empirical evidence.
    Keywords: European Union; immigration; unemployment benefit spending; welfare magnets
    JEL: H53 J61
    Date: 2011–11
  4. By: Nowok, Beata (University of St. Andrews); van Ham, Maarten (Delft University of Technology); Findlay, Allan M (University of St. Andrews); Gayle, Vernon (University of Stirling)
    Abstract: The majority of modelling studies on consequences of internal migration focus almost exclusively on the labour market outcomes and the material well-being of migrants. We investigate whether individuals who migrate within the UK become happier after the move than they were before it and whether the effect is permanent or transient. Using life satisfaction responses from 12 waves of the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) and employing a fixed-effects model, we derive a temporal pattern of migrants' subjective well-being (SWB) around the time of the migration event. Our findings make an original contribution by revealing for the first time that, on average, migration is preceded by a period when individuals experience a significant decline in happiness. The boost that is received through migration appears to bring people back to their initial level of happiness. As opposed to labour market outcomes of migration, SWB outcomes do not differ significantly between men and women. Perhaps surprisingly, long-distance migrants are at least as happy as short-distance migrants despite the higher social costs that are involved.
    Keywords: migration, happiness, subjective well-being, longitudinal data, UK
    JEL: J61 R23
    Date: 2011–11
  5. By: Schüller, Simone (IZA)
    Abstract: A lack of cultural integration is often blamed for hindering immigrant families' economic progression. This paper is a first attempt to explore whether immigrant parents' ethnic identity affects the next generation's human capital accumulation in the host country. Empirical results based on data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (GSOEP) indicate that maternal majority as well as paternal minority identity are positively related to the educational attainment of second-generation youth – even controlling for differences in ethnicity, family background and years-since-migration. Additional tests show that the effect of maternal majority identity can be explained by mothers' German language proficiency, while the beneficial effect of fathers' minority identity is not related to language skills and thus likely to stem from paternal minority identity per se.
    Keywords: ethnic identity, second-generation immigrants, education
    JEL: I21 J15 J16
    Date: 2011–11
  6. By: Heid, Benedikt; Larch, Mario
    Abstract: A source of anxiety of policy makers and the public in general is the detrimental impact of globalization and immigration on unemployment. The transitory restrictions for worker migration after the EU enlargements of 2004 and 2007 exemplify the supposed negative effect of immigration on labor markets. This paper aims to identify the effects of immigration alongside trade on unemployment taking into account the substitutability of worker and goods flows. We use data from 24 OECD countries over the period from 1997 to 2007 and employ instrumental variables fixed effects and dynamic panel estimators in order to account for unobserved heterogeneity as well as the potential endogeneity of migration flows and the high persistence of unemployment. We find a significant negative effect of immigration on unemployment on average. --
    Keywords: migration,unemployment,international trade,fixed effects instrumental variable panel estimators,dynamic panel estimators
    JEL: C23 C26 F15 F16 F22
    Date: 2011
  7. By: Bratsberg, Bernt (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research); Raaum, Oddbjørn (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research); Røed, Knut (Ragnar Frisch Centre for Economic Research)
    Abstract: Children of immigrant parents constitute a growing share of school cohorts in many OECD countries, and their educational performance is vital for successful social and economic integration. This paper examines educational outcomes of first and second generation non- OECD immigrants in Norway. We show that children of immigrants, and particularly those born outside Norway, are much more likely to leave school early than native children. Importantly, this gap shrunk sharply over the past two decades and second generation immigrants are now rapidly catching up with the educational performance of natives. For childhood immigrants, upper secondary completion rates decline with age at arrival, with a particularly steep gradient after age seven. Finally, we find that immigrant-native attainment gaps disappear when we condition on grade points from compulsory school.
    Keywords: immigrant children, educational attainment, school performance
    JEL: J15 I21 I24
    Date: 2011–11
  8. By: Jordi Jofre-Monseny (Universitat de Barcelona & Institut dEconomia de Barcelona (IEB)); Pilar Sorribas-Navarro (Universitat de Barcelona & Institut dEconomia de Barcelona (IEB)); Javier Vazquez-Grenno (Universitat de Barcelona & Institut dEconomia de Barcelona (IEB)) (Universitat de Barcelona)
    Abstract: The aim of this paper is to examine the relationship between ethnic heterogeneity and redistribution, by using the recent and massive arrival of immigrants in Spain. Specifically, we focus on the effect of changes in immigrant density, recorded between 1998 and 2006, on contemporaneous changes in municipal welfare spending. We instrument for immigrant density using established settlement patterns per country of origin so as to assign predicted flows of immigrants to municipalities. We find that welfare spending increased less in those municipalities that recorded the largest increases in immigrant density. We also provide evidence of a positive relationship between immigrant density and the vote share accruing to right-wing parties. Hence, our results are consistent with theories that predict a negative relationship between ethnic heterogeneity and redistribution.
    Keywords: welfare spending, ethnic heterogeneity, redistribution, immigration
    JEL: D64 J61 H7 I3
    Date: 2011
  9. By: Zorlu, Aslan (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: The efficiency of Dutch welfare system is at the heart of debate as long as immigrants are overrepresented in social welfare benefits during the working age period. This paper examines the degree of participation in social assistance, disability and unemployment benefits across ethnic groups using register data of the entire population in the Netherlands. The analysis shows that migrants are drastically more likely to have a benefit, in particular social assistance and disability benefits. A large part of migrants' dependence can be explained by their background characteristics and immigration history but still a significant unexplained residual is left. Most notably, the probability of welfare use of non-western second generation is about twice as high as the probability of western immigrants, which is a true challenge for policy makers.
    Keywords: ethnic minorities, benefits, inactivity
    JEL: J15 J32
    Date: 2011–11
  10. By: Genc, Murat (University of Otago); Gheasi, Masood (VU University Amsterdam); Nijkamp, Peter (VU University Amsterdam); Poot, Jacques (University of Waikato)
    Abstract: Since the early 1990s many empirical studies have been conducted on the impact of international migration on international trade, predominantly from the host country perspective. Because most studies have adopted broadly the same specification, namely a log-linear gravity model of export and import flows augmented with the logarithm of the stock of immigrants from specific source countries as an additional explanatory variable, the resulting elasticities are broadly comparable and yield a set of estimates that is well suited to meta-analysis. We therefore compile and analyze in this paper the distribution of immigration elasticities of imports and exports across 48 studies that yielded 300 observations. The results show that immigration complements rather than substitutes for trade flows between host and origin countries. Correcting for heterogeneity and publication bias, an increase in the number of immigrants by 10 percent may be expected to increase the volume of trade on average by about 1.5 percent. However, the impact is lower for trade in homogeneous goods. Over time, the growing stock of immigrants decreases the elasticities. The estimates are affected by the choice of some covariates, the nature of the data (cross-section or panel) and the estimation technique. Elasticities vary between countries in ways that cannot be fully explained by study characteristics; trade restrictions and immigration policies matter for the impact of immigration on trade. The migrant elasticity of imports is larger than that of exports in about half the countries considered, but the publication bias and heterogeneity-corrected elasticity is slightly larger for exports than for imports.
    Keywords: international trade, imports, exports, immigration, gravity model, meta-analysis
    JEL: F16 F22
    Date: 2011–11
  11. By: Jorge De la Roca (CEMFI and IMDEA Social Sciences Institute)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the sorting of more productive workers into denser cities using administrative data for Spain that follow individuals continuously throughout their working lives. Migrants who move to denser cities are positively selected in terms of education, occupational skills, and individual productivity as proxied by premigration position in the local earnings distribution. However, not everyone is able to benefit equally from denser cities and this leads to a second round of sorting. Returnees are not only exante less productive than permanent migrants, but are also those who, following the first move, have least boosted up their earnings in denser cities.
    Keywords: selection; urban migration; return migration; skill sorting
    JEL: J61 R10 R23
    Date: 2011–11–24
  12. By: Elsner, Benjamin (Trinity College Dublin)
    Abstract: The enlargement of the European Union provides a unique opportunity to study the impact of the lifting of migration restrictions on the migrant sending countries. With EU enlargement in 2004, 1.2 million workers from Eastern Europe emigrated to the UK and Ireland. I use this emigration wave to show that emigration significantly changed the wage distribution in the sending country, in particular between young and old workers. Using a novel dataset from Lithuania, the UK and Ireland for the calibration of a structural model of labor demand, I find that over the period of five years emigration increased the wages of young workers by 6%, while it had no effect on the wages of old workers. Contrary to the immigration literature, there is no significant effect of emigration on the wage distribution between high-skilled and low-skilled workers.
    Keywords: emigration, EU enlargement, European integration, wage distribution
    JEL: F22 J31 O15 R23
    Date: 2011–11
  13. By: Gustafsson, Björn (University of Gothenburg)
    Abstract: Social assistance receipt among immigrants in relation to receipt among natives in Sweden is investigated. A background of how the system is constructed is provided, statistical information reported, the literature surveyed and key results interpreted. Most out-payment for social assistance in Sweden refers to foreign born persons although the category makes up 14 percent of the population. While some part of the high costs can be attributed to needs to maintaining recent refugees, this is not the entire story. Immigrants tend to assimilate out of social assistance receipt. However, receipt continues to be higher than among in several characteristics identical natives many years after immigration among immigrants from not rich countries. The elevated probabilities of social assistance receipt among immigrants from not rich countries are mainly due to failures of integrating into the labor market at the destination.
    Keywords: social assistance, immigrants, Sweden
    JEL: F22 I38 J15
    Date: 2011–11
  14. By: Stephan Brunow; Hanna Brenzel
    Abstract: After the crisis years of 2008 and 2009 EU countries followed different employment paths. Employment and wage levels, for instance, are quite unevenly distributed across Europe. Some of the EU countries expect labour shortages due to demographic change in the future. If this is the case, wages will rise when the shortages occur. From literature on migration it is well known that regions with relatively higher income levels and a lower risk of unemployment are typical destination countries for immigration. Thus, European regions might be expected to become rather mixed in cultural terms in the future. Despite the filling of the labour market and the redistribution of the resource of labour, the ultimate question raised in the discussion is whether there are additional gains or losses due to immigration. This work therefore focuses on the impact of migrants on regional GDP per capita for European regions. Does the proportion of foreigners in the labour force increase or lower regional income? Does the composition of non-natives with respect to their countries of origin matter? Both questions are addressed in this study while controlling for endogeneity. We provide evidence that immigration raises regional income and a tendency towards (roughly classified) dominant foreign-born groups reduces the costs of interaction and integration. Thus, in general immigration has a positive effect on regional performance and the costs of immigration in destination regions are balanced out. Depending on the labour market status of migrants, the regions of origin of migrants within the EU face a rise or decline in income as a result of the outflow.
    Keywords: Regional Income, Cultural Diversity, Effects of Immigration
    Date: 2011–12–01
  15. By: Aldashev, Alisher; Dietz, Barbara
    Abstract: In this paper we analyze the determinants of interregional migration in Kazakhstan using quarterly panel data on region to region migration in 2008–2010. To the best of our knowledge this is the first study on interregional population flows in Central Asia. We find that migration is determined by economic factors, first of all income: People are more likely to leave regions where incomes are low and more likely to move to regions with a higher income level. Furthermore, mobility is larger between more populated regions. Distance has a strong negative impact on migration, indicating high migration related costs and risks. Assuming that high migration costs are caused by poor infrastructure, investments in public and social infrastructure should facilitate regional income convergence in Kazakhstan and improve living standards in depressed regions.
    Keywords: Interregional migration; Kazakhstan; Gravity model
    JEL: P36 J61 R23
    Date: 2011–10
  16. By: Constant, Amelie F. (DIW DC, George Washington University)
    Abstract: While economists were pointing out the advantages of the EU enlargement, politicians and policymakers were raising grave concerns about the significant political and economic differences between the newcomer states (EU12) and the "old Europe" of EU15. The major point of apprehension was related to the labor markets. Visceral fear rendered more than one in two Europeans to believe that the EU enlargement contributed to job losses in their own country. Some EU15 member states opted for transitional arrangements and did not allow labor mobility from the EU12. This chapter reviews the achievements of the first five years of the EU27 and assesses and evaluates the effectiveness of the enforced policies while it identifies winner and losers. Overall, the EU enlargement did not produce any negative effects or disruptions in the labor markets of the Member States. All three agents, the migrants, the receiving countries, and the sending countries gained from labor mobility. The EU15 countries with closed door policy lost in high-skilled labor and their labor markets experienced a delayed adjustment that overlapped with the global crisis and exacerbated negativity. As self-employed labor was not under the same mobility Act, the self-employed were able to move to the country they were needed and open successful businesses. The global crisis tainted the rosy results of the enlargement and left the EU27 vulnerable to shocks.
    Keywords: labor mobility, labor policy, EU enlargement, wages, international migration, remittances
    JEL: J6 J3 F22 F24
    Date: 2011–11
  17. By: Peter Huber (WIFO)
    Abstract: I analyse the skill and age structure of commuters in 14 EU countries. Theory implies that commuters can be either more or less able than stayers, but are always less able than migrants and that they are also always older than migrants but younger than stayers. Empirically all types of commuters are younger and have higher education than non-commuters. Internal commuters are better educated and younger than cross-border commuters, education decreases while age increases with distance commuted and recent migrants are younger but also more highly educated than commuters.
    Keywords: Commuting, Selectivity, Migration
    Date: 2011–11–30
  18. By: Díaz Serrano, Lluís; Raya, Josep Maria
    Abstract: In this paper, we investigate whether evidence of discriminatory treatment against immigrants in the Spanish mortgage market exists. More specifically, we test whether, ceteris paribus, immigrant borrowers tend to be charged with higher interest rates on their mortgages than their Spanish born counterparts. To do so, we use a unique dataset on granted mortgages that contains information not only regarding the conditions of the loan but also the socio-economic characteristics of the mortgagors. We observe that immigrants are systematically charged with higher interest rates. We apply the well known Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition to measure the extent to which this disparate treatment of lenders in mortgage pricing against immigrants is due to discrimination. Our results indicate that approximately two thirds of the gap in the interest rate between Spanish born and immigrant borrowers can be attributed to discriminatory treatment. Key words: Immigration, discrimination, mortgage pricing, housing market. JEL codes: R21, G21, J14
    Keywords: Emigració i immigració, Discriminació, Préstecs hipotecaris, Oferta i demanda, Habitatge, 332 - Economia regional i territorial. Economia del sòl i de la vivenda,
    Date: 2011
  19. By: Zorlu, Aslan (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: This paper examines the speed of the occupational adjustment of immigrants using Labour Force Surveys 2004 and 2005 from Statistics Netherlands. The analysis provides new evidence that immigrants start with jobs at the lower levels of skill distribution. Their occupational achievement improves significantly with the duration of residence. The extent of this initial disadvantage and the rate of adjustment vary across immigrant groups according to the transferability of skills associated with their cultural and linguistic distance from Dutch society as predicted by the theory of immigrant occupational mobility. Most notably, Turks and Moroccans face the greatest initial dip and achieve the highest rate of adjustment while the opposite holds for Caribbean and Western immigrants. Our results are robust to three alternative measures of occupational status.
    Keywords: ethnic minorities, quality of jobs
    JEL: J15 J24
    Date: 2011–11
  20. By: Senik, Claudia (Paris School of Economics)
    Abstract: This article sheds light on the important differences in self-declared happiness across countries of equivalent affluence. It hinges on the different happiness statements of natives and immigrants in a set of European countries to disentangle the influence of objective circumstances versus psychological and cultural factors. The latter turns out to be of non-negligible importance in explaining international heterogeneity in happiness. In some countries, such as France, they are responsible for 80% of the country's unobserved idiosyncratic source of (un-)happiness.
    Keywords: happiness, subjective well-being, international comparisons, France, immigration, European Social Survey
    JEL: I31 H52 O15 O52 Z10
    Date: 2011–11
  21. By: Stolz, Yvonne; Baten, Jörg; Botelho, Tarcísio
    Abstract: We estimate a long-run trend of Brazilian human capital that extends back to the very beginning of the 18th century. With new data on selective immigration during the era of mass migrations at the end of the 19th century, we show that human capital endowment of international migrants can induce effects on economic development that persist until today. According to our estimations, the effect of selective immigration on real GDP per capita in the year 2000 is significant and equals around 75 US $ overall. As a reference, this value equals the amount poor Brazilians get to supplement their subsistence in the Fome Zero (Zero Hunger) program. We argue that human capital formation is a highly path-dependent and persistent process. --
    Keywords: migration,economic growth,Brazil,human capital,path dependency
    JEL: F22 J40 I21 N30
    Date: 2011
  22. By: Zorlu, Aslan (University of Amsterdam)
    Abstract: This paper examines ethnic wage differentials for the entire population of students enrolled in 1996 using unique administrative panel data for the period 1996 to 2005 from the Dutch tertiary education system. The study decomposes wage differentials into two components: a component which can be explained by the observed characteristics and unexplained component. The analysis provides novel evidence for the magnitude and the origin of ethnic wage differentials by gender. In general, ethnic wage gap is larger for migrant women than migrant men and larger for Western and Caribbean migrants than Mediterranean migrants. Ethnic minority students appear to have large wage surplus which is almost entirely explained from their favourable observed characteristics. Most notably, Mediterranean female graduates have significant positive wage discrimination while Western female graduates seem to face a small wage penalty.
    Keywords: college, university, wages, qualifications, dropout
    JEL: J15 J24 J31
    Date: 2011–11
  23. By: Rabah Arezki (International Monetary Fund (IMF)); Markus Bruckner (School of Economics, University of Adelaide)
    Abstract: We use annual variations in rainfall to examine the effects that exogenous, transitory income shocks have on remittances in a panel of 41 Sub-Saharan African countries during the period 1970-2007. Our main finding is that on average rainfall shocks have an insignificant contemporaneous effect on remittances. However, the marginal effect is significantly decreasing in the share of domestic credit to GDP. So much so, that at high levels of credit to GDP rainfall shocks have a significant negative effect on remittances, while at low levels of credit to GDP the effect of rainfall on remittances is significantly positive.
    Keywords: Transitory Income Shocks, Remittances, Financial Development
    JEL: F24 F30 O10
    Date: 2011–09
  24. By: Francis M. Kemegue; Reneé van Eyden; Emmanuel Owusu-Sekyere
    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of remittance inflows on the real exchange rate in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) using annual data from 1980 to 2008 for 34 SSA countries, generalised method of moments by Arellano and Bover (1995) andfeasible generalised least squares by Parks (1967) and Kmenta (1971, 1986). We find that when cross-sectional dependence and individual effects are controlled for, remittances to SSA as a whole appreciate the underlying real exchange rate ofrecipient countries. However the Dutch-disease effect is not experienced via the loss of export competitiveness, because the exchange rate appreciation is mitigated by monetary policy positioning and overdependence on imports due to low levels of domestic production in these countries. We also find reverse causality between remittances and the real exchange rate.
    Keywords: Dutch disease, remittances, real exchange rate, Sub-Saharan Africa
    JEL: C33 F24 F31 O55
    Date: 2011
  25. By: Ana Paula Martins
    Abstract: This research extends simple two-sector models in order to inquire the impact of the extent of coverage or enforcement of minimum wage legislation in one of the sectors on the equilibrium outcome. Two versions of institutional wage avoidance are presented. They may be seen as representing different institutional detection rules: one working through worker complaint, the other through firm sampling inspection (and enforcement) by the legal system. Both cases are modelled as enlargements of two dualistic models: Harris-Todaro (the wage in the other sector is market determined) and Bhagwati-Hamada (the wage in the other sector is institutionally fixed and coverage is complete). Impact on population flows of changes in degree of coverage (compliance) is also confronted with the effect of a change in the institutional wage for each scenario.
    Keywords: Migration, Mobility, Minimum Wages, Segmented Labor Markets, Informal Sector, Regional Labor Markets, Dualistic Models, Coverage.
    JEL: O15 O17 O18 R23 J38 J42 J61 J62 F22 K42
    Date: 2011–11–15
  26. By: Trinh, Tuan Anh; Sallai, Gyula
    Abstract: The rate of deployment and adoption issues of new network technologies, IPv6 in particular, have recently been hotly debated in the research community. However, the question of how protocols migrate, especially the dynamics of migration, to new paradigms is still largely open. In this paper, we address the issue from a game theoretic point of view. We model and analyze the profit maximizing strategies of Autonomous Systems (ASes); both the properties of ASes and the topology of the Internet is considered. The contribution our work is threefold. First, we propose an economic model of the ASes and their relations from the IPv4-IPv6 migration viewpoint. Second, we show - after analysing the strategies of ASes using gametheoretic tools - that under the proposed economic model, the all IPv6 AS topology is a Nash equilibrium on any network topology. Third, we apply the findings of evolutionary dynamics on the problem of migration by incorporating Internet-specific properties to the evolutionary model, namely the size of the ASes and the cost of migration. The analyses show that even if IPv6 has higher payoff than IPv4, the whole migration does not happen always fast. Finally, extensive simulations are carried out based on the proposed models to illustrate the impacts of different parameters on the IPv6 migration dynamics in realistic scenarios. --
    Keywords: IPv6 transition,game theory
    JEL: C72 C73
    Date: 2011
  27. By: Tsujita, Yuko
    Abstract: This paper examines the factors that prevent slum children aged 5 to 14 from gaining access to schooling in light of the worsening urban poverty and sizable increase in rural-to-urban migration. Bias against social disadvantage in terms of gender and caste is not clearly manifested in schooling, while migrated children are less likely to attend school. I argue that the lack of preparation for schooling in the pre-schooling ages and school admission procedures are the main obstacles for migrated children. The most important implication for universal elementary education in urban India is raising parental awareness and simplifying the admission procedures.
    Keywords: India, Elementary education, Slums, Household, Migration, Enrollment
    JEL: I20 N35 O15
    Date: 2011–11
  28. By: Coulter, Rory (University of St. Andrews); van Ham, Maarten (Delft University of Technology)
    Abstract: Conceptually, adopting a life course approach when analysing residential mobility enables us to investigate how experiencing particular life events affects mobility decision-making and behaviour throughout individual lifetimes. Yet although a growing body of longitudinal research links mobility decision-making to subsequent moving behaviour, most studies focus solely upon examining year-to-year transitions. As a result of this 'snap-shot' approach, little is known about how pre-move thoughts and subsequent mobility relate over longer periods within the context of dynamic life course trajectories. Current research therefore fails to distinguish ephemeral moving desires from those which are persistently expressed. This study is one of the first to move beyond investigating year-to-year transitions to explore the long term sequencing of moving desires and mobility behaviour within individual life courses. Using innovative techniques to visualise the sequences of a panel of British Household Panel Survey respondents, the study demonstrates that the meanings and significance of particular transitions in moving desires and mobility behaviour become apparent only when these transitions are arranged into individual mobility histories. We uncover previously ignored groups of individuals persistently unable to act in accordance with their moving desires. Visualising mobility histories also highlights the oft-neglected importance of residential stability over the life course.
    Keywords: residential mobility, moving desires, life course, sequence analysis, longitudinal data
    JEL: J61 R23
    Date: 2011–11
  29. By: Tausch, Arno (University of Innsbruck); Heshmati, Almas (Korea University)
    Abstract: In this article, we present a first empirical reflection on 'smart development', its measurement, possible 'drivers' and 'bottlenecks'. We first provide cross-national data on how much ecological footprint is used in the nations of the world system to 'deliver' a given amount of democracy, economic growth, gender equality, human development, research and development, and social cohesion. To this end, we first developed UNDP-type performance indicators on these six main dimensions of development and on their combined performance. We then show the non-linear regression trade-offs between ecological footprints per capita on these six dimensions of development and their combined performance index. The residuals from these regressions are our new measures of smart development: a country experiences smart development, if it achieves a maximum of development with a minimum of ecological footprint. We then look at the cross-national drivers and bottlenecks of this 'smart development' and compare their predictive power using stepwise regression procedures. Apart from important variables and indicators, derived from sociological dependency and world systems theories, we also test the predictive power of several other predictors as well. Our estimates underline the enormous importance of the transfer of resources from the center to the periphery, brought about by migration, with huge statistical observed positive effects of received worker remittances on smart human development, Happy Life Years, smart gender justice, smart R&D, and both formulations of the smart development index.
    Keywords: index numbers and aggregation, environment and development, environment and trade, smart development, sustainability, environmental accounts and accounting, environmental equity, population growth, international migration, remittances
    JEL: C43 F22 F24 Q56
    Date: 2011–11

This nep-mig issue is ©2011 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.