nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2011‒10‒01
five papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Everybody Needs Good Neighbours? Evidence from Students' Outcomes in England By Gibbons, Steve; Silva, Olmo; Weinhardt, Felix
  2. Social and economic implications of HIV/AIDS: evidence from West Bengal By Sarker, Debnarayan
  3. From Engineer to Taxi Driver? Occupational Skills and the Economic Outcomes of Immigrants By Susumu Imai; Derek Stacey; Casey Warman
  4. Social Safety Nets: The Role of Education, Remittances and Migration By Yaw Nyarko; Kwabena Gyimah-Brempon
  5. “Better Safe than Sorry” - Individual Risk-free Pension Schemes in the European Union - Macroeconomic Benefits, the Mobile Working Citizen’s Perspective and Why Nots By Peeters, Marga

  1. By: Gibbons, Steve (London School of Economics); Silva, Olmo (Harvard Kennedy School); Weinhardt, Felix (London School of Economics)
    Abstract: We estimate the effect of neighbours' characteristics and prior achievements on teenage students' educational and behavioural outcomes using census data on several cohorts of secondary school students in England. Our research design is based on changes in neighbourhood composition caused explicitly by residential migration amongst students in our dataset. The longitudinal nature and detail of the data allows us to control for student unobserved characteristics, neighbourhood fixed effects and time trends, school-by-cohort fixed effects, as well as students' observable attributes and prior attainments. The institutional setting also allows us to distinguish between neighbours who attend the same or different schools, and thus examine interactions between school and neighbourhood peers. Overall, our results provide evidence that peers in the neighbourhood have no effect on test scores, but have a small effect on behavioural outcomes, such as attitudes towards schooling and anti-social behaviour.
    Keywords: peer and neighbourhood effects, cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes, secondary schools
    JEL: C21 I20 H75 R23
    Date: 2011–09
  2. By: Sarker, Debnarayan
    Abstract: Based on household level’ field survey in West Bengal State in Indian context, this study suggests that poverty and lower level of human capital provide the basic initiatives for both rural –urban migration and risky occupational choice for household’s income, and thus contributes to the spread of HIV/AIDS. Also, the HIV/AIDS epidemic of those economically and socially disadvantaged households leads to the consequence of absolute economic and social poverty within a short period after its detection. Despite such a consequence of absolute economic and social poverty, the benefit of actions by government or non-government organizations is insignificant for them
    Keywords: Socio-economic reasons; Socio-economic implications; Benefit of actions; Rural-Urban Migration; Economically ; Socially disadvantaged households
    JEL: H51 I18
    Date: 2011–03
  3. By: Susumu Imai (Queen`s University, Department of Economics); Derek Stacey (Queen`s University, Department of Economics); Casey Warman (Queen`s University, Department of Economics)
    Abstract: We examine the ability of male immigrants to transfer their occupational human capital using information from the O*NET and a unique dataset that includes both the last source country occupation and the first four years of occupations in Canada. We first augment a model of occupational choice and skill accumulation to derive predictions about the cross-border transferability of occupational human capital. We then test the empirical implications using the skill requirements of pre- and post-immigration occupations. We find that male immigrants to Canada were employed in source country occupations that required high levels of cognitive skills, but relied less intently on manual skills. Following immigration, they find initial employment in occupations that require the opposite. Regression analysis uncovers large returns to the quantitative skill requirements of Canadian occupations, but no returns to source country skill requirements. Finally, our empirical findings suggests that occupational skill gaps are detrimental to immigrants` earnings.
    Keywords: occupational mobility, skills, human capital, immigration
    JEL: J24 J31 J61 J71 J80 J62 D83
    Date: 2011–09
  4. By: Yaw Nyarko; Kwabena Gyimah-Brempon
    Abstract: We study the role of education as a social protection mechanism. We compare the effectiveness of direct cash handouts in comparison to education over the long-term in reducing the vulnerability to poverty. We also look at the role of three inter-related mechanisms related to protection against shocks: Education, Remittances and Migration. We compute internal rates of return to investments education when the objective is social protection or poverty, and not just the value of incomes. We use Ghanaian Livings Survey data and show that, for benchmark interest rates, the returns to primary and secondary education are positive for social protection. This suggests that for the long-run, education may be a more important means of social protection than cash transfers.
    Keywords: Education; Migration; Remittances; Safety-Nets; Africa; O; O55; F35; F43
    Date: 2011–05–13
  5. By: Peeters, Marga
    Abstract: Variations between the diverse pension systems in the member states of the European Union hamper labour market mobility, across country borders but also within the countries of the European Union. From a macroeconomic perspective, and in the light of demographic pressure, this paper argues that allowing individual instead of collective pension building would greatly improve labour market flexibility and thus enhance the functioning of the monetary union. I argue that working citizens would benefit, for three reasons, from pension saving in a risk-free savings account. First, citizens would have a clear picture of the accumulation of their own pension savings throughout their working life. Second, they would pay hardly any extra costs and, third, once retired they would not be subject to the whims of government or other pension fund managers. This paper investigates the feasibility of individual pension building under various parameter settings by calculating the pension saved during a working life and the pension dis-saved after retirement. The findings show that there are no reasons why the European Union and individual member states should not allow individual risk-free pension savings accounts. This would have macroeconomic benefits and provide a solid pension provision that can enhance mobility, instead of engaging workers in different mandatory collective pension schemes that exist around in the European Union.
    Keywords: pensions; labour market; monetary union; mobility; migration;
    JEL: H55 J32 G23 R23 J11 H75 H83 J61 E5 J26
    Date: 2011–09–20

This nep-mig issue is ©2011 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
General information on the NEP project can be found at For comments please write to the director of NEP, Marco Novarese at <>. Put “NEP” in the subject, otherwise your mail may be rejected.
NEP’s infrastructure is sponsored by the School of Economics and Finance of Massey University in New Zealand.