nep-mig New Economics Papers
on Economics of Human Migration
Issue of 2011‒09‒16
twelve papers chosen by
Yuji Tamura
Australian National University

  1. Patient Mobility, Health Care Quality and Welfare By Brekke, Kurt Richard; Levaggi, Rosella; Siciliani, Luigi; Straume, Odd Rune
  2. Endogenous categorization and group inequality By Alexandre, Michel
  3. Housing Busts and Household Mobility: An Update By Fernando Ferreira; Joseph Gyourko; Joseph Tracy
  4. Labour Migration and Time Use Patterns of the Left-Behind Children and Elderly in Rural China By Hongqin Chang; Xiao-yuan Dong; Fiona MacPhail
  5. Left‐Behind Children and Return Decisions of Rural Migrants in China By Sylvie Demurger; Hui Xu
  6. Educational Achievement of Second Generation Immigrants: An International Comparison By Christian Dustmann; Tommaso Frattini; Gianadrea Lanzara
  7. Highly qualified Mexican immigrants in the U.S. and transfer of resources from Mexico to the U.S. through the education costs of Mexican migrants By Adolfo Albo; Juan Luis Ordaz Diaz
  8. Self-Selection Patterns among Return Migrants: Mexico 1990-2010 By Raymundo M. Campos Vázquez; Jaime Lara Lara
  9. The Immigrant/Native Wealth Gap in Germany, Italy and Luxembourg By Thomas Y. Mathä; Alessandro Porpiglia; Eva Sierminska
  10. Immigration and Distribution of Wages in Austria By Gerard Thomas Horvath
  11. Role of Remittances in Economic Development: An Empirical Study of World’s Two Most Remittances Dependent Pacific Island Economies By Jayaraman, T. K.; Choong , Chee-Keong; Kumar , Ronald
  12. Remittances, Dutch Disease, and Competitiveness - A Bayesian Analysis By Farid MAKHLOUF; Mazhar MUGHAL

  1. By: Brekke, Kurt Richard; Levaggi, Rosella; Siciliani, Luigi; Straume, Odd Rune
    Abstract: Patient mobility is a key issue in the EU who recently passed a new law on patients' right to EU-wide provider choice. In this paper we use a Hotelling model with two regions that differ in technology to study the impact of patient mobility on health care quality, health care financing and welfare. A decentralised solution without patient mobility leads to too low (high) quality and too few (many) patients being treated in the high-skill (low-skill) region. A centralised solution with patient mobility implements the first best, but the low-skill region would not be willing to transfer authority as its welfare is lower than without mobility. In a decentralised solution, the effects of patient mobility depend on the transfer payment. If the payment is below marginal cost, mobility leads to a `race-to-the-bottom' in quality and lower welfare in both regions. If the payment is equal to marginal cost, quality and welfare remain unchanged in the high-skill region, but the low-skill region benefits. For a socially optimal payment, which is higher than marginal cost, quality levels in the two regions are closer to (but not at) the first best, but welfare is lower in the low-skill region. Thus, patient mobility can have adverse effects on quality provision and welfare unless an appropriate transfer payment scheme is implemented.
    Keywords: health care quality; patient mobility; regional and global welfare
    JEL: H51 H73 I11 I18
    Date: 2011–09
  2. By: Alexandre, Michel
    Abstract: The objective of this paper is to integrate economic and sociological elements in a model of human capital accumulation by phenotypically distinct individuals. Both kinds of elements are influenced by the degree of categorization endogeneity (CE), meant as the influence of endogenous elements (e.g., behavioral traits) in group categorization. If CE is high, members of dominated groups can pass as members of dominant groups by adopting the behavioral norm associated with that group. CE facilitates group equality by decreasing the ability to discriminate between members of dominant and dominated groups, but it weakens intra-group neighborhood effects. It is argued that, under sufficiently low levels of discrimination, CE widens the range of values of the neighborhood effects parameter for which group inequality is stable.
    Keywords: Human capital; neighborhood effects; categorization endogeneity
    JEL: O15 Z13 C62
    Date: 2011–09–08
  3. By: Fernando Ferreira; Joseph Gyourko; Joseph Tracy
    Abstract: This paper provides updated estimates of the impact of three financial frictions – negative equity, mortgage lock-in, and property tax lock-in – on household mobility. We add the 2009 wave of the American Housing Survey (AHS) to our sample and also create an improved measure of permanent moves in response to Schulhofer-Wohl’s (2011) critique of our earlier work (Ferreira, Gyourko and Tracy (2010)). Our updated estimates corroborate our previous results: negative equity reduces household mobility by 30 percent, and $1,000 of additional mortgage or property tax costs reduces household mobility by 10%-16%. Schulhofer-Wohl’s finding of a slight positive correlation between mobility and negative equity appears due to a large fraction of false positives, as his coding methodology has the propensity to misclassify almost half of the additional moves it identifies relative to our measure of permanent moves. This also makes his mobility measure dynamically inconsistent, as many transitions originally classified as a move are reclassified as a non-move when additional AHS panels become available. We conclude with directions for future research, including potential improvements to measures of household mobility.
    JEL: R21 R23
    Date: 2011–09
  4. By: Hongqin Chang; Xiao-yuan Dong; Fiona MacPhail
    Abstract: Rural-urban migration has become a major feature of the Chinese economy since the mid-1990s. Due to institutional arrangements and economic and cultural factors, massive labor migration has resulted in a large left-behind population consisting of children, non-elderly married women, and the elderly. This paper examines the impacts of labor migration on time use patterns of the left-behind elderly people and children in rural China, using data derived from the China’s health and Nutrition Health Survey (CHNS) for the period between 1997 and 2006. The results show that the migration of household members increases the time spent on farm work and domestic work for the left-behind elderly, and the migration of parents increases the time spent on farm work and domestic work for the left-behind children. Importantly, migration has striking gender differentiated impacts with the increase in work time being greater for elderly women and girls than elderly men and boys. These results have important policy implications.
    JEL: J16 J22 O12
    Date: 2010–12
  5. By: Sylvie Demurger (GATE Lyon Saint-Etienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS : UMR5824 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - École Normale Supérieure de Lyon); Hui Xu (GATE Lyon Saint-Etienne - Groupe d'analyse et de théorie économique - CNRS : UMR5824 - Université Lumière - Lyon II - École Normale Supérieure de Lyon)
    Abstract: This paper examines how left-behind children influence return migration in China. We first present a simple model that incorporates economic and non-economic motives for migration duration (or intentions to return). Based on Dustmann (2003b), the parent is assumed to be altruistic and to care about the prospects of her left-behind children. We then propose two complementary empirical tests based on an original dataset from a rural household survey carried out in Wuwei County (Anhui province, China) in fall 2008. We first use a discrete-time proportional hazard model to estimate the determinants of migration duration for both on-going migrants with incomplete length of duration and return migrants with complete length of duration. Second, we apply a binary Probit model to study the return intentions of on-going migrants. Both models find consistent results regarding the role of left-behind children as a significant motive for return. First, left-behind children are found to pull their parents back to the village, the effect being stronger for pre-school children. Second, sons are found to play a more important role than daughters in reducing migration duration.
    Keywords: return migration; migration duration; left-behind children; discrete-time duration analysis; China
    Date: 2011
  6. By: Christian Dustmann (University College London and CReAM); Tommaso Frattini (University of Milan, CReAM, IZA and Centro Studi Luca d’Agliano); Gianadrea Lanzara (University College London and CReAM)
    Abstract: This paper investigates the educational achievements of second generation immigrants in several OECD countries in a comparative perspective. We first show that the educational achievement (measured as test scores in PISA achievement tests) of children of immigrants is quite heterogeneous across countries, and strongly related to achievements of the parent generation. The disadvantage considerably reduces, and even disappears for some countries, once we condition on parental background characteristics. Second, we provide novel analysis of cross-country comparisons of test scores of children from the same country of origin, and compare (conditional) achievement scores in home and host countries. The focus is on Turkish immigrants, whom we observe in several destination countries. We investigate both mathematics and reading test scores, and show that the results vary according to the type of skills tested. For mathematics, in most countries and even if the test scores achievement of the children of Turkish immigrants is lower than that of their native peers, it is still higher than that of children of their cohort in the home country - conditional and unconditional on parental background characteristics. The analysis suggests that higher school quality relative to that in the home country is important to explain immigrant children’s educational advantage
    Keywords: Education, Second-Generation Immigrants
    JEL: J61 J62 I2
    Date: 2011–09–06
  7. By: Adolfo Albo; Juan Luis Ordaz Diaz
    Abstract: In this article, we calculate the number of Mexican immigrants with doctorates living in the United States. We describe some of their characteristics and point to some factors that contribute to the emigration of this group of persons. We also quantify the transfer that Mexico has made to the United States through the education costs of the Mexican migrants prior to their emigration. On average, we find that over recent years Mexico has made a transfer of resources equivalent to just over half a percentage point of GDP each year.
    Date: 2011–08
  8. By: Raymundo M. Campos Vázquez (El Colegio de México); Jaime Lara Lara (El Colegio de México)
    Abstract: This paper analyzes the self-selection patterns among Mexican return migrants during the period from 1990 to 2010. Using census data, we can identify return migrants who have lived in the United States within the previous 5 years but who currently live in Mexico. To calculate the selection patterns, we non parametrically estimate the counterfactual wages that the return migrants would have experienced had they never migrated by using the wage structure of non migrants. We find evidence that the selection patterns change over time toward negative selection. For example, in 1990, the wages that the male return migrants would have experienced had they not migrated was 6 percent larger than the wages of male non migrants. However, by 2010, the difference had declined to -14 percent. The increasing negativity of the degree of selection is robust to the analysis of specific subgroups: rural and urban, men and women, and states with high migration rates and low migration rates. Moreover, the negative selection results for the period from 2000 to 2010 are robust to the use of different surveys that define a return migrant by using distinct characteristics. Additionally, we observe that the wages of return migrants are larger than those that the migrants would have obtained had they not migrated. This finding shows that migration has a positive effect on the Mexican economy.
    Keywords: Mexican migration, self-selection, return migration, wages
    JEL: F22 J61 O54
    Date: 2011–09
  9. By: Thomas Y. Mathä; Alessandro Porpiglia; Eva Sierminska
    Abstract: This paper analyses the existence of an immigrant/native wealth gap by using household survey data for Luxembourg, Germany and Italy. The results show that, in all three countries, a sizeable wealth gap exists between natives and immigrants. Towards the upper tail of the wealth distribution the gap narrows to a small extent. This gap persists even after controlling for demographic characteristics, country of origin, cohort and age at migration although cross-country differences exist in the immigration penalty.
    Keywords: household, survey data, wealth gap, immigrants, distribution
    JEL: D31 F22
    Date: 2011–02
  10. By: Gerard Thomas Horvath
    Abstract: Using detailed micro data on earnings and employment, I analyze the effects of immigration on the wage distribution of native male workers in Austria. I find that immigration has heterogeneous effects on wages, differing by type of work as well as the wage level. While there are small , but insignificant, negative effects for blue collar workers at the lower end of the wage distribution there are positive effects on wages at higher percentiles. For white collar workers positive effects occur at most percentiles. The estimated effects of immigration are relatively small in size and not significant for most workers. Overall it seems that most of potentially adverse effects of immigration on natives' wages are offset by complementarities stemming from immigration of workers with different skill levels.
    Keywords: Immigration, Labor market, Wage distribution
    JEL: J31 J61
    Date: 2011–09
  11. By: Jayaraman, T. K.; Choong , Chee-Keong; Kumar , Ronald
    Abstract: In the context of the ongoing world-wide recession and the consequent dim prospects for exports from small Pacific island countries, mobilization of foreign exchange earnings assumes considerable importance. The dependency of Samoa and Tonga on inward remittances is well known, as the two Polynesian island countries in recent years have been amongst the first top ten remittance recipient countries of the world. This paper examines the long-run nexus between economic growth and inward remittances during a three-decade period (1981-2008). The paper also discusses some important policy implications arising out of the study findings.
    Keywords: Remittances; financial sector development; economic growth; bounds test; Samoa; Tonga
    JEL: F43 F24
    Date: 2011–05
  12. By: Farid MAKHLOUF; Mazhar MUGHAL
    Abstract: Remittances, Dutch Disease, and Competitiveness - A Bayesian Analysis
    Date: 2011–12

This nep-mig issue is ©2011 by Yuji Tamura. It is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. It may be freely redistributed in whole or in part for any purpose. If distributed in part, please include this notice.
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